O*NET Products at Work
Educational and research institutions [X]
Building Competencies for Careers from Center on Education Policy
To identify O*NET KSAs and work values that relate to deeper learning competencies across a variety of jobs and to determine whether or not occupations' Job Zones and Bright Outlook status relate to the six most prominent learning competencies.
Using the Department of Labor's My Next Move to Improve Career Preparedness from Journal of Management Education, Vol. 41
This research uses a pretest/post test design with a treatment group and a control group to determine if an exercise based on My Next Move improves career preparedness. Results show that the exercise produces significant increases in career awareness and in perceived career preparedness skills. The positive results indicate that this tool can help students be more knowledgeable about their career options after graduation. This paper can help instructors use the My Next Move exercise to help students in their job search process.
Computerization and the Future of Jobs in Norway from The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy
O*NET task statements provided the foundation for a study on the effect of computerization on the future of jobs in Norway. Researchers evaluated tasks from 903 O*NET occupations to determine the susceptibility of jobs to technological innovation: whether or not computers could perform tasks more inexpensively and with comparable quality to human performance.
The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market from National Bureau of Economic Research
David Deming, associate professor of education and economics at Harvard University conducted a study of social skills in the workplace. He demonstrates that high-paying, difficult-to-automate jobs increasingly require social skills. Nearly all job growth since 1980 has been in occupations that are relatively social-skill intensive, while jobs that require high levels of analytical and mathematical reasoning, but low levels of social interaction, jobs that are comparatively easy to automate, have fared comparatively poorly. Using O*NET data about the tasks and abilities that occupations require, he measured the economic return of social skills, after controlling for factors like cognitive skill, years of education and occupation.
Center for Employability Outcomes from Texas State Technical College
Texas State Technical College launched the Center for Employability Outcomes. The center is largely built around the Common Skills Language Project, that originated at the Texas Workforce Commission using O*NET data. In an effort to get employers, educators and policymakers on the same page for the purposes of economic development planning, the commission began amassing simple, industry-vetted descriptions of skills sought by employers in Texas.
SkillsEngine from Texas State Technical College
The SkillsEngine based on the O*NET Content Model, was developed by the Center for Employability Outcomes at Texas State Technical College. The beta version quickly translates text into high quality skills data for any application using the new Competency API.
The O*NET occupational taxonomy is used as a framework for identifying predictors of performance in the United States Air Force roles of remotely-piloted aircraft (RPA) pilot and sensor operator (SO).
ACT, formerly the American College Testing Program, conducted a study (ACT, 2006) showing that high school students who plan to enter workforce training programs after they graduate need math and reading skills similar to those of college-bound students. For the study, ACT looked at O*NET job zone 3 occupations that:
- do not require a four-year college degree,
- offer the potential for career advancement,
- are projected to increase in the future, and
- are likely to offer a wage sufficient for a family of four.
These occupations generally require some combination of vocational training and on-the- job experience or an associate's degree. They include electricians, construction workers, upholsterers, and plumbers. ACT then compared academic skill levels of profiled job zone 3 occupations with the College Readiness Benchmarks established for the ACT test. The results show that the levels of math and reading skills needed for success in the first year of college are comparable to those needed by high school graduates to enter 90 percent of the profiled occupations. Based on this study, ACT urges high school educators to offer students a common academic program that prepares them for both post-secondary education and workforce training programs.
Rotman Research Institute
Rotman Research Institute used O*NET data for a National Institutes of Health study on occupation attributes and dementia. The O*NET database proved to be an invaluable resource, providing comparable variables across a wide range of occupations. The database provided a basis for the assessment of the characteristics of patients' occupations and for the subsequent task of relating these characteristics to cognitive style and brain degeneration in various forms of dementia.
Health and Human Services Pathway program from Seattle Washington Public Schools
Seattle Washington Public Schools used O*NET data in its Health and Human Services Pathway program. Career educators used O*NET occupational information to structure their work in reorganizing courses of study. For the occupations in their curriculum, they used the common language of O*NET data to support the content a course should include. Educators also considered crediting courses across Pathways. For example, they might have identified a Career and Technical Education course that also fulfilled a requirement in art, social studies, or English by looking for O*NET abilities, skills, and work contexts that are common across multiple Pathways.
The Association of College and Research Libraries
The Association of College and Research Libraries, a division of the American Library Association, provided the following information on the O*NET Web sites in their C&RL News. Job seekers, students, workers, employment professionals, counselors, and others interested in exploring occupations and careers will find this site a great place to start.
- O*NET Online is a well-designed search engine for exploring the database.
- Beyond O*NET Online, this site is chock-full of information on the Consortium, other easily accessible O*NET products, career assessment guides and tools,research and technical reports, data collection methods, planned products and ways to contribute to the process.
