Occupational Listings

O*NET-SOC 2019 initial task listings

Note: Tasks are displayed by importance where corresponding data is available. Otherwise, tasks are presented in alphabetical order. Task statements and order are subject to change.

923 occupations
O*NET-SOC 2019 CodeO*NET-SOC 2019 Title
11-1011.00Chief Executives
Determine and formulate policies and provide overall direction of companies or private and public sector organizations within guidelines set up by a board of directors or similar governing body. Plan, direct, or coordinate operational activities at the highest level of management with the help of subordinate executives and staff managers.
  • Direct or coordinate an organization's financial or budget activities to fund operations, maximize investments, or increase efficiency.
  • Appoint department heads or managers and assign or delegate responsibilities to them.
  • Analyze operations to evaluate performance of a company or its staff in meeting objectives or to determine areas of potential cost reduction, program improvement, or policy change.
  • Direct, plan, or implement policies, objectives, or activities of organizations or businesses to ensure continuing operations, to maximize returns on investments, or to increase productivity.
  • Prepare budgets for approval, including those for funding or implementation of programs.
  • Confer with board members, organization officials, or staff members to discuss issues, coordinate activities, or resolve problems.
  • Implement corrective action plans to solve organizational or departmental problems.
  • Direct human resources activities, including the approval of human resource plans or activities, the selection of directors or other high-level staff, or establishment or organization of major departments.
  • Establish departmental responsibilities and coordinate functions among departments and sites.
  • Preside over or serve on boards of directors, management committees, or other governing boards.
  • Negotiate or approve contracts or agreements with suppliers, distributors, federal or state agencies, or other organizational entities.
  • Coordinate the development or implementation of budgetary control systems, recordkeeping systems, or other administrative control processes.
  • Review reports submitted by staff members to recommend approval or to suggest changes.
  • Deliver speeches, write articles, or present information at meetings or conventions to promote services, exchange ideas, or accomplish objectives.
  • Interpret and explain policies, rules, regulations, or laws to organizations, government or corporate officials, or individuals.
  • Prepare or present reports concerning activities, expenses, budgets, government statutes or rulings, or other items affecting businesses or program services.
  • Review and analyze legislation, laws, or public policy and recommend changes to promote or support interests of the general population or special groups.
  • Administer programs for selection of sites, construction of buildings, or provision of equipment or supplies.
  • Direct or conduct studies or research on issues affecting areas of responsibility.
  • Direct or coordinate activities of businesses or departments concerned with production, pricing, sales, or distribution of products.
  • Make presentations to legislative or other government committees regarding policies, programs, or budgets.
  • Refer major policy matters to elected representatives for final decisions.
  • Direct or coordinate activities of businesses involved with buying or selling investment products or financial services.
  • Conduct or direct investigations or hearings to resolve complaints or violations of laws or testify at such hearings.
  • Direct non-merchandising departments, such as advertising, purchasing, credit, or accounting.
  • Prepare bylaws approved by elected officials and ensure that bylaws are enforced.
  • Serve as liaisons between organizations, shareholders, and outside organizations.
  • Attend and participate in meetings of municipal councils or council committees.
  • Represent organizations or promote their objectives at official functions or delegate representatives to do so.
  • Organize or approve promotional campaigns.
  • Nominate citizens to boards or commissions.
11-1011.03Chief Sustainability Officers
Communicate and coordinate with management, shareholders, customers, and employees to address sustainability issues. Enact or oversee a corporate sustainability strategy.
  • Develop or execute strategies to address issues such as energy use, resource conservation, recycling, pollution reduction, waste elimination, transportation, education, and building design.
  • Supervise employees or volunteers working on sustainability projects.
  • Research environmental sustainability issues, concerns, or stakeholder interests.
  • Develop methodologies to assess the viability or success of sustainability initiatives.
  • Monitor and evaluate effectiveness of sustainability programs.
  • Evaluate and approve proposals for sustainability projects, considering factors such as cost effectiveness, technical feasibility, and integration with other initiatives.
  • Develop, or oversee the development of, marketing or outreach media for sustainability projects or events.
  • Develop, or oversee the development of, sustainability evaluation or monitoring systems.
  • Create and maintain sustainability program documents, such as schedules and budgets.
  • Direct sustainability program operations to ensure compliance with environmental or governmental regulations.
  • Identify educational, training, or other development opportunities for sustainability employees or volunteers.
  • Develop sustainability reports, presentations, or proposals for supplier, employee, academia, media, government, public interest, or other groups.
  • Review sustainability program objectives, progress, or status to ensure compliance with policies, standards, regulations, or laws.
  • Formulate or implement sustainability campaign or marketing strategies.
  • Identify and evaluate pilot projects or programs to enhance the sustainability research agenda.
  • Conduct risk assessments related to sustainability and the environment.
  • Write project proposals, grant applications, or other documents to pursue funding for environmental initiatives.
  • Write and distribute financial or environmental impact reports.
11-1021.00General and Operations Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the operations of public or private sector organizations, overseeing multiple departments or locations. Duties and responsibilities include formulating policies, managing daily operations, and planning the use of materials and human resources, but are too diverse and general in nature to be classified in any one functional area of management or administration, such as personnel, purchasing, or administrative services. Usually manage through subordinate supervisors. Excludes First-Line Supervisors.
  • Review financial statements, sales or activity reports, or other performance data to measure productivity or goal achievement or to identify areas needing cost reduction or program improvement.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of businesses or departments concerned with the production, pricing, sales, or distribution of products.
  • Direct administrative activities directly related to making products or providing services.
  • Prepare staff work schedules and assign specific duties.
  • Monitor suppliers to ensure that they efficiently and effectively provide needed goods or services within budgetary limits.
  • Direct or coordinate financial or budget activities to fund operations, maximize investments, or increase efficiency.
  • Establish or implement departmental policies, goals, objectives, or procedures in conjunction with board members, organization officials, or staff members.
  • Perform personnel functions such as selection, training, or evaluation.
  • Plan or direct activities such as sales promotions that require coordination with other department managers.
  • Set prices or credit terms for goods or services based on forecasts of customer demand.
  • Manage the movement of goods into and out of production facilities to ensure efficiency, effectiveness, or sustainability of operations.
  • Perform sales floor work, such as greeting or assisting customers, stocking shelves, or taking inventory.
  • Develop or implement product-marketing strategies, including advertising campaigns or sales promotions.
  • Recommend locations for new facilities or oversee the remodeling or renovating of current facilities.
  • Implement or oversee environmental management or sustainability programs addressing issues such as recycling, conservation, or waste management.
  • Direct non-merchandising departments of businesses, such as advertising or purchasing.
  • Plan store layouts or design displays.
11-1031.00Legislators
Develop, introduce, or enact laws and statutes at the local, tribal, state, or federal level. Includes only workers in elected positions.
  • Analyze and understand the local and national implications of proposed legislation.
  • Appoint nominees to leadership posts, or approve such appointments.
  • Confer with colleagues to formulate positions and strategies pertaining to pending issues.
  • Debate the merits of proposals and bill amendments during floor sessions, following the appropriate rules of procedure.
  • Develop expertise in subject matters related to committee assignments.
  • Hear testimony from constituents, representatives of interest groups, board and commission members, and others with an interest in bills or issues under consideration.
  • Keep abreast of the issues affecting constituents by making personal visits and phone calls, reading local newspapers, and viewing or listening to local broadcasts.
  • Maintain knowledge of relevant national and international current events.
  • Make decisions that balance the perspectives of private citizens, public officials, and party leaders.
  • Negotiate with colleagues or members of other political parties in order to reconcile differing interests, and to create policies and agreements.
  • Prepare drafts of amendments, government policies, laws, rules, regulations, budgets, programs and procedures.
  • Read and review concerns of constituents or the general public and determine if governmental action is necessary.
  • Represent their parties in negotiations with political executives or members of other parties, and when speaking with the media.
  • Review bills in committee, and make recommendations about their future.
  • Seek federal funding for local projects and programs.
  • Serve on commissions, investigative panels, study groups, and committees in order to examine specialized areas and recommend action.
  • Vote on motions, amendments, and decisions on whether or not to report a bill out from committee to the assembly floor.
  • Write, prepare, and deliver statements for the Congressional Record.
  • Alert constituents of government actions and programs by way of newsletters, personal appearances at town meetings, phone calls, and individual meetings.
  • Attend receptions, dinners, and conferences to meet people, exchange views and information, and develop working relationships.
  • Conduct "head counts" to help predict the outcome of upcoming votes.
  • Determine campaign strategies for media advertising, positions on issues, and public appearances.
  • Encourage and support party candidates for political office.
  • Establish personal offices in local districts or states, and manage office staff.
  • Evaluate the structure, efficiency, activities, and performance of government agencies.
  • Organize and maintain campaign organizations and fundraisers, in order to raise money for election or re-election.
  • Oversee expense allowances, ensuring that accounts are balanced at the end of each fiscal year.
  • Promote the industries and products of their electoral districts.
  • Represent their government at local, national, and international meetings and conferences.
  • Speak to students to encourage and support the development of future political leaders.
11-2011.00Advertising and Promotions Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate advertising policies and programs or produce collateral materials, such as posters, contests, coupons, or giveaways, to create extra interest in the purchase of a product or service for a department, an entire organization, or on an account basis.
  • Plan and prepare advertising and promotional material to increase sales of products or services, working with customers, company officials, sales departments, and advertising agencies.
  • Inspect layouts and advertising copy and edit scripts, audio and video tapes, and other promotional material for adherence to specifications.
  • Confer with department heads or staff to discuss topics such as contracts, selection of advertising media, or product to be advertised.
  • Coordinate with the media to disseminate advertising.
  • Coordinate activities of departments, such as sales, graphic arts, media, finance, and research.
  • Direct, motivate, and monitor the mobilization of a campaign team to advance campaign goals.
  • Plan and execute advertising policies and strategies for organizations.
  • Prepare budgets and submit estimates for program costs as part of campaign plan development.
  • Contact organizations to explain services and facilities offered.
  • Monitor and analyze sales promotion results to determine cost effectiveness of promotion campaigns.
  • Identify and develop contacts for promotional campaigns and industry programs that meet identified buyer targets, such as dealers, distributors, or consumers.
  • Track program budgets, expenses, and campaign response rates to evaluate each campaign based on program objectives and industry norms.
  • Read trade journals and professional literature to stay informed on trends, innovations, and changes that affect media planning.
  • Manage sales team including setting goals, providing incentives, and evaluating employee performance.
  • Prepare and negotiate advertising and sales contracts.
  • Formulate plans to extend business with established accounts and to transact business as agent for advertising accounts.
  • Train and direct workers engaged in developing and producing advertisements.
  • Assemble and communicate with a strong, diverse coalition of organizations or public figures, securing their cooperation, support, and action, to further campaign goals.
  • Provide presentation and product demonstration support during the introduction of new products and services to field staff and customers.
  • Represent company at trade association meetings to promote products.
  • Direct and coordinate product research and development.
  • Analyze marketing or sales trends to forecast future conditions.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of marketing tactics or channels.
  • Attend or participate in conferences, community events, and promotional events related to products or technologies.
  • Conduct research on consumer opinions and buying habits, and identify target audiences for products, services, or technologies.
  • Coordinate with marketing team members and workers such as graphic artists to develop and implement marketing programs.
  • Develop communications materials, advertisements, presentations, or public relations initiatives to promote awareness of products and services.
  • Develop comprehensive marketing strategies, using knowledge of products and technologies, markets, and regulations.
  • Devise or evaluate methods and procedures for collecting data, such as surveys, opinion polls, and questionnaires.
  • Maintain portfolios of marketing campaigns, strategies, and other marketing products or ideas.
11-2021.00Marketing Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing policies and programs, such as determining the demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm's profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm's customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services.
  • Identify, develop, or evaluate marketing strategy, based on knowledge of establishment objectives, market characteristics, and cost and markup factors.
  • Formulate, direct, or coordinate marketing activities or policies to promote products or services, working with advertising or promotion managers.
  • Evaluate the financial aspects of product development, such as budgets, expenditures, research and development appropriations, or return-on-investment and profit-loss projections.
  • Develop pricing strategies, balancing firm objectives and customer satisfaction.
  • Compile lists describing product or service offerings.
  • Direct the hiring, training, or performance evaluations of marketing or sales staff and oversee their daily activities.
  • Consult with product development personnel on product specifications such as design, color, or packaging.
  • Use sales forecasting or strategic planning to ensure the sale and profitability of products, lines, or services, analyzing business developments and monitoring market trends.
  • Negotiate contracts with vendors or distributors to manage product distribution, establishing distribution networks or developing distribution strategies.
  • Coordinate or participate in promotional activities or trade shows, working with developers, advertisers, or production managers, to market products or services.
  • Initiate market research studies or analyze their findings.
  • Confer with legal staff to resolve problems, such as copyright infringement or royalty sharing with outside producers or distributors.
  • Consult with buying personnel to gain advice regarding the types of products or services expected to be in demand.
  • Consult with buying personnel to gain advice regarding environmentally sound or sustainable products.
  • Conduct economic or commercial surveys to identify potential markets for products or services.
  • Recommend modifications to products, packaging, production processes, or other characteristics to improve the environmental soundness or sustainability of products.
  • Advise business or other groups on local, national, or international factors affecting the buying or selling of products or services.
  • Select products or accessories to be displayed at trade or special production shows.
  • Develop business cases for environmental marketing strategies.
  • Integrate environmental information into product or company marketing strategies, policies, or activities.
11-2022.00Sales Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the actual distribution or movement of a product or service to the customer. Coordinate sales distribution by establishing sales territories, quotas, and goals and establish training programs for sales representatives. Analyze sales statistics gathered by staff to determine sales potential and inventory requirements and monitor the preferences of customers.
  • Direct and coordinate activities involving sales of manufactured products, services, commodities, real estate or other subjects of sale.
  • Resolve customer complaints regarding sales and service.
  • Review operational records and reports to project sales and determine profitability.
  • Oversee regional and local sales managers and their staffs.
  • Determine price schedules and discount rates.
  • Prepare budgets and approve budget expenditures.
  • Monitor customer preferences to determine focus of sales efforts.
  • Plan and direct staffing, training, and performance evaluations to develop and control sales and service programs.
  • Direct, coordinate, and review activities in sales and service accounting and record-keeping, and in receiving and shipping operations.
  • Direct clerical staff to keep records of export correspondence, bid requests, and credit collections, and to maintain current information on tariffs, licenses, and restrictions.
  • Advise dealers and distributors on policies and operating procedures to ensure functional effectiveness of business.
  • Confer or consult with department heads to plan advertising services and to secure information on equipment and customer specifications.
  • Represent company at trade association meetings to promote products.
  • Confer with potential customers regarding equipment needs and advise customers on types of equipment to purchase.
  • Assess marketing potential of new and existing store locations, considering statistics and expenditures.
  • Visit franchised dealers to stimulate interest in establishment or expansion of leasing programs.
  • Direct foreign sales and service outlets of an organization.
11-2032.00Public Relations Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities designed to create or maintain a favorable public image or raise issue awareness for their organization or client.
  • Assign, supervise, and review the activities of public relations staff.
  • Confer with labor relations managers to develop internal communications that keep employees informed of company activities.
  • Design and edit promotional publications, such as brochures.
  • Develop and maintain the company's corporate image and identity, which includes the use of logos and signage.
  • Develop, implement, or maintain crisis communication plans.
  • Direct activities of external agencies, establishments, or departments that develop and implement communication strategies and information programs.