- O*NET Online alone, however, is worth the stop for students searching for relevant careers at any point in their academic journey. Through it they can explore occupations, match skills, find out about salary and trends, or just see what is out there. Researchers, employment specialists, and others can dig deeper and discover a wealth of information about the world of work likely available nowhere else. (Valentine, 2004, February)
Central Michigan University
Central Michigan University (2004) has used O*NET Content Model domains to identify the competencies for a leadership competency model for students. The model consists of five dimensions, each with multiple competencies drawn from the O*NET Content Model and an existing management taxonomy of work activities. Work requirements and worker characteristics were reviewed to identify skills, knowledge, abilities, work styles, generalized work activities, work context, and organizational context relevant for each dimension. Although the resulting model was intended for students and was distributed to members of the campus community, it was also distributed to interested employers because of likely relevance to a variety of organizations.
The John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development
http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlet s/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_n fpb=true&_&ERI
The John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development is located at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. The center teaches the use of O*NET information in its Working Ahead: The National Workforce and Career Development Curriculum. This credentialed 120-hour curriculum teaches career counseling and guidance to front-line staff in workforce development, community organizations, and community colleges. Working with a network of state departments of education and state career resource networks, the Heldrich Center is developing a training guide and student manual so that counselors and education staff can learn to use the O*NET database as a career exploration tool for middle school, high school, and college-level students.
The Mid-Valley Special Education Cooperative
The Mid-Valley Special Education Cooperative in St. Charles, IL, employs O*NET information throughout its training programs. The school uses O*NET data to match the skills learned by the students with community-based work training opportunities. O*NET work context elements are used to help assess what accommodations may be required in the work environment. The cooperative also focuses on O*NET work styles, developing these soft skills within their training programs. When students are ready to find employment, standard O*NET language is used to develop resumes, including knowledges, skills, abilities, and work styles.
The National Academies of Sciences
The National Academies of Sciences is evaluating O*NET information as a tool for making important human-capital decisions. As part of its research on changing worker requirements, the National Academies of Sciences commissioned a paper by the Human Resources Research Organization (HumRRO) to investigate the feasibility of O*NET information to assess changing worker skill requirements. The paper describes the key elements of the O*NET system, and provides examples of the many ways O*NET has been used by the education, public, and business communities to improve workforce decisions. The paper concludes that O*NET is a rich and important data source that can be used in many different ways to assess changing skills necessary for workers to be successful in today's workplace.
Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America from Federal Reserve Bank of New York
A study by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York titled Human Capital and Economic Activity in Urban America (Abel & Gabe, 2008) examined the relationship between human capital (educational attainment and other knowledge measures) and economic activity in U.S. metropolitan areas. The following is from their study. To arrive at the knowledge variables used in our analysis, we matched occupational categories between the O*NET system and 2000 U.S. Census. In many cases, we combined multiple O*NET occupations into a single Census category. Following the general approach used by Ingram and Neumann (2006) and Lakdawalla and Philipson (2007), we utilized the average value of the knowledge importance or level across multiple occupations in the O*NET data. With this information then available for 470 Census occupations, we calculated a knowledge index that is the product of the knowledge importance and the knowledge level. Feser (2003) used the same approach, noting that it places a greater emphasis on high knowledge that is relevant to a given occupation.
Harvard Business School
Harvard Business School students conducted a study (Hanna, 2008), to assess the potential for the offshoring of more than 800 occupations in the U.S. economy. The O*NET database served as the source of occupational information for the study on descriptors such as tasks, knowledges, and skills. The student researchers considered the information in the O*NET database and then rated occupations on a scale of 1 to 100 depending on whether the occupations’ tasks could easily be performed offshore. The students estimated that between 21 and 42 percent of all U.S. jobs are potentially offshorable.
Martin Prosperity Institute
Martin Prosperity Institute conducted research to examine the relationship between wages and the skills required in the workforce within a regional area. Using the O*NET database, they performed a cluster analysis to identify three broad skill types - analytical, social intelligence, and physical skills. They also conducted a regression analysis using O*NET data to quantify how each skill contributes to regional prosperity. The institute found that analytical and social intelligence skills have a significant positive relationship with regional wages, while physical skills have a negative relationship. In addition, their research found that analytical skills are more closely related to regional wages than are social intelligence skills. They also determined that analytical and social intelligence skills increasingly result in positive impacts on wages over time and that the positive impact of physical skills on wages has decreased over time.
Learning and Earning from The Editorial Projects in Educational Research Center
The Editorial Projects in Educational Research Center, a non-profit tax-exempt organization, conducted a study published online in Education Week. The study, Learning and Earning (Swanson, 2007), was part of the Diplomas Count series which is supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The study examined the relationship between education and pay using the O*NET database and data obtained from the 2005 American Community Survey. The study was based on the strong correlation between educational attainment and O*NET job zones. Results showed that only a small percent of people working in low job zones have attained the levels of education or training associated with high job zones and vice versa. Researchers looked at median incomes within each of the five O*NET Job Zones. One of their findings was that median incomes for workers in Job Zone 1 occupations are about 20 percent of the median income for workers in Job Zone 5 occupations.
Ability versus Personality: Factors that Predict Em ployee Job Performance from Center for Hospitality Research of Cornell University
The Center for Hospitality Research of Cornell University conducted a study titled, Ability versus Personality: Factors that Predict Em ployee Job Performance (Tracey, Sturman & Tews, 2007). The researchers used O*NET definitions, education and training requirements, tasks, and required knowledges, skills, and abilities as part of their research to test the hypothesis that cognitive ability is more important for predicting performance among inexperienced employees than among experienced employees in frontline restaurant jobs. In addition, they hypothesized that conscientiousness was more valid for predicting performance among experienced employees than inexperienced employees. These hypotheses were supported in their research.
Employment at Older Ages and the Changing Nature of Work from The AARP Public Policy Institute and the Urban Institute
The AARP Public Policy Institute and the Urban Institute examined how job demands have changed over time and what they might look like in the future. In the paper, Employment at Older Ages and the Changing Nature of Work(Johnson, Mermin, & Resseger, 2007), the authors link detailed information on occupational characteristics from the O*NET database to the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys. They found a sharp decline in the physical demands of jobs and the prevalence of difficult working conditions over the past 35 years. They also found that jobs have become more stressful and cognitively challenging. The implications of the study suggest that the decline in physical job demands increases the opportunities for older people to remain at work. However, more stressful, cognitively demanding jobs complicate the picture. The study proposes that the changing nature of work will likely promote old-age employment for most people, or at least not interfere with longer work lives.
America in the Global Economy from The National Center on Education and the Economy
The National Center on Education and the Economy prepared a background paper for the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce. The paper, America in the Global Economy(Uhalde & Strohl, 2006), merges O*NET occupational data with earnings and education data provided by the Current Population Survey (CPS) to identify competencies and skills which are highly valued by employers. The paper goes on to describe a model for determining the probability of off-shoring jobs based on similar merging of O*NET occupational attributes and CPS data.
The Research and Analysis arm of Indiana’s Department o f Workforce Development
The Research and Analysis arm of Indiana’s Department of Workforce Development completed a study (Leeuw, 2008) designed to guide individuals, educators, and workforce professionals in identifying occupations that share similar skills. The study used O*NET skills data to create a new career cluster model that emphasizes relationships between seemingly unrelated industries and occupations. These clusters are being used to prioritize and focus resources on programs and curricula that support pathways to emerging high wage and high demand occupations.
Tippie College of Business
A researcher in the Department of Management and Organizations at the Tippie College of Business in Iowa headed a team doing research to validate the WorkKeys Fit Assessment, a tool which uses occupational interests and work values to measure person-occupation congruence. The team used the O*NET database to develop and validate the assessment. Results of their work suggest that the fit between person and occupation predicts positive work attitudes and outcomes. This relationship is a useful concept that can be applied to personnel staffing. Organizations which include an interest-values assessment of person-occupation congruence may increase job satisfaction, job match, and job commitment among their employees.
Projecting the Impact of Computers on Work in 2030 from The National Research Council Center for Education
At the Workshop on Research Evidence Related to Future Skill Demands, the National Research Council Center for Education presented a paper, Projecting the Impact of Computers on Work in 2030 (Elliott, 2007). This paper describes an approach to projecting new workplace skill demands based on increased use of computers in the decades to come. An analysis of the impact of comp uter technology on future skills used the O*NET database to provide definitions, anchoring tasks for ability levels, and occupational ratings for the set of human abilities that are broadly relevant to work. The 21 results of the analysis suggested that a serious and sustained effort is needed to project and prepare the American workforce for the extensive changes that are likely to occur as computers continue to displace human activity in the workplace.
Pathway Builder from Profiles International Educational Services Division
Provides participants with an interactive, comprehensive, online experience to plan and monitor their progress from high school through postsecondary education and into the workforce..
Center for Hospitality Research of Cornell University
The Center for Hospitality Research of Cornell University conducted a study titled, Ability versus Personality: Factors that Predict Employee Job Performance (Tracey, Sturman & Tews, 2007). The researchers used O*NET definitions, education and training requirements, tasks, and required knowledges, skills, and abilities as part of their research to test the hypothesis that cognitive ability is more important for predicting performance among inexperienced employees than among experienced employees in frontline restaurant jobs. In addition, they hypothesized that conscientiousness was more valid for predicting performance among experienced employees than inexperienced employees. These hypotheses were supported in their research.
AARP Public Policy Institute and the Urban Institute
The AARP Public Policy Institute and the Urban Institute examined how job demands have changed over time and what they might look like in the future. In the paper, Employment at Older Ages and the Changing Nature of Work (Johnson, Mermin, & Resseger, 2007), the authors link detailed information on occupational characteristics from the O*NET database to the March 1971 and March 2006 Current Population Surveys. They found a sharp decline in the physical demands of jobs and the prevalence of difficult working conditions over the past 35 years. They also found that jobs have become more stressful and cognitively challenging. The implications of the study suggest that the decline in physical job demands increases the opportunities for older people to remain at work. However, more stressful, cognitively demanding jobs complicate the picture. The study proposes that the changing nature of work will likely promote old-age employment for most people, or at least not interfere with longer work lives.