  • Draft speeches for company executives and arrange interviews and other forms of contact for them.
  • Establish and maintain effective working relationships with clients, government officials, and media representatives and use these relationships to develop new business opportunities.
  • Evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with public relations efforts.
  • Facilitate consumer relations or the relationship between parts of the company, such as the managers and employees, or different branch offices.
  • Formulate policies and procedures related to public information programs, working with public relations executives.
  • Identify main client groups and audiences, determine the best way to communicate publicity information to them, and develop and implement a communication plan.
  • Maintain company archives.
  • Manage communications budgets.
  • Manage in-house communication courses.
  • Manage special events, such as sponsorship of races, parties introducing new products, or other activities the firm supports, to gain public attention through the media without advertising directly.
  • Observe and report on social, economic, and political trends that might affect employers.
  • Produce films and other video products, regulate their distribution, and operate film library.
  • Respond to requests for information about employers' activities or status.
  • Write interesting and effective press releases, prepare information for media kits, and develop and maintain company internet or intranet web pages.
11-2033.00Fundraising Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities to solicit and maintain funds for special projects or nonprofit organizations.
  • Assign, supervise, and review the activities of fundraising staff.
  • Compile or develop materials to submit to granting or other funding organizations.
  • Conduct research to identify the goals, net worth, charitable donation history, or other data related to potential donors, potential investors, or general donor markets.
  • Contact corporate representatives, government officials, or community leaders to increase awareness of organizational causes, activities, or needs.
  • Design and edit promotional publications, such as brochures.
  • Develop fundraising activity plans that maximize participation or contributions and minimize costs.
  • Develop strategies to encourage new or increased contributions.
  • Direct activities of external agencies, establishments, or departments that develop and implement fundraising strategies and programs.
  • Establish and maintain effective working relationships with clients, government officials, and media representatives and use these relationships to develop new fundraising opportunities.
  • Establish goals for soliciting funds, develop policies for collection and safeguarding of contributions, and coordinate disbursement of funds.
  • Evaluate advertising and promotion programs for compatibility with fundraising efforts.
  • Formulate policies and procedures related to fundraising programs.
  • Manage fundraising budgets.
  • Plan and direct special events for fundraising, such as silent auctions, dances, golf events, or walks.
  • Produce films and other video products, regulate their distribution, and operate film library.
  • Write interesting and effective press releases, prepare information for media kits, and develop and maintain company internet or intranet web pages.
11-3012.00Administrative Services Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate one or more administrative services of an organization, such as records and information management, mail distribution, and other office support services.
  • Prepare and review operational reports and schedules to ensure accuracy and efficiency.
  • Set goals and deadlines for the department.
  • Acquire, distribute and store supplies.
  • Analyze internal processes and recommend and implement procedural or policy changes to improve operations, such as supply changes or the disposal of records.
  • Conduct classes to teach procedures to staff.
  • Plan, administer, and control budgets for contracts, equipment, and supplies.
  • Hire and terminate clerical and administrative personnel.
  • Direct or coordinate the supportive services department of a business, agency, or organization.
  • Communicate with and provide guidance for external vendors and service providers to ensure the organization, department, or work unit's business needs are met.
  • Develop operational standards and procedures for the work unit or department.
  • Establish work procedures or schedules to organize the daily work of administrative staff.
  • Learn to operate new office technologies as they are developed and implemented.
  • Manage paper or electronic filing systems by recording information, updating paperwork, or maintaining documents, such as attendance records or correspondence.
  • Meet with other departmental leaders to establish organizational goals, strategic plans, and objectives, as well as make decisions about personnel, resources, and space or equipment needs.
  • Oversee payroll functions, such as maintaining timekeeping information and processing and submitting payroll.
  • Read through contracts, regulations, and procedural guidelines to ensure comprehension and compliance.
  • Represent work unit at meetings or conferences and serve as liaison for requests or complaints.
  • Supervise administrative staff and provide training and orientation to new staff.
11-3013.00Facilities Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate operations and functionalities of facilities and buildings. May include surrounding grounds or multiple facilities of an organization's campus.
  • Acquire, distribute and store supplies.
  • Conduct classes to teach procedures to staff.
  • Dispose of, or oversee the disposal of, surplus or unclaimed property.
  • Manage leasing of facility space.
  • Monitor the facility to ensure that it remains safe, secure, and well-maintained.
  • Oversee construction and renovation projects to improve efficiency and to ensure that facilities meet environmental, health, and security standards, and comply with government regulations.
  • Oversee the maintenance and repair of machinery, equipment, and electrical and mechanical systems.
  • Participate in architectural and engineering planning and design, including space and installation management.
  • Plan, administer, and control budgets for contracts, equipment, and supplies.
  • Prepare and review operational reports and schedules to ensure accuracy and efficiency.
  • Set goals and deadlines for the department.
11-3013.01Security Managers
Direct an organization's security functions, including physical security and safety of employees and facilities.
  • Analyze and evaluate security operations to identify risks or opportunities for improvement through auditing, review, or assessment.
  • Assess risks to mitigate potential consequences of incidents and develop a plan to respond to incidents.
  • Attend meetings, professional seminars, or conferences to keep abreast of changes in executive legislative directives or new technologies impacting security operations.
  • Communicate security status, updates, and actual or potential problems, using established protocols.
  • Conduct physical examinations of property to ensure compliance with security policies and regulations.
  • Conduct threat or vulnerability analyses to determine probable frequency, criticality, consequence, or severity of natural or man-made disasters or criminal activity on the organization's profitability or delivery of products or services.
  • Coordinate security operations or activities with public law enforcement, fire and other agencies.
  • Create or implement security standards, policies, and procedures.
  • Develop budgets for security operations.
  • Develop or manage investigation programs, including collection and preservation of video and notes of surveillance processes or investigative interviews.
  • Develop, arrange for, perform, or assess executive protection activities to reduce security risks.
  • Develop, conduct, support, or assist in governmental reviews, internal corporate evaluations, or assessments of the overall effectiveness of facility and personnel security processes.
  • Develop, implement, manage, or evaluate policies and methods to protect personnel against harassment, threats, or violence.
  • Develop, recommend, or manage security procedures for operations or processes, such as security call centers, access control, and reporting tools.
  • Direct or participate in emergency management and contingency planning.
  • Identify, investigate, or resolve security breaches.
  • Monitor and ensure a sound, ethical environment.
  • Monitor security policies, programs or procedures to ensure compliance with internal security policies, or applicable government security requirements, policies, and directives.
  • Plan security for special and high-risk events.
  • Plan, direct, or coordinate security activities to safeguard company employees, guests, or others on company property.
  • Prepare reports or make presentations on internal investigations, losses, or violations of regulations, policies and procedures.
  • Purchase security-related supplies, equipment, or technology.
  • Respond to medical emergencies, bomb threats, fire alarms, or intrusion alarms, following emergency response procedures.
  • Review financial reports to ensure efficiency and quality of security operations.
  • Supervise or provide leadership to subordinate security professionals, performing activities such as hiring, investigating applicants' backgrounds, training, assigning work, evaluating performance, or disciplining.
  • Support efforts to reduce substance abuse or other illegal activities in the workplace.
  • Train subordinate security professionals or other organization members in security rules and procedures.
  • Write or review security-related documents, such as incident reports, proposals, and tactical or strategic initiatives.
11-3021.00Computer and Information Systems Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as electronic data processing, information systems, systems analysis, and computer programming.
  • Direct daily operations of department, analyzing workflow, establishing priorities, developing standards and setting deadlines.
  • Meet with department heads, managers, supervisors, vendors, and others, to solicit cooperation and resolve problems.
  • Review project plans to plan and coordinate project activity.
  • Assign and review the work of systems analysts, programmers, and other computer-related workers.
  • Provide users with technical support for computer problems.
  • Develop computer information resources, providing for data security and control, strategic computing, and disaster recovery.
  • Recruit, hire, train and supervise staff, or participate in staffing decisions.
  • Stay abreast of advances in technology.
  • Consult with users, management, vendors, and technicians to assess computing needs and system requirements.
  • Develop and interpret organizational goals, policies, and procedures.
  • Evaluate the organization's technology use and needs and recommend improvements, such as hardware and software upgrades.
  • Review and approve all systems charts and programs prior to their implementation.
  • Prepare and review operational reports or project progress reports.
  • Evaluate data processing proposals to assess project feasibility and requirements.
  • Control operational budget and expenditures.
  • Purchase necessary equipment.
  • Manage backup, security and user help systems.
11-3031.00Financial Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate accounting, investing, banking, insurance, securities, and other financial activities of a branch, office, or department of an establishment.
  • Establish and maintain relationships with individual or business customers or provide assistance with problems these customers may encounter.
  • Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of workers in branches, offices, or departments of establishments, such as branch banks, brokerage firms, risk and insurance departments, or credit departments.
  • Recruit staff members.
  • Prepare operational or risk reports for management analysis.
  • Evaluate data pertaining to costs to plan budgets.
  • Oversee training programs.
  • Examine, evaluate, or process loan applications.
  • Approve, reject, or coordinate the approval or rejection of lines of credit or commercial, real estate, or personal loans.
  • Oversee the flow of cash or financial instruments.
  • Prepare financial or regulatory reports required by laws, regulations, or boards of directors.
  • Develop or analyze information to assess the current or future financial status of firms.
  • Communicate with stockholders or other investors to provide information or to raise capital.
  • Analyze and classify risks and investments to determine their potential impacts on companies.
  • Evaluate financial reporting systems, accounting or collection procedures, or investment activities and make recommendations for changes to procedures, operating systems, budgets, or other financial control functions.
  • Network within communities to find and attract new business.
  • Review collection reports to determine the status of collections and the amounts of outstanding balances.
  • Establish procedures for custody or control of assets, records, loan collateral, or securities to ensure safekeeping.
  • Plan, direct, and coordinate risk and insurance programs of establishments to control risks and losses.
  • Direct insurance negotiations, select insurance brokers or carriers, and place insurance.
  • Review reports of securities transactions or price lists to analyze market conditions.
  • Submit delinquent accounts to attorneys or outside agencies for collection.
11-3031.01Treasurers and Controllers
Direct financial activities, such as planning, procurement, and investments for all or part of an organization.
  • Supervise employees performing financial reporting, accounting, billing, collections, payroll, and budgeting duties.
  • Coordinate and direct the financial planning, budgeting, procurement, or investment activities of all or part of an organization.
  • Develop internal control policies, guidelines, and procedures for activities such as budget administration, cash and credit management, and accounting.
  • Maintain current knowledge of organizational policies and procedures, federal and state policies and directives, and current accounting standards.
  • Prepare or direct preparation of financial statements, business activity reports, financial position forecasts, annual budgets, or reports required by regulatory agencies.
  • Provide direction and assistance to other organizational units regarding accounting and budgeting policies and procedures and efficient control and utilization of financial resources.
  • Analyze the financial details of past, present, and expected operations to identify development opportunities and areas where improvement is needed.
  • Advise management on short-term and long-term financial objectives, policies, and actions.
  • Monitor financial activities and details, such as cash flow and reserve levels, to ensure that all legal and regulatory requirements are met.
  • Evaluate needs for procurement of funds and investment of surpluses and make appropriate recommendations.
  • Monitor and evaluate the performance of accounting and other financial staff, recommending and implementing personnel actions, such as promotions and dismissals.
  • Develop and maintain relationships with banking, insurance, and external accounting personnel to facilitate financial activities.
  • Receive, record, and authorize requests for disbursements in accordance with company policies and procedures.
  • Delegate authority for the receipt, disbursement, banking, protection, and custody of funds, securities, and financial instruments.
  • Conduct or coordinate audits of company accounts and financial transactions to ensure compliance with state and federal requirements and statutes.
  • Lead staff training and development in budgeting and financial management areas.
  • Prepare and file annual tax returns or prepare financial information so that outside accountants can complete tax returns.
  • Compute, withhold, and account for all payroll deductions.
  • Handle all aspects of employee insurance, benefits, and casualty programs, including monitoring changes in health insurance regulations and creating budgets for benefits and worker's compensation.
  • Receive cash and checks and make deposits.
  • Perform tax planning work.
  • Determine depreciation rates to apply to capitalized items and advise management on actions regarding the purchase, lease, or disposal of such items.
11-3031.03Investment Fund Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate investment strategy or operations for a large pool of liquid assets supplied by institutional investors or individual investors.
  • Manage investment funds to maximize return on client investments.
  • Select specific investments or investment mixes for purchase by an investment fund.
  • Monitor financial or operational performance of individual investments to ensure portfolios meet risk goals.
  • Select or direct the execution of trades.
  • Develop or implement fund investment policies or strategies.
  • Perform or evaluate research, such as detailed company or industry analyses, to inform financial forecasting, decision making, or valuation.
  • Present investment information, such as product risks, fees, or fund performance statistics.
  • Develop, implement, or monitor security valuation policies.
  • Meet with investors to determine investment goals or to discuss investment strategies.
  • Attend investment briefings or consult financial media to stay abreast of relevant investment markets.
  • Prepare for and respond to regulatory inquiries.
  • Evaluate the potential of new product developments or market opportunities, according to factors such as business plans, technologies, or market potential.
  • Hire or evaluate staff.
  • Monitor regulatory or tax law changes to ensure fund compliance or to capitalize on development opportunities.
  • Develop or direct development of offering documents or marketing materials.
  • Analyze acquisitions to ensure conformance with strategic goals or regulatory requirements.
  • Verify regulatory compliance of transaction reporting.
  • Review offering documents or marketing materials to ensure regulatory compliance.
  • Identify group or individual target investors for a specific fund.
  • Direct activities of accounting or operations departments.
11-3051.00Industrial Production Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the work activities and resources necessary for manufacturing products in accordance with cost, quality, and quantity specifications.
  • Develop or implement production tracking or quality control systems, analyzing production, quality control, maintenance, or other operational reports to detect production problems.
  • Direct or coordinate production, processing, distribution, or marketing activities of industrial organizations.
  • Review processing schedules or production orders to make decisions concerning inventory requirements, staffing requirements, work procedures, or duty assignments, considering budgetary limitations and time constraints.
  • Review operations and confer with technical or administrative staff to resolve production or processing problems.
  • Hire, train, evaluate, or discharge staff or resolve personnel grievances.
  • Prepare and maintain production reports or personnel records.
  • Develop budgets or approve expenditures for supplies, materials, or human resources, ensuring that materials, labor, or equipment are used efficiently to meet production targets.
  • Set and monitor product standards, examining samples of raw products or directing testing during processing, to ensure finished products are of prescribed quality.
  • Initiate or coordinate inventory or cost control programs.
  • Coordinate or recommend procedures for facility or equipment maintenance or modification, including the replacement of machines.
  • Review plans and confer with research or support staff to develop new products or processes.
  • Maintain current knowledge of the quality control field, relying on current literature pertaining to materials use, technological advances, or statistical studies.
  • Negotiate materials prices with suppliers.
  • Conduct site audits to ensure adherence to safety and environmental regulations.
  • Develop or enforce procedures for normal operation of manufacturing systems.
  • Implement operational and emergency procedures.
  • Maintain records to demonstrate compliance with safety and environmental laws, regulations, or policies.
  • Monitor permit requirements for updates.
  • Optimize operational costs and productivity consistent with safety and environmental rules and regulations.
  • Prepare reports on operations and system productivity or efficiency.
  • Supervise subordinate employees.
11-3051.01Quality Control Systems Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate quality assurance programs. Formulate quality control policies and control quality of laboratory and production efforts.
  • Collect and analyze production samples to evaluate quality.
  • Analyze quality control test results and provide feedback and interpretation to production management or staff.
  • Stop production if serious product defects are present.
  • Monitor performance of quality control systems to ensure effectiveness and efficiency.
  • Communicate quality control information to all relevant organizational departments, outside vendors, or contractors.
  • Instruct staff in quality control and analytical procedures.
  • Produce reports regarding nonconformance of products or processes, daily production quality, root cause analyses, or quality trends.
  • Participate in the development of product specifications.
  • Review statistical studies, technological advances, or regulatory standards and trends to stay abreast of issues in the field of quality control.
  • Identify critical points in the manufacturing process and specify sampling procedures to be used at these points.
  • Create and implement inspection and testing criteria or procedures.
  • Oversee workers including supervisors, inspectors, or laboratory workers engaged in testing activities.
  • Document testing procedures, methodologies, or criteria.
  • Review and update standard operating procedures or quality assurance manuals.
  • Identify quality problems or areas for improvement and recommend solutions.
  • Verify that raw materials, purchased parts or components, in-process samples, and finished products meet established testing and inspection standards.
  • Review quality documentation necessary for regulatory submissions and inspections.
  • Generate and maintain quality control operating budgets.
  • Direct the tracking of defects, test results, or other regularly reported quality control data.
  • Evaluate new testing and sampling methodologies or technologies to determine usefulness.
  • Direct product testing activities throughout production cycles.
  • Instruct vendors or contractors on quality guidelines, testing procedures, or ways to eliminate deficiencies.
  • Coordinate the selection and implementation of quality control equipment, such as inspection gauges.
  • Monitor development of new products to help identify possible problems for mass production.
  • Confer with marketing and sales departments to define client requirements and expectations.
  • Review and approve quality plans submitted by contractors.
  • Audit and inspect subcontractor facilities including external laboratories.
11-3051.02Geothermal Production Managers
Manage operations at geothermal power generation facilities. Maintain and monitor geothermal plant equipment for efficient and safe plant operations.
  • Supervise employees in geothermal power plants or well fields.
  • Oversee geothermal plant operations, maintenance, and repairs to ensure compliance with applicable standards or regulations.
  • Communicate geothermal plant conditions to employees.
  • Identify and evaluate equipment, procedural, or conditional inefficiencies involving geothermal plant systems.
  • Perform or direct the performance of preventative maintenance on geothermal plant equipment.
  • Inspect geothermal plant or injection well fields to verify proper equipment operations.
  • Develop or manage budgets for geothermal operations.
  • Select and implement corrosion control or mitigation systems for geothermal plants.
  • Develop operating plans and schedules for geothermal operations.
  • Record, review, or maintain daily logs, reports, maintenance, and other records associated with geothermal operations.
  • Monitor geothermal operations, using programmable logic controllers.
  • Conduct well field site assessments.
  • Identify opportunities to improve plant electrical equipment, controls, or process control methodologies.
  • Prepare environmental permit applications or compliance reports.
  • Negotiate interconnection agreements with other utilities.
  • Obtain permits for constructing, upgrading, or operating geothermal power plants.
  • Troubleshoot and make minor repairs to geothermal plant instrumentation or electrical systems.
11-3051.03Biofuels Production Managers
Manage biofuels production and plant operations. Collect and process information on plant production and performance, diagnose problems, and design corrective procedures.
  • Supervise production employees in the manufacturing of biofuels, such as biodiesel or ethanol.
  • Manage operations at biofuels power generation facilities, including production, shipping, maintenance, or quality assurance activities.
  • Provide direction to employees to ensure compliance with biofuels plant safety, environmental, or operational standards and regulations.
  • Confer with technical and supervisory personnel to report or resolve conditions affecting biofuels plant safety, operational efficiency, and product quality.
  • Review logs, datasheets, or reports to ensure adequate production levels or to identify abnormalities with biofuels production equipment or processes.
  • Monitor meters, flow gauges, or other real-time data to ensure proper operation of biofuels production equipment, implementing corrective measures as needed.
  • Adjust temperature, pressure, vacuum, level, flow rate, or transfer of biofuels to maintain processes at required levels.
  • Provide training to subordinate or new employees to improve biofuels plant safety or increase the production of biofuels.
  • Shut down and restart biofuels plant or equipment in emergency situations or for equipment maintenance, repairs, or replacements.
  • Monitor transportation and storage of flammable or other potentially dangerous feedstocks or products to ensure adherence to safety guidelines.
  • Draw samples of biofuels products or secondary by-products for quality control testing.
  • Approve proposals for the acquisition, replacement, or repair of biofuels processing equipment or the implementation of new production processes.
  • Prepare and manage biofuels plant or unit budgets.
  • Conduct cost, material, and efficiency studies for biofuels production plants or operations.
11-3051.04Biomass Power Plant Managers
Manage operations at biomass power generation facilities. Direct work activities at plant, including supervision of operations and maintenance staff.
  • Review logs, datasheets, or reports to ensure adequate production levels and safe production environments or to identify abnormalities with power production equipment or processes.
  • Review biomass operations performance specifications to ensure compliance with regulatory requirements.
  • Supervise biomass plant or substation operations, maintenance, repair, or testing activities.
  • Prepare and manage biomass plant budgets.
  • Supervise operations or maintenance employees in the production of power from biomass, such as wood, coal, paper sludge, or other waste or refuse.
  • Monitor the operating status of biomass plants by observing control system parameters, distributed control systems, switchboard gauges, dials, or other indicators.
  • Inspect biomass gasification processes, equipment, and facilities for ways to maximize capacity and minimize operating costs.
  • Conduct field inspections of biomass plants, stations, or substations to ensure normal and safe operating conditions.
  • Plan and schedule plant activities, such as wood, waste, or refuse fuel deliveries, ash removal, and regular maintenance.
  • Evaluate power production or demand trends to identify opportunities for improved operations.
  • Prepare reports on biomass plant operations, status, maintenance, and other information.
  • Manage parts and supply inventories for biomass plants.
  • Monitor and operate communications systems, such as mobile radios.
  • Compile and record operational data on forms or in log books.
  • Shut down and restart biomass power plants or equipment in emergency situations or for equipment maintenance, repairs, or replacements.
  • Test, maintain, or repair electrical power distribution machinery or equipment, using hand tools, power tools, and testing devices.
  • Adjust equipment controls to generate specified amounts of electrical power.
  • Operate controls to start, stop, or regulate biomass-fueled generators, generator units, boilers, engines, or auxiliary systems.
11-3051.06Hydroelectric Production Managers
Manage operations at hydroelectric power generation facilities. Maintain and monitor hydroelectric plant equipment for efficient and safe plant operations.
  • Direct operations, maintenance, or repair of hydroelectric power facilities.
  • Identify and communicate power system emergencies.
  • Maintain records of hydroelectric facility operations, maintenance, or repairs.
  • Perform or direct preventive or corrective containment or cleanup to protect the environment.
  • Monitor or inspect hydroelectric equipment, such as hydro-turbines, generators, or control systems.
  • Inspect hydroelectric facilities, including switchyards, control houses, or relay houses, for normal operation or adherence to safety standards.
  • Supervise or monitor hydroelectric facility operations to ensure that generation or mechanical equipment conform to applicable regulations or standards.
  • Plan or coordinate hydroelectric production operations to meet customer requirements.
  • Check hydroelectric operations for compliance with prescribed operating limits, such as loads, voltages, temperatures, lines, or equipment.
  • Develop or implement projects to improve efficiency, economy, or effectiveness of hydroelectric plant operations.
  • Provide technical direction in the erection or commissioning of hydroelectric equipment or supporting electrical or mechanical systems.
  • Supervise hydropower plant equipment installations, upgrades, or maintenance.
  • Plan or manage hydroelectric plant upgrades.
  • Respond to problems related to ratepayers, water users, power users, government agencies, educational institutions, or other private or public power resource interests.
  • Develop or review budgets, annual plans, power contracts, power rates, standing operating procedures, power reviews, or engineering studies.
  • Develop or implement policy evaluation procedures for hydroelectric generation activities.
  • Operate energized high- or low-voltage hydroelectric power transmission system substations, according to procedures and safety requirements.
  • Create or enforce hydrostation voltage schedules.
  • Negotiate power generation contracts with other public or private utilities.
11-3061.00Purchasing Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of buyers, purchasing officers, and related workers involved in purchasing materials, products, and services. Includes wholesale or retail trade merchandising managers and procurement managers.
  • Represent companies in negotiating contracts and formulating policies with suppliers.
  • Develop cost reduction strategies and savings plans.
  • Develop and implement purchasing and contract management instructions, policies, and procedures.
  • Prepare bid awards requiring board approval.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of personnel engaged in buying, selling, and distributing materials, equipment, machinery, and supplies.
  • Locate vendors of materials, equipment or supplies, and interview them to determine product availability and terms of sales.
  • Interview and hire staff, and oversee staff training.
  • Prepare and process requisitions and purchase orders for supplies and equipment.
  • Review, evaluate, and approve specifications for issuing and awarding bids.
  • Control purchasing department budgets.
  • Review purchase order claims and contracts for conformance to company policy.
  • Resolve vendor or contractor grievances, and claims against suppliers.
  • Administer online purchasing systems.
  • Maintain records of goods ordered and received.
  • Analyze market and delivery systems to assess present and future material availability.
  • Participate in the development of specifications for equipment, products, or substitute materials.
  • Prepare reports regarding market conditions and merchandise costs.
  • Arrange for disposal of surplus materials.
11-3071.00Transportation, Storage, and Distribution Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate transportation, storage, or distribution activities in accordance with organizational policies and applicable government laws or regulations. Includes logistics managers.
  • Supervise the activities of workers engaged in receiving, storing, testing, and shipping products or materials.
  • Inspect physical conditions of warehouses, vehicle fleets, or equipment and order testing, maintenance, repairs, or replacements.
  • Plan, develop, or implement warehouse safety and security programs and activities.
  • Plan, organize, or manage the work of subordinate staff to ensure that the work is accomplished in a manner consistent with organizational requirements.
  • Collaborate with other departments to integrate logistics with business systems or processes, such as customer sales, order management, accounting, or shipping.
  • Analyze all aspects of corporate logistics to determine the most cost-effective or efficient means of transporting products or supplies.
  • Resolve problems concerning transportation, logistics systems, imports or exports, or customer issues.
  • Develop and document standard and emergency operating procedures for receiving, handling, storing, shipping, or salvaging products or materials.
  • Monitor operations to ensure that staff members comply with administrative policies and procedures, safety rules, union contracts, environmental policies, or government regulations.
  • Analyze the financial impact of proposed logistics changes, such as routing, shipping modes, product volumes or mixes, or carriers.
  • Monitor inventory levels of products or materials in warehouses.
  • Establish or monitor specific supply chain-based performance measurement systems.
  • Prepare and manage departmental budgets.
  • Monitor product import or export processes to ensure compliance with regulatory or legal requirements.
  • Prepare management recommendations, such as proposed fee and tariff increases or schedule changes.
  • Advise sales and billing departments of transportation charges for customers' accounts.
  • Analyze expenditures and other financial information to develop plans, policies, or budgets for increasing profits or improving services.
  • Interview, select, and train warehouse and supervisory personnel.
  • Confer with department heads to coordinate warehouse activities, such as production, sales, records control, or purchasing.
  • Implement specific customer requirements, such as internal reporting or customized transportation metrics.
  • Maintain metrics, reports, process documentation, customer service logs, or training or safety records.
  • Examine invoices and shipping manifests for conformity to tariff and customs regulations.
  • Plan or implement energy saving changes to transportation services, such as reducing routes, optimizing capacities, employing alternate modes of transportation, or minimizing idling.
  • Evaluate contractors or business partners for operational efficiency or safety or environmental performance records.
  • Develop or implement plans for facility modification or expansion, such as equipment purchase or changes in space allocation or structural design.
  • Negotiate with carriers, warehouse operators, or insurance company representatives for services and preferential rates.
  • Direct inbound or outbound operations, such as transportation or warehouse activities, safety performance, and logistics quality management.
  • Plan or implement improvements to internal or external systems or processes.
  • Recommend or authorize capital expenditures for acquisition of new equipment or property to increase efficiency and services.
  • Review invoices, work orders, consumption reports, or demand forecasts to estimate peak performance periods and to issue work assignments.
11-3071.04Supply Chain Managers
Direct or coordinate production, purchasing, warehousing, distribution, or financial forecasting services or activities to limit costs and improve accuracy, customer service, or safety. Examine existing procedures or opportunities for streamlining activities to meet product distribution needs. Direct the movement, storage, or processing of inventory.
  • Determine appropriate equipment and staffing levels to load, unload, move, or store materials.
  • Manage activities related to strategic or tactical purchasing, material requirements planning, controlling inventory, warehousing, or receiving.
  • Select transportation routes to maximize economy by combining shipments or consolidating warehousing and distribution.
  • Define performance metrics for measurement, comparison, or evaluation of supply chain factors, such as product cost or quality.
  • Implement new or improved supply chain processes to improve efficiency or performance.
  • Develop procedures for coordination of supply chain management with other functional areas, such as sales, marketing, finance, production, or quality assurance.
  • Confer with supply chain planners to forecast demand or create supply plans that ensure availability of materials or products.
  • Analyze inventories to determine how to increase inventory turns, reduce waste, or optimize customer service.
  • Negotiate prices and terms with suppliers, vendors, or freight forwarders.
  • Analyze information about supplier performance or procurement program success.
  • Monitor suppliers' activities to assess performance in meeting quality or delivery requirements.
  • Design or implement supply chains that support business strategies adapted to changing market conditions, new business opportunities, or cost reduction strategies.
  • Meet with suppliers to discuss performance metrics, to provide performance feedback, or to discuss production forecasts or changes.
  • Monitor forecasts and quotas to identify changes and predict effects on supply chain activities.
  • Participate in the coordination of engineering changes, product line extensions, or new product launches to ensure orderly and timely transitions in material or production flow.
  • Identify or qualify new suppliers in collaboration with other departments, such as procurement, engineering, or quality assurance.
  • Design or implement plant warehousing strategies for production materials or finished products.
  • Design, implement, or oversee product take back or reverse logistics programs to ensure products are recycled, reused, or responsibly disposed.
  • Develop or implement procedures or systems to evaluate or select suppliers.
  • Document physical supply chain processes, such as workflows, cycle times, position responsibilities, or system flows.
  • Diagram supply chain models to help facilitate discussions with customers.
  • Evaluate and select information or other technology solutions to improve tracking and reporting of materials or products distribution, storage, or inventory.
  • Identify opportunities to reuse or recycle materials to minimize consumption of new materials, minimize waste, or to convert wastes to by-products.
  • Review or update supply chain practices in accordance with new or changing environmental policies, standards, regulations, or laws.
  • Design or implement supply chains that support environmental policies.
  • Forecast material costs or develop standard cost lists.
  • Locate or select biodegradable, non-toxic, or other environmentally friendly raw materials for manufacturing processes.
  • Appraise vendor manufacturing capabilities through on-site observations or other measurements.
  • Conduct or oversee the conduct of life cycle analyses to determine the environmental impacts of products, processes, or systems.
  • Investigate or review the carbon footprints and environmental performance records of current or potential storage and distribution service providers.
11-3111.00Compensation and Benefits Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization.
  • Design, evaluate and modify benefits policies to ensure that programs are current, competitive, and in compliance with legal requirements.
  • Analyze compensation policies, government regulations, and prevailing wage rates to develop competitive compensation plan.
  • Administer, direct, and review employee benefit programs, including the integration of benefit programs following mergers and acquisitions.
  • Fulfill all reporting requirements of all relevant government rules and regulations, including the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA).
  • Formulate policies, procedures and programs for recruitment, testing, placement, classification, orientation, benefits and compensation, and labor and industrial relations.
  • Direct preparation and distribution of written and verbal information to inform employees of benefits, compensation, and personnel policies.
  • Manage the design and development of tools to assist employees in benefits selection, and to guide managers through compensation decisions.
  • Prepare detailed job descriptions and classification systems and define job levels and families, in partnership with other managers.
  • Study legislation, arbitration decisions, and collective bargaining contracts to assess industry trends.
  • Plan, direct, supervise, and coordinate work activities of subordinates and staff relating to employment, compensation, labor relations, and employee relations.
  • Identify and implement benefits to increase the quality of life for employees by working with brokers and researching benefits issues.
  • Prepare budgets for personnel operations.
  • Mediate between benefits providers and employees, such as by assisting in handling employees' benefits-related questions or taking suggestions.
  • Develop methods to improve employment policies, processes, and practices, and recommend changes to management.
  • Advise management on such matters as equal employment opportunity, sexual harassment, and discrimination.
  • Negotiate bargaining agreements.
  • Conduct exit interviews to identify reasons for employee termination.
  • Investigate and report on industrial accidents for insurance carriers.
  • Prepare personnel forecasts to project employment needs.
  • Analyze statistical data and reports to identify and determine causes of personnel problems and develop recommendations for improvement of organization's personnel policies and practices.
  • Maintain records and compile statistical reports concerning personnel-related data, such as hires, transfers, performance appraisals, and absenteeism rates.
  • Plan and conduct new-employee orientations to foster positive attitude toward organizational objectives.
  • Represent organization at personnel-related hearings and investigations.
  • Contract with vendors to provide employee services, such as food services, transportation, or relocation service.
11-3121.00Human Resources Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate human resources activities and staff of an organization.
  • Serve as a link between management and employees by handling questions, interpreting and administering contracts and helping resolve work-related problems.
  • Advise managers on organizational policy matters, such as equal employment opportunity and sexual harassment, and recommend needed changes.
  • Analyze and modify compensation and benefits policies to establish competitive programs and ensure compliance with legal requirements.
  • Perform difficult staffing duties, including dealing with understaffing, refereeing disputes, firing employees, and administering disciplinary procedures.
  • Represent organization at personnel-related hearings and investigations.
  • Negotiate bargaining agreements and help interpret labor contracts.
  • Identify staff vacancies and recruit, interview, and select applicants.
  • Plan, direct, supervise, and coordinate work activities of subordinates and staff relating to employment, compensation, labor relations, and employee relations.
  • Prepare personnel forecast to project employment needs.
  • Provide current and prospective employees with information about policies, job duties, working conditions, wages, opportunities for promotion, and employee benefits.
  • Investigate and report on industrial accidents for insurance carriers.
  • Administer compensation, benefits, and performance management systems, and safety and recreation programs.
  • Analyze statistical data and reports to identify and determine causes of personnel problems and develop recommendations for improvement of organization's personnel policies and practices.
  • Plan, organize, direct, control, or coordinate the personnel, training, or labor relations activities of an organization.
  • Allocate human resources, ensuring appropriate matches between personnel.
  • Oversee the evaluation, classification, and rating of occupations and job positions.
  • Plan and conduct new employee orientation to foster positive attitude toward organizational objectives.
  • Analyze training needs to design employee development, language training, and health and safety programs.
  • Study legislation, arbitration decisions, and collective bargaining contracts to assess industry trends.
  • Maintain records and compile statistical reports concerning personnel-related data such as hires, transfers, performance appraisals, and absenteeism rates.
  • Prepare and follow budgets for personnel operations.
  • Conduct exit interviews to identify reasons for employee termination.
  • Develop, administer, and evaluate applicant tests.
  • Develop or administer special projects in areas such as pay equity, savings bond programs, day care, and employee awards.
  • Contract with vendors to provide employee services, such as food service, transportation, or relocation service.
  • Provide terminated employees with outplacement or relocation assistance.
11-3131.00Training and Development Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.
  • Analyze training needs to develop new training programs or modify and improve existing programs.
  • Evaluate instructor performance and the effectiveness of training programs, providing recommendations for improvement.
  • Plan, develop, and provide training and staff development programs, using knowledge of the effectiveness of methods such as classroom training, demonstrations, on-the-job training, meetings, conferences, and workshops.
  • Prepare training budget for department or organization.
  • Confer with management and conduct surveys to identify training needs based on projected production processes, changes, and other factors.
  • Develop and organize training manuals, multimedia visual aids, and other educational materials.
  • Develop testing and evaluation procedures.
  • Train instructors and supervisors in techniques and skills for training and dealing with employees.
  • Conduct orientation sessions and arrange on-the-job training for new hires.
  • Conduct or arrange for ongoing technical training and personal development classes for staff members.
  • Review and evaluate training and apprenticeship programs for compliance with government standards.
  • Coordinate established courses with technical and professional courses provided by community schools and designate training procedures.
11-9013.00Farmers, Ranchers, and Other Agricultural Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the management or operation of farms, ranches, greenhouses, aquacultural operations, nurseries, timber tracts, or other agricultural establishments. May hire, train, and supervise farm workers or contract for services to carry out the day-to-day activities of the managed operation. May engage in or supervise planting, cultivating, harvesting, and financial and marketing activities.
  • Collect and record growth, production, and environmental data.
  • Manage nurseries that grow horticultural plants for sale to trade or retail customers, for display or exhibition, or for research.
  • Direct and monitor trapping and spawning of fish, egg incubation, and fry rearing, applying knowledge of management and fish culturing techniques.
  • Determine how to allocate resources and to respond to unanticipated problems, such as insect infestation, drought, and fire.
  • Direct and monitor the transfer of mature fish to lakes, ponds, streams, or commercial tanks.
  • Determine plant growing conditions, such as greenhouses, hydroponics, or natural settings, and set planting and care schedules.
  • Devise and participate in activities to improve fish hatching and growth rates, and to prevent disease in hatcheries.
  • Position and regulate plant irrigation systems, and program environmental and irrigation control computers.
  • Prepare reports required by state and federal laws.
  • Inspect facilities and equipment for signs of disrepair, and perform necessary maintenance work.
  • Maintain financial, operational, production, or employment records for farms or ranches.
  • Coordinate clerical, record-keeping, inventory, requisitioning, and marketing activities.
  • Direct the breeding or raising of stock, such as cattle, poultry, or honeybees, using recognized breeding practices to ensure stock improvement.
  • Coordinate the selection and maintenance of brood stock.
  • Negotiate with buyers for the sale, storage, or shipment of crops or livestock.
  • Analyze soil to determine types or quantities of fertilizer required for maximum crop production.
  • Provide information to customers on the care of trees, shrubs, flowers, plants, and lawns.
  • Analyze market conditions to determine acreage allocations.
  • Supervise the construction of farm or ranch structures, such as buildings, fences, drainage systems, wells, or roads.
  • Replace chemical insecticides with environmentally friendly practices, such as adding pest-repelling plants to fields.
  • Conduct inspections to determine crop maturity or condition or to detect disease or insect infestation.
  • Conduct or supervise stock examinations to identify diseases or parasites.
  • Determine types or quantities of crops, plants, or livestock to be grown and raised, based on budgets, federal incentives, market conditions, executive directives, projected sales volumes, or soil conditions.
  • Determine, administer, and execute policies relating to operations administration and standards, facility maintenance, and safety.
  • Direct crop production operations, such as planning, tilling, planting, fertilizing, cultivating, spraying, and harvesting.
  • Evaluate marketing or sales alternatives for products.
  • Hire, supervise, and train support workers.
  • Monitor activities, such as irrigation, chemical application, harvesting, milking, breeding, and grading, to ensure adherence to safety regulations or standards.
  • Monitor environments to ensure maintenance of optimum animal or plant life.
  • Obtain financing for and purchase necessary machinery, land, supplies, or livestock.
11-9021.00Construction Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate, usually through subordinate supervisory personnel, activities concerned with the construction and maintenance of structures, facilities, and systems. Participate in the conceptual development of a construction project and oversee its organization, scheduling, budgeting, and implementation. Includes managers in specialized construction fields, such as carpentry or plumbing.
  • Confer with supervisory personnel, owners, contractors, or design professionals to discuss and resolve matters such as work procedures, complaints, or construction problems.
  • Plan, schedule, or coordinate construction project activities to meet deadlines.
  • Prepare and submit budget estimates, progress reports, or cost tracking reports.
  • Inspect or review projects to monitor compliance with building and safety codes or other regulations.
  • Inspect or review projects to monitor compliance with environmental regulations.
  • Plan, organize, or direct activities concerned with the construction or maintenance of structures, facilities, or systems.
  • Study job specifications to determine appropriate construction methods.
  • Investigate damage, accidents, or delays at construction sites to ensure that proper construction procedures are being followed.
  • Prepare contracts or negotiate revisions to contractual agreements with architects, consultants, clients, suppliers, or subcontractors.
  • Develop or implement quality control programs.
  • Develop or implement environmental protection programs.
  • Implement new or modified plans in response to delays, bad weather, or construction site emergencies.
  • Interpret and explain plans and contract terms to representatives of the owner or developer, including administrative staff, workers, or clients.
  • Perform, or contract others to perform, pre-building assessments, such as conceptual cost estimating, rough order of magnitude estimating, feasibility, or energy efficiency, environmental, and sustainability assessments.
  • Apply for and obtain all necessary permits or licenses.
  • Evaluate construction methods and determine cost-effectiveness of plans, using computer models.
  • Contract or oversee craft work, such as painting or plumbing.
  • Direct and supervise construction or related workers.
  • Determine labor requirements for dispatching workers to construction sites.
  • Requisition supplies or materials to complete construction projects.
  • Implement training programs on environmentally responsible building topics to update employee skills and knowledge.
  • Secure third-party verification from sources such as Leadership in Energy Efficient Design (LEED) to ensure responsible design and building activities or to achieve favorable LEED ratings for building projects.
  • Develop construction budgets to compare green and non-green construction alternatives, in terms of short-term costs, long-term costs, or environmental impacts.
  • Apply green building strategies to reduce energy costs or minimize carbon output or other sources of harm to the environment.
  • Direct acquisition of land for construction projects.
11-9031.00Education and Childcare Administrators, Preschool and Daycare
Plan, direct, or coordinate academic or nonacademic activities of preschools or childcare centers and programs, including before- and after-school care.
  • Confer with parents and staff to discuss educational activities and policies and students' behavioral or learning problems.
  • Monitor students' progress and provide students and teachers with assistance in resolving any problems.
  • Recruit, hire, train, and evaluate primary and supplemental staff and recommend personnel actions for programs and services.
  • Teach classes or courses or provide direct care to children.
  • Set educational standards and goals and help establish policies, procedures, and programs to carry them out.
  • Determine the scope of educational program offerings and prepare drafts of program schedules and descriptions to estimate staffing and facility requirements.
  • Determine allocations of funds for staff, supplies, materials, and equipment and authorize purchases.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of teachers or administrators at daycare centers, schools, public agencies, or institutions.
  • Prepare and maintain attendance, activity, planning, accounting, or personnel reports and records for officials and agencies, or direct preparation and maintenance activities.
  • Plan, direct, and monitor instructional methods and content of educational, vocational, or student activity programs.
  • Review and interpret government codes and develop procedures to meet codes and to ensure facility safety, security, and maintenance.
  • Review and evaluate new and current programs to determine their efficiency, effectiveness, and compliance with state, local, and federal regulations and recommend any necessary modifications.
  • Collect and analyze survey data, regulatory information, and demographic and employment trends to forecast enrollment patterns and the need for curriculum changes.
  • Inform businesses, community groups, and governmental agencies about educational needs, available programs, and program policies.
  • Write articles, manuals, and other publications and assist in the distribution of promotional literature about programs and facilities.
  • Prepare and submit budget requests or grant proposals to solicit program funding.
  • Organize and direct committees of specialists, volunteers, and staff to provide technical and advisory assistance for programs.
11-9032.00Education Administrators, Kindergarten through Secondary
Plan, direct, or coordinate the academic, administrative, or auxiliary activities of kindergarten, elementary, or secondary schools.
  • Evaluate curricula, teaching methods, and programs to determine their effectiveness, efficiency, and use, and to ensure that school activities comply with federal, state, and local regulations.
  • Observe teaching methods and examine learning materials to evaluate and standardize curricula and teaching techniques, and to determine areas where improvement is needed.
  • Counsel and provide guidance to students regarding personal, academic, vocational, or behavioral issues.
  • Collaborate with teachers to develop and maintain curriculum standards, develop mission statements, and set performance goals and objectives.
  • Direct and coordinate activities of teachers, administrators, and support staff at schools, public agencies, and institutions.
  • Recruit, hire, train, and evaluate primary and supplemental staff.
  • Confer with parents and staff to discuss educational activities, policies, and student behavioral or learning problems.
  • Enforce discipline and attendance rules.
  • Create school improvement plans by using student performance data.
  • Set educational standards and goals, and help establish policies and procedures to carry them out.
  • Plan and lead professional development activities for teachers, administrators, and support staff.
  • Participate in special education-related activities, such as attending meetings and providing support to special educators throughout the district.
  • Plan and develop instructional methods and content for educational, vocational, or student activity programs.
  • Determine the scope of educational program offerings, and prepare drafts of course schedules and descriptions to estimate staffing and facility requirements.
  • Prepare and submit budget requests and recommendations, or grant proposals to solicit program funding.
  • Recommend personnel actions related to programs and services.
  • Review and approve new programs, or recommend modifications to existing programs, submitting program proposals for school board approval as necessary.
  • Develop partnerships with businesses, communities, and other organizations to help meet identified educational needs and to provide school-to-work programs.
  • Review and interpret government codes, and develop programs to ensure adherence to codes and facility safety, security, and maintenance.
  • Determine allocations of funds for staff, supplies, materials, and equipment, and authorize purchases.
  • Direct and coordinate school maintenance services and the use of school facilities.
  • Organize and direct committees of specialists, volunteers, and staff to provide technical and advisory assistance for programs.
  • Prepare, maintain, or oversee the preparation and maintenance of attendance, activity, planning, or personnel reports and records.
  • Mentor and support administrative staff members, such as superintendents and principals.
  • Establish, coordinate, and oversee particular programs across school districts, such as programs to evaluate student academic achievement.
  • Coordinate and direct extracurricular activities and programs, such as after-school events and athletic contests.
  • Advocate for new schools to be built, or for existing facilities to be repaired or remodeled.
  • Plan, coordinate, and oversee school logistics programs, such as bus and food services.
  • Teach classes or courses to students.
  • Meet with federal, state, and local agencies to keep updated on policies and to discuss improvements for education programs.
  • Write articles, manuals, and other publications, and assist in the distribution of promotional literature about facilities and programs.
  • Collect and analyze survey data, regulatory information, and data on demographic and employment trends to forecast enrollment patterns and curriculum change needs.
11-9033.00Education Administrators, Postsecondary
Plan, direct, or coordinate student instruction, administration, and services, as well as other research and educational activities, at postsecondary institutions, including universities, colleges, and junior and community colleges.
  • Design or use assessments to monitor student learning outcomes.
  • Recruit, hire, train, and terminate departmental personnel.
  • Direct, coordinate, and evaluate the activities of personnel, including support staff engaged in administering academic institutions, departments, or alumni organizations.
  • Advise students on issues such as course selection, progress toward graduation, and career decisions.
  • Plan, administer, and control budgets, maintain financial records, and produce financial reports.
  • Formulate strategic plans for the institution.
  • Establish operational policies and procedures and make any necessary modifications, based on analysis of operations, demographics, and other research information.
  • Provide assistance to faculty and staff in duties such as teaching classes, conducting orientation programs, issuing transcripts, and scheduling events.
  • Represent institutions at community and campus events, in meetings with other institution personnel, and during accreditation processes.
  • Prepare reports on academic or institutional data.
  • Promote the university by participating in community, state, and national events or meetings, and by developing partnerships with industry and secondary education institutions.
  • Participate in faculty and college committee activities.
  • Direct activities of administrative departments, such as admissions, registration, and career services.
  • Appoint individuals to faculty positions, and evaluate their performance.
  • Develop curricula, and recommend curricula revisions and additions.
  • Consult with government regulatory and licensing agencies to ensure the institution's conformance with applicable standards.
  • Participate in student recruitment, selection, and admission, making admissions recommendations when required to do so.
  • Determine course schedules, and coordinate teaching assignments and room assignments to ensure optimum use of buildings and equipment.
  • Teach courses within their department.
  • Review student misconduct reports requiring disciplinary action, and counsel students regarding such reports.
  • Review registration statistics, and consult with faculty officials to develop registration policies.
  • Confer with other academic staff to explain and formulate admission requirements and course credit policies.
  • Direct scholarship, fellowship, and loan programs, performing activities such as selecting recipients and distributing aid.
  • Direct and participate in institutional fundraising activities, and encourage alumni participation in such activities.
  • Coordinate the production and dissemination of university publications, such as course catalogs and class schedules.
  • Write grants to procure external funding, and supervise grant-funded projects.
  • Plan and promote sporting events and social, cultural, and recreational activities.
  • Audit the financial status of student organizations and facility accounts.
  • Oversee facilities management for the university, including construction, repair, and maintenance projects.
11-9041.00Architectural and Engineering Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as architecture and engineering or research and development in these fields.
  • Manage the coordination and overall integration of technical activities in architecture or engineering projects.
  • Direct, review, or approve project design changes.
  • Confer with management, production, or marketing staff to discuss project specifications or procedures.
  • Present and explain proposals, reports, or findings to clients.
  • Consult or negotiate with clients to prepare project specifications.
  • Prepare budgets, bids, or contracts.
  • Assess project feasibility by analyzing technology, resource needs, or market demand.
  • Direct recruitment, placement, and evaluation of architecture or engineering project staff.
  • Review, recommend, or approve contracts or cost estimates.
  • Develop or implement policies, standards, or procedures for engineering and technical work.
  • Plan or direct the installation, testing, operation, maintenance, or repair of facilities or equipment.
  • Perform administrative functions, such as reviewing or writing reports, approving expenditures, enforcing rules, or purchasing of materials or services.
  • Establish scientific or technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management.
  • Evaluate environmental regulations or social pressures related to environmental issues to inform strategic or operational decision-making.
  • Solicit project support by conferring with officials or providing information to the public.
  • Develop or implement programs to improve sustainability or reduce the environmental impacts of engineering or architecture activities or operations.
  • Evaluate the environmental impacts of engineering, architecture, or research and development activities.
  • Direct the engineering of water control, treatment, or distribution projects.
  • Identify environmental threats or opportunities associated with the development and launch of new technologies.
  • Plan, direct, or coordinate survey work with other project activities.
  • Administer highway planning, construction, or maintenance.
11-9041.01Biofuels/Biodiesel Technology and Product Development Managers
Define, plan, or execute biofuels/biodiesel research programs that evaluate alternative feedstock and process technologies with near-term commercial potential.
  • Design or conduct applied biodiesel or biofuels research projects on topics, such as transport, thermodynamics, mixing, filtration, distillation, fermentation, extraction, and separation.
  • Analyze data from biofuels studies, such as fluid dynamics, water treatments, or solvent extraction and recovery processes.
  • Prepare, or oversee the preparation of, experimental plans for biofuels research or development.
  • Provide technical or scientific guidance to technical staff in the conduct of biofuels research or development.
  • Propose new biofuels products, processes, technologies or applications based on findings from applied biofuels or biomass research projects.
  • Conduct experiments on biomass or pretreatment technologies.
  • Prepare biofuels research and development reports for senior management or technical professionals.
  • Develop lab scale models of industrial scale processes, such as fermentation.
  • Oversee biodiesel/biofuels prototyping or development projects.
  • Conduct experiments to test new or alternate feedstock fermentation processes.
  • Develop methods to estimate the efficiency of biomass pretreatments.
  • Develop carbohydrates arrays and associated methods for screening enzymes involved in biomass conversion.
  • Perform protein functional analysis and engineering for processing of feedstock and creation of biofuels.
  • Conduct research to breed or develop energy crops with improved biomass yield, environmental adaptability, pest resistance, production efficiency, bioprocessing characteristics, or reduced environmental impacts.
  • Develop computational tools or approaches to improve biofuels research and development activities.
  • Develop separation processes to recover biofuels.
  • Design chemical conversion processes, such as etherification, esterification, interesterification, transesterification, distillation, hydrogenation, oxidation or reduction of fats and oils, and vegetable oil refining.
  • Design or execute solvent or product recovery experiments in laboratory or field settings.
  • Develop methods to recover ethanol or other fuels from complex bioreactor liquid and gas streams.
11-9051.00Food Service Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that serves food and beverages.
  • Keep records required by government agencies regarding sanitation or food subsidies.
  • Investigate and resolve complaints regarding food quality, service, or accommodations.
  • Maintain food and equipment inventories, and keep inventory records.
  • Monitor food preparation methods, portion sizes, and garnishing and presentation of food to ensure that food is prepared and presented in an acceptable manner.
  • Schedule and receive food and beverage deliveries, checking delivery contents to verify product quality and quantity.
  • Coordinate assignments of cooking personnel to ensure economical use of food and timely preparation.
  • Monitor compliance with health and fire regulations regarding food preparation and serving, and building maintenance in lodging and dining facilities.
  • Count money and make bank deposits.
  • Establish standards for personnel performance and customer service.
  • Perform some food preparation or service tasks, such as cooking, clearing tables, and serving food and drinks when necessary.
  • Greet guests, escort them to their seats, and present them with menus and wine lists.
  • Test cooked food by tasting and smelling it to ensure palatability and flavor conformity.
  • Schedule staff hours and assign duties.
  • Arrange for equipment maintenance and repairs, and coordinate a variety of services, such as waste removal and pest control.
  • Review menus and analyze recipes to determine labor and overhead costs, and assign prices to menu items.
  • Organize and direct worker training programs, resolve personnel problems, hire new staff, and evaluate employee performance in dining and lodging facilities.
  • Review work procedures and operational problems to determine ways to improve service, performance, or safety.
  • Assess staffing needs and recruit staff, using methods such as newspaper advertisements or attendance at job fairs.
  • Order and purchase equipment and supplies.
  • Record the number, type, and cost of items sold to determine which items may be unpopular or less profitable.
  • Monitor employee and patron activities to ensure liquor regulations are obeyed.
  • Monitor budgets and payroll records, and review financial transactions to ensure that expenditures are authorized and budgeted.
  • Estimate food, liquor, wine, and other beverage consumption to anticipate amounts to be purchased or requisitioned.
  • Schedule use of facilities or catering services for events such as banquets or receptions, and negotiate details of arrangements with clients.
  • Take dining reservations.
  • Plan menus and food utilization, based on anticipated number of guests, nutritional value, palatability, popularity, and costs.
  • Establish and enforce nutritional standards for dining establishments, based on accepted industry standards.
  • Create specialty dishes and develop recipes to be used in dining facilities.
11-9071.00Gambling Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate gambling operations in a casino. May formulate house rules.
  • Remove suspected cheaters, such as card counters or other players who may have systems that shift the odds of winning to their favor.
  • Circulate among gaming tables to ensure that operations are conducted properly, that dealers follow house rules, or that players are not cheating.
  • Explain and interpret house rules, such as game rules or betting limits.
  • Track supplies of money to tables and perform any required paperwork.
  • Resolve customer complaints regarding problems, such as payout errors.
  • Market or promote the casino to bring in business.
  • Prepare work schedules and station arrangements and keep attendance records.
  • Set and maintain a bank and table limit for each game.
  • Maintain familiarity with all games used at a facility, as well as strategies or tricks employed in those games.
  • Monitor staffing levels to ensure that games and tables are adequately staffed for each shift, arranging for staff rotations and breaks and locating substitute employees as necessary.
  • Review operational expenses, budget estimates, betting accounts, or collection reports for accuracy.
  • Train new workers or evaluate their performance.
  • Interview and hire workers.
  • Direct the distribution of complimentary hotel rooms, meals, or other discounts or free items given to players, based on their length of play and betting totals.
  • Establish policies on issues, such as the type of gambling offered and the odds, the extension of credit, or the serving of food and beverages.
  • Record, collect, or pay off bets, issuing receipts as necessary.
  • Direct the compilation of summary sheets that show wager amounts and payoffs for races or events.
  • Monitor credit extended to players.
  • Notify board attendants of table vacancies so that waiting patrons can play.
11-9072.00Entertainment and Recreation Managers, Except Gambling
Plan, direct, or coordinate entertainment and recreational activities and operations of a recreational facility, including cruise ships and parks.
  • Administer first aid in emergency situations.
  • Assign tasks and work hours to staff.
  • Calculate and record department expenses and revenue.
  • Clean equipment and areas of amusement park, cruise ship, or other recreational facility.
  • Explain rules and regulations of facilities and entertainment attractions to customers.
  • Inspect equipment, such as rides, games, and vehicles, to detect wear and damage.
  • Interview and hire associates to fill staff vacancies.
  • Operate, drive, or explain the use of mechanical equipment in amusement parks, cruise ships, or other recreational facilities.
  • Plan programs of events or schedules of activities.
  • Plan, organize, or lead group activities for customers, such as exercise routines, athletic events, or arts and crafts.
  • Resolve customer complaints regarding worker performance or services rendered.
  • Store and retrieve equipment, such as vehicles, radios, and ride components.
  • Talk to coworkers using electronic devices, such as computers and radios.
  • Talk to customers to convey information about events or activities.
  • Train workers in company procedures or policy.
  • Write and present strategies for recreational facility programming using customer or employee data.
  • Write budgets to plan recreational activities or programs.
11-9081.00Lodging Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization or department that provides lodging and other accommodations.
  • Answer inquiries pertaining to hotel policies and services, and resolve occupants' complaints.
  • Participate in financial activities, such as the setting of room rates, the establishment of budgets, and the allocation of funds to departments.
  • Confer and cooperate with other managers to ensure coordination of hotel activities.
  • Greet and register guests.
  • Monitor the revenue activity of the hotel or facility.
  • Manage and maintain temporary or permanent lodging facilities.
  • Train staff members.
  • Observe and monitor staff performance to ensure efficient operations and adherence to facility's policies and procedures.
  • Coordinate front-office activities of hotels or motels, and resolve problems.
  • Inspect guest rooms, public areas, and grounds for cleanliness and appearance.
  • Assign duties to workers, and schedule shifts.
  • Receive and process advance registration payments, mail letters of confirmation, or return checks when registrations cannot be accepted.
  • Interview and hire applicants.
  • Purchase supplies, and arrange for outside services, such as deliveries, laundry, maintenance and repair, and trash collection.
  • Collect payments and record data pertaining to funds and expenditures.
  • Develop and implement policies and procedures for the operation of a department or establishment.
  • Prepare required paperwork pertaining to departmental functions.
  • Show, rent, or assign accommodations.
  • Perform marketing and public relations activities.
  • Organize and coordinate the work of staff and convention personnel for meetings to be held at a particular facility.
  • Provide assistance to staff members by inspecting rooms, setting tables, or doing laundry.
  • Arrange telephone answering services, deliver mail and packages, or answer questions regarding locations for eating and entertainment.
  • Meet with clients to schedule and plan details of conventions, banquets, receptions and other functions.
  • Book tickets for guests for local tours and attractions.
11-9111.00Medical and Health Services Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate medical and health services in hospitals, clinics, managed care organizations, public health agencies, or similar organizations.
  • Develop and maintain computerized record management systems to store and process data, such as personnel activities and information, and to produce reports.
  • Direct, supervise and evaluate work activities of medical, nursing, technical, clerical, service, maintenance, and other personnel.
  • Direct or conduct recruitment, hiring, and training of personnel.
  • Develop and implement organizational policies and procedures for the facility or medical unit.
  • Conduct and administer fiscal operations, including accounting, planning budgets, authorizing expenditures, establishing rates for services, and coordinating financial reporting.
  • Maintain awareness of advances in medicine, computerized diagnostic and treatment equipment, data processing technology, government regulations, health insurance changes, and financing options.
  • Plan, implement, and administer programs and services in a health care or medical facility, including personnel administration, training, and coordination of medical, nursing and physical plant staff.
  • Prepare activity reports to inform management of the status and implementation plans of programs, services, and quality initiatives.
  • Establish work schedules and assignments for staff, according to workload, space, and equipment availability.
  • Maintain communication between governing boards, medical staff, and department heads by attending board meetings and coordinating interdepartmental functioning.
  • Establish objectives and evaluative or operational criteria for units managed.
  • Review and analyze facility activities and data to aid planning and cash and risk management and to improve service utilization.
  • Manage change in integrated health care delivery systems, such as work restructuring, technological innovations, and shifts in the focus of care.
  • Develop instructional materials and conduct in-service and community-based educational programs.
  • Monitor the use of diagnostic services, inpatient beds, facilities, and staff to ensure effective use of resources and assess the need for additional staff, equipment, and services.
  • Inspect facilities and recommend building or equipment modifications to ensure emergency readiness and compliance to access, safety, and sanitation regulations.
  • Develop or expand and implement medical programs or health services that promote research, rehabilitation, and community health.
  • Consult with medical, business, and community groups to discuss service problems, respond to community needs, enhance public relations, coordinate activities and plans, and promote health programs.
11-9121.00Natural Sciences Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities in such fields as life sciences, physical sciences, mathematics, statistics, and research and development in these fields.
  • Confer with scientists, engineers, regulators, or others to plan or review projects or to provide technical assistance.
  • Develop client relationships and communicate with clients to explain proposals, present research findings, establish specifications, or discuss project status.
  • Plan or direct research, development, or production activities.
  • Review project activities and prepare and review research, testing, or operational reports.
  • Determine scientific or technical goals within broad outlines provided by top management and make detailed plans to accomplish these goals.
  • Develop or implement policies, standards, or procedures for the architectural, scientific, or technical work performed to ensure regulatory compliance or operations enhancement.
  • Hire, supervise, or evaluate engineers, technicians, researchers, or other staff.
  • Design or coordinate successive phases of problem analysis, solution proposals, or testing.
  • Recruit personnel or oversee the development or maintenance of staff competence.
  • Prepare project proposals.
  • Conduct own research in field of expertise.
  • Prepare and administer budgets, approve and review expenditures, and prepare financial reports.
  • Make presentations at professional meetings to further knowledge in the field.
  • Develop innovative technology or train staff for its implementation.
  • Provide for stewardship of plant or animal resources or habitats, studying land use, monitoring animal populations, or providing shelter, resources, or medical treatment for animals.
  • Advise or assist in obtaining patents or meeting other legal requirements.
11-9121.01Clinical Research Coordinators
Plan, direct, or coordinate clinical research projects. Direct the activities of workers engaged in clinical research projects to ensure compliance with protocols and overall clinical objectives. May evaluate and analyze clinical data.
  • Maintain required records of study activity including case report forms, drug dispensation records, or regulatory forms.
  • Oversee subject enrollment to ensure that informed consent is properly obtained and documented.
  • Monitor study activities to ensure compliance with protocols and with all relevant local, federal, and state regulatory and institutional polices.
  • Record adverse event and side effect data and confer with investigators regarding the reporting of events to oversight agencies.
  • Assess eligibility of potential subjects through methods such as screening interviews, reviews of medical records, or discussions with physicians and nurses.
  • Prepare for or participate in quality assurance audits conducted by study sponsors, federal agencies, or specially designated review groups.
  • Identify protocol problems, inform investigators of problems, or assist in problem resolution efforts, such as protocol revisions.
  • Prepare study-related documentation, such as protocol worksheets, procedural manuals, adverse event reports, institutional review board documents, or progress reports.
  • Track enrollment status of subjects and document dropout information such as dropout causes and subject contact efforts.
  • Review proposed study protocols to evaluate factors such as sample collection processes, data management plans, or potential subject risks.
  • Code, evaluate, or interpret collected study data.
  • Participate in preparation and management of research budgets and monetary disbursements.
  • Participate in the development of study protocols including guidelines for administration or data collection procedures.
  • Instruct research staff in scientific and procedural aspects of studies including standards of care, informed consent procedures, or documentation procedures.
  • Communicate with laboratories or investigators regarding laboratory findings.
  • Review scientific literature, participate in continuing education activities, or attend conferences and seminars to maintain current knowledge of clinical studies affairs and issues.
  • Order drugs or devices necessary for study completion.
  • Confer with health care professionals to determine the best recruitment practices for studies.
  • Collaborate with investigators to prepare presentations or reports of clinical study procedures, results, and conclusions.
  • Schedule subjects for appointments, procedures, or inpatient stays as required by study protocols.
  • Perform specific protocol procedures such as interviewing subjects, taking vital signs, and performing electrocardiograms.
  • Dispense medical devices or drugs, and calculate dosages and provide instructions as necessary.
  • Maintain contact with sponsors to schedule and coordinate site visits or to answer questions about issues such as incomplete data.
  • Inform patients or caregivers about study aspects and outcomes to be expected.
  • Direct the requisition, collection, labeling, storage, or shipment of specimens.
  • Register protocol patients with appropriate statistical centers as required.
  • Interpret protocols and advise treating physicians on appropriate dosage modifications or treatment calculations based on patient characteristics.
  • Arrange for research study sites and determine staff or equipment availability.
  • Contact outside health care providers and communicate with subjects to obtain follow-up information.
  • Contact industry representatives to ensure equipment and software specifications necessary for successful study completion.
  • Solicit industry-sponsored trials through contacts and professional organizations.
  • Organize space for study equipment and supplies.
  • Develop advertising and other informational materials to be used in subject recruitment.
11-9121.02Water Resource Specialists
Design or implement programs and strategies related to water resource issues such as supply, quality, and regulatory compliance issues.
  • Perform hydrologic, hydraulic, or water quality modeling.
  • Conduct, or oversee the conduct of, investigations on matters such as water storage, wastewater discharge, pollutants, permits, or other compliance and regulatory issues.
  • Develop plans to protect watershed health or rehabilitate watersheds.
  • Develop strategies for watershed operations to meet water supply and conservation goals or to ensure regulatory compliance with clean water laws or regulations.
  • Identify and characterize specific causes or sources of water pollution.
  • Write proposals, project reports, informational brochures, or other documents on wastewater purification, water supply and demand, or other water resource subjects.
  • Present water resource proposals to government, public interest groups, or community groups.
  • Review or evaluate designs for water detention facilities, storm drains, flood control facilities, or other hydraulic structures.
  • Conduct, or oversee the conduct of, chemical, physical, and biological water quality monitoring or sampling to ensure compliance with water quality standards.
  • Conduct technical studies for water resources on topics such as pollutants and water treatment options.
  • Recommend new or revised policies, procedures, or regulations to support water resource or conservation goals.
  • Monitor water use, demand, or quality in a particular geographic area.
  • Analyze storm water systems to identify opportunities for water resource improvements.
  • Provide technical expertise to assist communities in the development or implementation of storm water monitoring or other water programs.
  • Compile water resource data, using geographic information systems (GIS) or global position systems (GPS) software.
  • Conduct cost-benefit studies for watershed improvement projects or water management alternatives.
  • Develop or implement standardized water monitoring and assessment methods.
  • Negotiate for water rights with communities or water facilities to meet water supply demands.
  • Compile and maintain documentation on the health of a body of water.
  • Supervise teams of workers who capture water from wells and rivers.
  • Identify methods for distributing purified wastewater into rivers, streams, or oceans.
11-9131.00Postmasters and Mail Superintendents
Plan, direct, or coordinate operational, administrative, management, and support services of a U.S. post office; or coordinate activities of workers engaged in postal and related work in assigned post office.
  • Monitor employees' work schedules and attendance for payroll purposes.
  • Organize and supervise activities, such as the processing of incoming and outgoing mail.
  • Resolve customer complaints.
  • Prepare employee work schedules.
  • Direct and coordinate operational, management, and supportive services of one or a number of postal facilities.
  • Hire and train employees, and evaluate their performance.
  • Prepare and submit detailed and summary reports of post office activities to designated supervisors.
  • Negotiate labor disputes.
  • Select and train postmasters and managers of associate postal units.
  • Inform the public of available services, and of postal laws and regulations.
  • Issue and cash money orders.
  • Collect rents for post office boxes.
  • Confer with suppliers to obtain bids for proposed purchases and to requisition supplies, disbursing funds according to federal regulations.
11-9141.00Property, Real Estate, and Community Association Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the selling, buying, leasing, or governance activities of commercial, industrial, or residential real estate properties. Includes managers of homeowner and condominium associations, rented or leased housing units, buildings, or land (including rights-of-way).
  • Manage and oversee operations, maintenance, administration, and improvement of commercial, industrial, or residential properties.
  • Plan, schedule, and coordinate general maintenance, major repairs, and remodeling or construction projects for commercial or residential properties.
  • Direct collection of monthly assessments, rental fees, and deposits and payment of insurance premiums, mortgage, taxes, and incurred operating expenses.
  • Inspect grounds, facilities, and equipment routinely to determine necessity of repairs or maintenance.
  • Act as liaisons between on-site managers or tenants and owners.
  • Meet with prospective tenants to show properties, explain terms of occupancy, and provide information about local areas.
  • Market vacant space to prospective tenants through leasing agents, advertising, or other methods.
  • Prepare detailed budgets and financial reports for properties.
  • Maintain records of sales, rental or usage activity, special permits issued, maintenance and operating costs, or property availability.
  • Direct and coordinate the activities of staff and contract personnel and evaluate their performance.
  • Meet with clients to negotiate management and service contracts, determine priorities, and discuss the financial and operational status of properties.
  • Solicit and analyze bids from contractors for repairs, renovations, and maintenance.
  • Prepare and administer contracts for provision of property services, such as cleaning, maintenance, and security services.
  • Investigate complaints, disturbances and violations and resolve problems, following management rules and regulations.
  • Review rents to ensure that they are in line with rental markets.
  • Maintain contact with insurance carriers, fire and police departments, and other agencies to ensure protection and compliance with codes and regulations.
  • Meet with boards of directors and committees to discuss and resolve legal and environmental issues or disputes between neighbors.
  • Purchase building and maintenance supplies, equipment, or furniture.
  • Determine and certify the eligibility of prospective tenants, following government regulations.
  • Confer regularly with community association members to ensure their needs are being met.
  • Negotiate the sale, lease, or development of property and complete or review appropriate documents and forms.
  • Clean common areas, change light bulbs, and make minor property repairs.
  • Negotiate short- and long-term loans to finance construction and ownership of structures.
  • Confer with legal authorities to ensure that renting and advertising practices are not discriminatory and that properties comply with state and federal regulations.
  • Analyze information on property values, taxes, zoning, population growth, and traffic volume and patterns to determine if properties should be acquired.
  • Contract with architectural firms to draw up detailed plans for new structures.
  • Negotiate with government leaders, businesses, special interest representatives, and utility companies to gain support for new projects and to eliminate potential obstacles.
11-9151.00Social and Community Service Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the activities of a social service program or community outreach organization. Oversee the program or organization's budget and policies regarding participant involvement, program requirements, and benefits. Work may involve directing social workers, counselors, or probation officers.
  • Establish and oversee administrative procedures to meet objectives set by boards of directors or senior management.
  • Direct activities of professional and technical staff members and volunteers.
  • Evaluate the work of staff and volunteers to ensure that programs are of appropriate quality and that resources are used effectively.
  • Participate in the determination of organizational policies regarding such issues as participant eligibility, program requirements, and program benefits.
  • Prepare and maintain records and reports, such as budgets, personnel records, or training manuals.
  • Provide direct service and support to individuals or clients, such as handling a referral for child advocacy issues, conducting a needs evaluation, or resolving complaints.
  • Establish and maintain relationships with other agencies and organizations in community to meet community needs and to ensure that services are not duplicated.
  • Recruit, interview, and hire or sign up volunteers and staff.
  • Research and analyze member or community needs to determine program directions and goals.
  • Implement and evaluate staff, volunteer, or community training programs.
  • Act as consultants to agency staff and other community programs regarding the interpretation of program-related federal, state, and county regulations and policies.
  • Speak to community groups to explain and interpret agency purposes, programs, and policies.
  • Analyze proposed legislation, regulations, or rule changes to determine how agency services could be impacted.
  • Plan and administer budgets for programs, equipment, and support services.
  • Represent organizations in relations with governmental and media institutions.
  • Direct fundraising activities and the preparation of public relations materials.
11-9161.00Emergency Management Directors
Plan and direct disaster response or crisis management activities, provide disaster preparedness training, and prepare emergency plans and procedures for natural (e.g., hurricanes, floods, earthquakes), wartime, or technological (e.g., nuclear power plant emergencies or hazardous materials spills) disasters or hostage situations.
  • Keep informed of activities or changes that could affect the likelihood of an emergency, as well as those that could affect response efforts and details of plan implementation.
  • Prepare emergency situation status reports that describe response and recovery efforts, needs, and preliminary damage assessments.
  • Prepare plans that outline operating procedures to be used in response to disasters or emergencies, such as hurricanes, nuclear accidents, and terrorist attacks, and in recovery from these events.
  • Coordinate disaster response or crisis management activities, such as ordering evacuations, opening public shelters, and implementing special needs plans and programs.
  • Develop and maintain liaisons with municipalities, county departments, and similar entities to facilitate plan development, response effort coordination, and exchanges of personnel and equipment.
  • Apply for federal funding for emergency-management-related needs and administer and report on the progress of such grants.
  • Design and administer emergency or disaster preparedness training courses that teach people how to effectively respond to major emergencies and disasters.
  • Collaborate with other officials to prepare and analyze damage assessments following disasters or emergencies.
  • Consult with officials of local and area governments, schools, hospitals, and other institutions to determine their needs and capabilities in the event of a natural disaster or other emergency.
  • Attend meetings, conferences, and workshops related to emergency management to learn new information and to develop working relationships with other emergency management specialists.
  • Inspect facilities and equipment, such as emergency management centers and communications equipment, to determine their operational and functional capabilities in emergency situations.
  • Propose alteration of emergency response procedures based on regulatory changes, technological changes, or knowledge gained from outcomes of previous emergency situations.
  • Develop and perform tests and evaluations of emergency management plans in accordance with state and federal regulations.
  • Keep informed of federal, state, and local regulations affecting emergency plans and ensure that plans adhere to these regulations.
  • Review emergency plans of individual organizations, such as medical facilities, to ensure their adequacy.
  • Develop instructional materials for the public and make presentations to citizens' groups to provide information on emergency plans and their implementation processes.
  • Maintain and update all resource materials associated with emergency preparedness plans.
  • Train local groups in the preparation of long-term plans that are compatible with federal and state plans.
  • Provide communities with assistance in applying for federal funding for emergency management facilities, radiological instrumentation, and other related items.
  • Conduct surveys to determine the types of emergency-related needs to be addressed in disaster planning or provide technical support to others conducting such surveys.
  • Study emergency plans used elsewhere to gather information for plan development.
  • Develop and implement training procedures and strategies for radiological protection, detection, and decontamination.
  • Inventory and distribute nuclear, biological, and chemical detection and contamination equipment, providing instruction in its maintenance and use.
11-9171.00Funeral Home Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the services or resources of funeral homes. Includes activities such as determining prices for services or merchandise and managing the facilities of funeral homes.
  • Consult with families or friends of the deceased to arrange funeral details, such as obituary notice wording, casket selection, or plans for services.
  • Direct and supervise work of embalmers, funeral attendants, death certificate clerks, cosmetologists, or other staff.
  • Schedule funerals, burials, or cremations.
  • Sell funeral services, products, or merchandise to clients.
  • Monitor funeral service operations to ensure that they comply with applicable policies, regulations, and laws.
  • Offer counsel and comfort to families and friends of the deceased.
  • Negotiate contracts for prearranged funeral services.
  • Respond to customer complaints, legal inquiries, payment negotiations, or other post-service matters.
  • Plan and implement changes to service offerings to meet community needs or increase funeral home revenues.
  • Direct or monitor administrative, support, repair, or maintenance services for funeral homes.
  • Schedule work hours for funeral home or contract employees.
  • Set marketing, sales, or other financial goals for funeral service establishments and monitor progress toward these goals.
  • Explain goals, policies, or procedures to staff members.
  • Complete and maintain records, such as state-required documents, tracking documents, or product inventories.
  • Evaluate the performance of vendors, contract employees, or other service providers to ensure quality and cost-efficiency.
  • Set prices or credit terms for funeral products or services.
  • Review financial statements, sales or activity reports, or other performance data to identify opportunities for cost reductions or service improvements.
  • Identify skill development needs for funeral home staff.
  • Attend or make presentations at community events to promote funeral home services or build community relationships.
  • Plan and implement sales promotions or other marketing strategies and activities for funeral home operations.
  • Interview and hire new employees.
  • Conduct market research and analyze industry trends.
11-9179.01Fitness and Wellness Coordinators
Manage or coordinate fitness and wellness programs and services. Manage and train staff of wellness specialists, health educators, or fitness instructors.
  • Manage or oversee fitness or recreation facilities, ensuring safe and clean facilities and equipment.
  • Provide individual support or counseling in general wellness or nutrition.
  • Supervise fitness or wellness specialists, such as fitness instructors, nutritionists, or health educators.
  • Conduct needs assessments or surveys to determine interest in, or satisfaction with, wellness and fitness programs, events, or services.
  • Develop or coordinate fitness and wellness programs or services.
  • Prepare or implement budgets and strategic, operational, purchasing, or maintenance plans.
  • Track cost-containment strategies and programs to evaluate effectiveness.
  • Maintain wellness- and fitness-related schedules, records, or reports.
  • Develop fitness or wellness classes, such as yoga, aerobics, strength training, or aquatics, ensuring a diversity of class offerings.
  • Select or supervise contractors, such as event hosts or health, fitness, and wellness practitioners.
  • Recommend or approve new program or service offerings to promote wellness and fitness, produce revenues, or minimize costs.
  • Develop marketing campaigns to promote a healthy lifestyle or participation in fitness or wellness programs.
  • Track attendance, participation, or performance data related to wellness events.
  • Demonstrate proper operation of fitness equipment, such as resistance machines, cardio machines, free weights, or fitness assessment devices.
  • Organize and oversee fitness or wellness programs, such as information presentations, blood drives, or training in first aid or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  • Conduct or facilitate training sessions or seminars for wellness and fitness staff.
  • Respond to customer, public, or media requests for information about wellness programs or services.
  • Interpret insurance data or Health Reimbursement Account (HRA) data to develop programs that address specific needs of target populations.
  • Maintain or arrange for maintenance of fitness equipment or facilities.
  • Organize and oversee health screenings or other preventive measures, such as mammography, blood pressure, or cholesterol screenings or flu vaccinations.
  • Use computer skills and software to manage Web sites or databases, publish newsletters, or provide webinars.
  • Teach fitness classes to improve strength, flexibility, cardiovascular conditioning, or general fitness of participants.
  • Organize and oversee events such as organized runs or walks.
11-9179.02Spa Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of a spa facility. Coordinate programs, schedule and direct staff, and oversee financial activities.
  • Respond to customer inquiries or complaints.
  • Schedule guest appointments.
  • Maintain client databases.
  • Coordinate facility schedules to maximize usage and efficiency.
  • Perform accounting duties, such as recording daily cash flow, preparing bank deposits, or generating financial statements.
  • Monitor operations to ensure compliance with applicable health, safety, or hygiene standards.
  • Plan or direct spa services and programs.
  • Develop or implement marketing strategies.
  • Sell products, services, or memberships.
  • Recruit, interview, or hire employees.
  • Assess employee performance and suggest ways to improve work.
  • Inventory products and order new supplies.
  • Establish spa budgets and financial goals.
  • Inform staff of job responsibilities, performance expectations, client service standards, or corporate policies and guidelines.
  • Train staff in the use or sale of products, programs, or activities.
  • Participate in continuing education classes to maintain current knowledge of industry.
  • Direct facility maintenance or repair.
  • Verify staff credentials, such as educational and certification requirements.
  • Schedule staff or supervise scheduling.
  • Check spa equipment to ensure proper functioning.
  • Develop staff service or retail goals and guide staff in goal achievement.
11-9199.01Regulatory Affairs Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate production activities of an organization to ensure compliance with regulations and standard operating procedures.
  • Provide responses to regulatory agencies regarding product information or issues.
  • Direct the preparation and submission of regulatory agency applications, reports, or correspondence.
  • Review all regulatory agency submission materials to ensure timeliness, accuracy, comprehensiveness, or compliance with regulatory standards.
  • Develop regulatory strategies and implementation plans for the preparation and submission of new products.
  • Manage activities such as audits, regulatory agency inspections, or product recalls.
  • Formulate or implement regulatory affairs policies and procedures to ensure that regulatory compliance is maintained or enhanced.
  • Maintain current knowledge of relevant regulations, including proposed and final rules.
  • Review materials such as marketing literature or user manuals to ensure that regulatory agency requirements are met.
  • Communicate regulatory information to multiple departments and ensure that information is interpreted correctly.
  • Provide regulatory guidance to departments or development project teams regarding design, development, evaluation, or marketing of products.
  • Direct documentation efforts to ensure compliance with domestic and international regulations and standards.
  • Monitor emerging trends regarding industry regulations to determine potential impacts on organizational processes.
  • Investigate product complaints and prepare documentation and submissions to appropriate regulatory agencies as necessary.
  • Represent organizations before domestic or international regulatory agencies on major policy matters or decisions regarding company products.
  • Train staff in regulatory policies or procedures.
  • Develop and maintain standard operating procedures or local working practices.
  • Participate in the development or implementation of clinical trial protocols.
  • Implement or monitor complaint processing systems to ensure effective and timely resolution of all complaint investigations.
  • Contribute to the development or implementation of business unit strategic and operating plans.
  • Establish procedures or systems for publishing document submissions in hardcopy or electronic formats.
  • Coordinate internal discoveries and depositions with legal department staff.
  • Develop relationships with state or federal environmental regulatory agencies to learn about and analyze the potential impacts of proposed environmental policy regulations.
  • Establish regulatory priorities or budgets and allocate resources and workloads.
  • Evaluate new software publishing systems and confer with regulatory agencies concerning news or updates on electronic publishing of submissions.
  • Monitor regulatory affairs activities to ensure their alignment with corporate sustainability or green initiatives.
  • Monitor regulatory affairs trends related to environmental issues.
  • Evaluate regulatory affairs aspects that are specifically green, such as the use of toxic substances in packaging, carbon footprinting issues, or green policy implementation.
11-9199.02Compliance Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate activities of an organization to ensure compliance with ethical or regulatory standards.
  • Report violations of compliance or regulatory standards to duly authorized enforcement agencies as appropriate or required.
  • Identify compliance issues that require follow-up or investigation.
  • Discuss emerging compliance issues to ensure that management and employees are informed about compliance reporting systems, policies, and practices.
  • File appropriate compliance reports with regulatory agencies.
  • Maintain documentation of compliance activities, such as complaints received or investigation outcomes.
  • Consult with corporate attorneys as necessary to address difficult legal compliance issues.
  • Conduct or direct the internal investigation of compliance issues.
  • Provide employee training on compliance related topics, policies, or procedures.
  • Serve as a confidential point of contact for employees to communicate with management, seek clarification on issues or dilemmas, or report irregularities.
  • Verify that all regulatory policies and procedures have been documented, implemented, and communicated.
  • Disseminate written policies and procedures related to compliance activities.
  • Prepare management reports regarding compliance operations and progress.
  • Conduct periodic internal reviews or audits to ensure that compliance procedures are followed.
  • Keep informed regarding pending industry changes, trends, or best practices.
  • Monitor compliance systems to ensure their effectiveness.
  • Direct the development or implementation of policies and procedures related to compliance throughout an organization.
  • Advise internal management or business partners on the implementation or operation of compliance programs.
  • Design or implement improvements in communication, monitoring, or enforcement of compliance standards.
  • Provide assistance to internal or external auditors in compliance reviews.
  • Collaborate with human resources departments to ensure the implementation of consistent disciplinary action strategies in cases of compliance standard violations.
  • Develop risk management strategies based on assessment of product, compliance, or operational risks.
  • Advise technical professionals on the development or use of environmental compliance or reporting tools.
  • Develop or implement environmental compliance plans for programs, such as air quality, storm water, wastewater treatment, hazardous waste management, pollution prevention, or solid waste management.
  • Conduct environmental audits to ensure adherence to environmental standards.
  • Evaluate testing procedures to meet the specifications of environmental monitoring programs.
  • Review or modify policies or operating guidelines to comply with changes to environmental standards or regulations.
  • Review communications such as securities sales advertising to ensure there are no violations of standards or regulations.
  • Oversee internal reporting systems, such as corporate compliance hotlines.
  • Verify that software technology is in place to adequately provide oversight and monitoring in all required areas.
  • Direct environmental programs, such as air or water compliance, aboveground or underground storage tanks, spill prevention or control, hazardous waste or materials management, solid waste recycling, medical waste management, indoor air quality, integrated pest management, employee training, or disaster preparedness.
11-9199.08Loss Prevention Managers
Plan and direct policies, procedures, or systems to prevent the loss of assets. Determine risk exposure or potential liability, and develop risk control measures.
  • Coordinate or conduct internal investigations of problems such as employee theft and violations of corporate loss prevention policies.
  • Administer systems and programs to reduce loss, maintain inventory control, or increase safety.
  • Review loss prevention exception reports and cash discrepancies to ensure adherence to guidelines.
  • Train loss prevention staff, retail managers, or store employees on loss control and prevention measures.
  • Investigate or interview individuals suspected of shoplifting or internal theft.
  • Provide recommendations and solutions in crisis situations such as workplace violence, protests, and demonstrations.
  • Identify potential for loss and develop strategies to eliminate it.
  • Hire or supervise loss prevention staff.
  • Advise retail managers on compliance with applicable codes, laws, regulations, or standards.
  • Develop and maintain partnerships with federal, state, or local law enforcement agencies or members of the retail loss prevention community.
  • Perform or direct inventory investigations in response to shrink results outside of acceptable ranges.
  • Maintain documentation of all loss prevention activity.
  • Assess security needs across locations to ensure proper deployment of loss prevention resources, such as staff and technology.
  • Monitor compliance to operational, safety, or inventory control procedures, including physical security standards.
  • Verify correct use and maintenance of physical security systems, such as closed-circuit television, merchandise tags, and burglar alarms.
  • Visit stores to ensure compliance with company policies and procedures.
  • Analyze retail data to identify current or emerging trends in theft or fraud.
  • Direct loss prevention audit programs including target store audits, maintenance audits, safety audits, or electronic article surveillance (EAS) audits.
  • Collaborate with law enforcement to investigate and solve external theft or fraud cases.
  • Coordinate theft and fraud investigations involving career criminals or organized group activities.
  • Supervise surveillance, detection, or criminal processing related to theft and criminal cases.
  • Perform cash audits and deposit investigations to fully account for store cash.
  • Recommend improvements in loss prevention programs, staffing, scheduling, or training.
  • Direct installation of covert surveillance equipment, such as security cameras.
  • Monitor and review paperwork procedures and systems to prevent error-related shortages.
  • Advise retail establishments on development of loss-investigation procedures.
  • Maintain databases such as bad check logs, reports on multiple offenders, and alarm activation lists.
11-9199.09Wind Energy Operations Managers
Manage wind field operations, including personnel, maintenance activities, financial activities, and planning.
  • Track and maintain records for wind operations, such as site performance, downtime events, parts usage, or substation events.
  • Oversee the maintenance of wind field equipment or structures, such as towers, transformers, electrical collector systems, roadways, or other site assets.
  • Supervise employees or subcontractors to ensure quality of work or adherence to safety regulations or policies.
  • Develop relationships and communicate with customers, site managers, developers, land owners, authorities, utility representatives, or residents.
  • Maintain operations records, such as work orders, site inspection forms, or other documentation.
  • Establish goals, objectives, or priorities for wind field operations.
  • Monitor and maintain records of daily facility operations.
  • Prepare wind field operational budgets.
  • Train or coordinate the training of employees in operations, safety, environmental issues, or technical issues.
  • Estimate costs associated with operations, including repairs or preventive maintenance.
  • Review, negotiate, or approve wind farm contracts.
  • Manage warranty repair or replacement services.
  • Recruit or select wind operations employees, contractors, or subcontractors.
  • Order parts, tools, or equipment needed to maintain, restore, or improve wind field operations.
  • Develop processes or procedures for wind operations, including transitioning from construction to commercial operations.
  • Provide technical support to wind field customers, employees, or subcontractors.
11-9199.10Wind Energy Development Managers
Lead or manage the development and evaluation of potential wind energy business opportunities, including environmental studies, permitting, and proposals. May also manage construction of projects.
  • Coordinate or direct development, energy assessment, engineering, or construction activities to ensure that wind project needs and objectives are met.
  • Manage wind project costs to stay within budget limits.
  • Lead or support negotiations involving tax agreements or abatements, power purchase agreements, land use, or interconnection agreements.
  • Create wind energy project plans, including project scope, goals, tasks, resources, schedules, costs, contingencies, or other project information.
  • Supervise the work of subcontractors or consultants to ensure quality and conformance to specifications or budgets.
  • Develop scope of work for wind project functions, such as design, site assessment, environmental studies, surveying, or field support services.
  • Provide verbal or written project status reports to project teams, management, subcontractors, customers, or owners.
  • Update schedules, estimates, forecasts, or budgets for wind projects.
  • Prepare or assist in the preparation of applications for environmental, building, or other required permits.
  • Review or evaluate proposals or bids to make recommendations regarding awarding of contracts.
  • Manage site assessments or environmental studies for wind fields.
  • Prepare wind project documentation, including diagrams or layouts.
  • Review civil design, engineering, or construction technical documentation to ensure compliance with applicable government or industrial codes, standards, requirements, or regulations.
  • Prepare requests for proposals (RFPs) for wind project construction or equipment acquisition.
  • Provide technical support for the design, construction, or commissioning of wind farm projects.
11-9199.11Brownfield Redevelopment Specialists and Site Managers
Plan and direct cleanup and redevelopment of contaminated properties for reuse. Does not include properties sufficiently contaminated to qualify as Superfund sites.
  • Coordinate on-site activities for environmental cleanup or remediation projects to ensure compliance with environmental laws, standards, regulations, or other requirements.
  • Estimate costs for environmental cleanup and remediation of land redevelopment projects.
  • Inspect sites to assess environmental damage or monitor cleanup progress.
  • Prepare reports or presentations to communicate brownfield redevelopment needs, status, or progress.
  • Identify environmental contamination sources.
  • Plan or implement brownfield redevelopment projects to ensure safety, quality, and compliance with applicable standards or requirements.
  • Review or evaluate environmental remediation project proposals.
  • Negotiate contracts for services or materials needed for environmental remediation.
  • Conduct feasibility or cost-benefit studies for environmental remediation projects.
  • Maintain records of decisions, actions, and progress related to environmental redevelopment projects.
  • Design or implement plans for surface or ground water remediation.
  • Design or conduct environmental restoration studies.
  • Coordinate the disposal of hazardous waste.
  • Prepare and submit permit applications for demolition, cleanup, remediation, or construction projects.
  • Develop or implement plans for the sustainable regeneration of brownfield sites to ensure regeneration of a wider area by providing environmental protection or economic and social benefits.
  • Conduct quantitative risk assessments for human health, environmental, or other risks.
  • Review or evaluate designs for contaminant treatment or disposal facilities.
  • Design or implement measures to improve the water, air, and soil quality of military test sites, abandoned mine land, or other contaminated sites.
  • Design or implement plans for structural demolition and debris removal.
  • Provide training on hazardous material or waste cleanup procedures and technologies.
  • Develop or implement plans for revegetation of brownfield sites.
  • Provide expert witness testimony on issues such as soil, air, or water contamination and associated cleanup measures.
13-1011.00Agents and Business Managers of Artists, Performers, and Athletes
Represent and promote artists, performers, and athletes in dealings with current or prospective employers. May handle contract negotiation and other business matters for clients.
  • Collect fees, commissions, or other payments, according to contract terms.
  • Confer with clients to develop strategies for their careers, and to explain actions taken on their behalf.
  • Develop contacts with individuals and organizations, and apply effective strategies and techniques to ensure their clients' success.
  • Schedule promotional or performance engagements for clients.
  • Negotiate with managers, promoters, union officials, and other persons regarding clients' contractual rights and obligations.
  • Keep informed of industry trends and deals.
  • Manage business and financial affairs for clients, such as arranging travel and lodging, selling tickets, and directing marketing and advertising activities.
  • Conduct auditions or interviews to evaluate potential clients.
  • Arrange meetings concerning issues involving their clients.
  • Prepare periodic accounting statements for clients.
  • Advise clients on financial and legal matters such as investments and taxes.
  • Obtain information about or inspect performance facilities, equipment, and accommodations to ensure that they meet specifications.
  • Hire trainers or coaches to advise clients on performance matters such as training techniques or performance presentations.
13-1021.00Buyers and Purchasing Agents, Farm Products
Purchase farm products either for further processing or resale. Includes tree farm contractors, grain brokers and market operators, grain buyers, and tobacco buyers. May negotiate contracts.
  • Purchase, for further processing or for resale, farm products, such as milk, grains, or Christmas trees.
  • Arrange for processing or resale of purchased products.
  • Negotiate contracts with farmers for the production or purchase of farm products.
  • Arrange for transportation or storage of purchased products.
  • Maintain records of business transactions and product inventories, reporting data to companies or government agencies as necessary.
  • Review orders to determine product types and quantities required to meet demand.
  • Examine or test crops or products to estimate their value, determine their grade, or locate any evidence of disease or insect damage.
  • Coordinate or direct activities of workers engaged in cutting, transporting, storing, or milling products and maintaining records.
  • Sell supplies, such as seed, feed, fertilizers, or insecticides, arranging for loans or financing as necessary.
  • Advise farm groups or growers on land preparation or livestock care techniques that will maximize the quantity and quality of production.
  • Calculate applicable government grain quotas.
  • Estimate land production possibilities, surveying property and studying factors such as crop rotation history, soil fertility, or irrigation facilities.
13-1022.00Wholesale and Retail Buyers, Except Farm Products
Buy merchandise or commodities, other than farm products, for resale to consumers at the wholesale or retail level, including both durable and nondurable goods. Analyze past buying trends, sales records, price, and quality of merchandise to determine value and yield. Select, order, and authorize payment for merchandise according to contractual agreements. May conduct meetings with sales personnel and introduce new products. May negotiate contracts. Includes assistant wholesale and retail buyers of nonfarm products.
  • Buy merchandise or commodities for resale to wholesale or retail consumers.
  • Negotiate prices, discount terms, or transportation arrangements with suppliers.
  • Examine, select, order, or purchase merchandise consistent with quality, quantity, specification requirements, or other factors, such as environmental soundness.
  • Recommend mark-up rates, markdown rates, or merchandise selling prices.
  • Obtain information about customer needs or preferences by conferring with sales or purchasing personnel.
  • Authorize payment of invoices or return of merchandise.
  • Monitor and analyze sales records, trends, or economic conditions to anticipate consumer buying patterns and determine what the company will sell and how much inventory is needed.
  • Collaborate with vendors to obtain or develop desired products.
  • Inspect merchandise or products to determine quality, value, or yield.
  • Conduct sales meetings to introduce new merchandise.
  • Consult with store or merchandise managers about budgets or goods to be purchased.
  • Provide clerks with information to print on price tags, such as price, mark-ups or mark-downs, manufacturer number, season code, or style number.
  • Train or supervise sales or clerical staff.
  • Determine which products should be featured in advertising, the advertising medium to be used, or when the ads should be run.
  • Monitor competitors' sales activities by following their advertisements in newspapers or other media.
  • Analyze environmental aspects of competing merchandise when making buying decisions.
  • Compare transportation options to determine the most energy efficient options.
  • Develop strategies to advertise green products or merchandise to consumers.
  • Identify opportunities to buy green commodities, such as alternative energy, water, or carbon-neutral products for resale to consumers.
  • Monitor consumer preferences or environmental trends to determine the best way to introduce new green products.
13-1023.00Purchasing Agents, Except Wholesale, Retail, and Farm Products
Purchase machinery, equipment, tools, parts, supplies, or services necessary for the operation of an establishment. Purchase raw or semifinished materials for manufacturing. May negotiate contracts.
  • Monitor and follow applicable laws and regulations.
  • Prepare purchase orders, solicit bid proposals, and review requisitions for goods and services.
  • Negotiate, renegotiate, and administer contracts with suppliers, vendors, and other representatives.
  • Purchase the highest quality merchandise at the lowest possible price and in correct amounts.
  • Analyze price proposals, financial reports, and other data and information to determine reasonable prices.
  • Formulate policies and procedures for bid proposals and procurement of goods and services.
  • Hire, train, or supervise purchasing clerks, buyers, and expediters.
  • Maintain and review computerized or manual records of purchased items, costs, deliveries, product performance, and inventories.
  • Research and evaluate suppliers, based on price, quality, selection, service, support, availability, reliability, production and distribution capabilities, and the supplier's reputation and history.
  • Confer with staff, users, and vendors to discuss defective or unacceptable goods or services and determine corrective action.
  • Evaluate and monitor contract performance to ensure compliance with contractual obligations and to determine need for changes.
  • Monitor shipments to ensure that goods come in on time, and resolve problems related to undelivered goods.
  • Study sales records and inventory levels of current stock to develop strategic purchasing programs that facilitate employee access to supplies.
  • Write and review product specifications, maintaining a working technical knowledge of the goods or services to be purchased.
  • Review catalogs, industry periodicals, directories, trade journals, and Internet sites and consult with other department personnel to locate necessary goods and services.
  • Monitor changes affecting supply and demand, tracking market conditions, price trends, or futures markets.
  • Interview vendors and visit suppliers' plants and distribution centers to examine and learn about products, services, and prices.
  • Arrange the payment of duty and freight charges.
  • Attend meetings, trade shows, conferences, conventions, and seminars to network with people in other purchasing departments.
13-1031.00Claims Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators
Review settled claims to determine that payments and settlements are made in accordance with company practices and procedures. Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation. May also settle insurance claims.
  • Examine claims forms and other records to determine insurance coverage.
  • Analyze information gathered by investigation and report findings and recommendations.
  • Review police reports, medical treatment records, medical bills, or physical property damage to determine the extent of liability.
  • Interview or correspond with agents and claimants to correct errors or omissions and to investigate questionable claims.
  • Investigate and assess damage to property and create or review property damage estimates.
  • Interview or correspond with claimants, witnesses, police, physicians, or other relevant parties to determine claim settlement, denial, or review.
  • Investigate, evaluate, and settle claims, applying technical knowledge and human relations skills to effect fair and prompt disposal of cases and to contribute to a reduced loss ratio.
  • Adjust reserves or provide reserve recommendations to ensure that reserve activities are consistent with corporate policies.
  • Resolve complex, severe exposure claims, using high service oriented file handling.
  • Pay and process claims within designated authority level.
  • Examine claims investigated by insurance adjusters, further investigating questionable claims to determine whether to authorize payments.
  • Verify and analyze data used in settling claims to ensure that claims are valid and that settlements are made according to company practices and procedures.
  • Enter claim payments, reserves and new claims on computer system, inputting concise yet sufficient file documentation.
  • Collect evidence to support contested claims in court.
  • Refer questionable claims to investigator or claims adjuster for investigation or settlement.
  • Confer with legal counsel on claims requiring litigation.
  • Contact or interview claimants, doctors, medical specialists, or employers to get additional information.
  • Maintain claim files, such as records of settled claims and an inventory of claims requiring detailed analysis.
  • Present cases and participate in their discussion at claim committee meetings.
  • Supervise claims adjusters to ensure that adjusters have followed proper methods.
  • Conduct detailed bill reviews to implement sound litigation management and expense control.
  • Examine titles to property to determine validity and act as company agent in transactions with property owners.
  • Report overpayments, underpayments, and other irregularities.
  • Communicate with reinsurance brokers to obtain information necessary for processing claims.
  • Prepare reports to be submitted to company's data processing department.
  • Obtain credit information from banks and other credit services.
  • Attend mediations or trials.
  • Communicate with former associates to verify employment record or to obtain background information regarding persons or businesses applying for credit.
  • Negotiate claim settlements or recommend litigation when settlement cannot be negotiated.
13-1032.00Insurance Appraisers, Auto Damage
Appraise automobile or other vehicle damage to determine repair costs for insurance claim settlement. Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost or cost estimates and recommendations. May seek agreement with automotive repair shop on repair costs.
  • Evaluate practicality of repair as opposed to payment of market value of vehicle before accident.
  • Review repair cost estimates with automobile repair shop to secure agreement on cost of repairs.
  • Examine damaged vehicle to determine extent of structural, body, mechanical, electrical, or interior damage.
  • Prepare insurance forms to indicate repair cost estimates and recommendations.
  • Estimate parts and labor to repair damage, using standard automotive labor and parts cost manuals and knowledge of automotive repair.
  • Determine salvage value on total-loss vehicle.
  • Arrange to have damage appraised by another appraiser to resolve disagreement with shop on repair cost.
13-1041.00Compliance Officers
Examine, evaluate, and investigate eligibility for or conformity with laws and regulations governing contract compliance of licenses and permits, and perform other compliance and enforcement inspection and analysis activities not classified elsewhere.
  • Evaluate applications, records, or documents to gather information about eligibility or liability issues.
  • Warn violators of infractions or penalties.
  • Advise licensees or other individuals or groups concerning licensing, permit, or passport regulations.
  • Prepare reports of activities, evaluations, recommendations, or decisions.
  • Report law or regulation violations to appropriate boards or agencies.
  • Confer with or interview officials, technical or professional specialists, or applicants to obtain information or to clarify facts relevant to licensing decisions.
  • Issue licenses to individuals meeting standards.
  • Collect fees for licenses.
  • Administer oral, written, road, or flight tests to license applicants.
  • Visit establishments to verify that valid licenses or permits are displayed and that licensing standards are being upheld.
  • Score tests and observe equipment operation and control to rate ability of applicants.
  • Prepare correspondence to inform concerned parties of licensing decisions or appeals processes.
  • Identify compliance issues that require follow-up or investigation.
  • Keep informed regarding pending industry changes, trends, or best practices.
  • Provide assistance to internal or external auditors in compliance reviews.
  • Verify that all firm and regulatory policies and procedures have been documented, implemented, and communicated.
13-1041.01Environmental Compliance Inspectors
Inspect and investigate sources of pollution to protect the public and environment and ensure conformance with Federal, State, and local regulations and ordinances.
  • Examine permits, licenses, applications, and records to ensure compliance with licensing requirements.
  • Prepare written, oral, tabular, and graphic reports summarizing requirements and regulations, including enforcement and chain of custody documentation.
  • Determine the nature of code violations and actions to be taken, and issue written notices of violation; participate in enforcement hearings as necessary.
  • Prepare, organize, and maintain inspection records.
  • Verify that hazardous chemicals are handled, stored, and disposed of in accordance with regulations.
  • Interview individuals to determine the nature of suspected violations and to obtain evidence of violations.
  • Research and keep informed of pertinent information and developments in areas such as EPA laws and regulations.
  • Learn and observe proper safety precautions, rules, regulations, and practices so that unsafe conditions can be recognized and proper safety protocols implemented.
  • Monitor follow-up actions in cases where violations were found, and review compliance monitoring reports.
  • Inspect waste pretreatment, treatment, and disposal facilities and systems for conformance to federal, state, or local regulations.
  • Investigate complaints and suspected violations regarding illegal dumping, pollution, pesticides, product quality, or labeling laws.
  • Evaluate label information for accuracy and conformance to regulatory requirements.
  • Determine sampling locations and methods, and collect water or wastewater samples for analysis, preserving samples with appropriate containers and preservation methods.
  • Inform individuals and groups of pollution control regulations and inspection findings, and explain how problems can be corrected.
  • Review and evaluate applications for registration of products containing dangerous materials, or for pollution control discharge permits.
  • Observe and record field conditions, gathering, interpreting, and reporting data such as flow meter readings and chemical levels.
  • Determine which sites and violation reports to investigate, and coordinate compliance and enforcement activities with other government agencies.
  • Inform health professionals, property owners, and the public about harmful properties and related problems of water pollution and contaminated wastewater.
  • Participate in the development of spill prevention programs and hazardous waste rules and regulations, and recommend corrective actions for hazardous waste problems.
  • Analyze and implement state, federal or local requirements as necessary to maintain approved pretreatment, pollution prevention, and storm water runoff programs.
  • Prepare data to calculate sewer service charges and capacity fees.
  • Perform laboratory tests on samples collected, such as analyzing the content of contaminated wastewater.
  • Maintain and repair materials, worksites, and equipment.
  • Research and perform calculations related to landscape allowances, discharge volumes, production-based and alternative limits, and wastewater strength classifications, then make recommendations and complete documentation.
  • Conduct research on hazardous waste management projects in order to determine the magnitude of problems, and treatment or disposal alternatives and costs.
  • Respond to questions and inquiries, such as those concerning service charges and capacity fees, or refer them to supervisors.
13-1041.03Equal Opportunity Representatives and Officers
Monitor and evaluate compliance with equal opportunity laws, guidelines, and policies to ensure that employment practices and contracting arrangements give equal opportunity without regard to race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability.
  • Investigate employment practices or alleged violations of laws to document and correct discriminatory factors.
  • Prepare reports related to investigations of equal opportunity complaints.
  • Interview persons involved in equal opportunity complaints to verify case information.
  • Study equal opportunity complaints to clarify issues.
  • Interpret civil rights laws and equal opportunity regulations for individuals or employers.
  • Meet with persons involved in equal opportunity complaints to arbitrate and settle disputes.
  • Develop guidelines for nondiscriminatory employment practices.
  • Monitor the implementation and impact of guidelines for nondiscriminatory employment practices.
  • Coordinate, monitor, or revise complaint procedures to ensure timely processing and review of complaints.
  • Provide information, technical assistance, or training to supervisors, managers, or employees on topics such as employee supervision, hiring, grievance procedures, or staff development.
  • Conduct surveys and evaluate findings to determine if systematic discrimination exists.
  • Prepare reports of selection, survey, or other statistics and recommendations for corrective action.
  • Meet with job search committees or coordinators to explain the role of the equal opportunity coordinator, to provide resources for advertising, or to explain expectations for future contacts.
  • Act as liaisons between minority placement agencies and employers or between job search committees and other equal opportunity administrators.
  • Counsel newly hired members of minority or disadvantaged groups, informing them about details of civil rights laws.
  • Review company contracts to determine actions required to meet governmental equal opportunity provisions.
  • Verify that all job descriptions are submitted for review and approval and that descriptions meet regulatory standards.
  • Consult with community representatives to develop technical assistance agreements in accordance with governmental regulations.
  • Participate in the recruitment of employees through job fairs, career days, or advertising plans.
13-1041.04Government Property Inspectors and Investigators
Investigate or inspect government property to ensure compliance with contract agreements and government regulations.
  • Prepare correspondence, reports of inspections or investigations or recommendations for action.
  • Examine records, reports, or other documents to establish facts or detect discrepancies.
  • Inspect government property, such as construction sites or public housing, to ensure compliance with contract specifications or legal requirements.
  • Investigate alleged license or permit violations.
  • Inspect manufactured or processed products to ensure compliance with contract specifications or legal requirements.
  • Collect, identify, evaluate, or preserve case evidence.
  • Submit samples of products to government laboratories for testing, as required.
  • Inspect government-owned equipment or materials in the possession of private contractors to ensure compliance with contracts or regulations or to prevent misuse.
  • Investigate applications for special licenses or permits.
  • Recommend legal or administrative action to protect government property.
  • Testify in court or at administrative proceedings concerning investigation findings.
  • Coordinate with or assist law enforcement agencies in matters of mutual concern.
  • Monitor investigations of suspected offenders to ensure that they are conducted in accordance with constitutional requirements.
  • Locate and interview plaintiffs, witnesses, or representatives of business or government to gather facts relevant to inspections or alleged violations.
13-1041.06Coroners
Direct activities such as autopsies, pathological and toxicological analyses, and inquests relating to the investigation of deaths occurring within a legal jurisdiction to determine cause of death or to fix responsibility for accidental, violent, or unexplained deaths.
  • Perform medicolegal examinations and autopsies, conducting preliminary examinations of the body to identify victims, locate signs of trauma, and identify factors that would indicate time of death.
  • Inquire into the cause, manner, and circumstances of human deaths and establish the identities of deceased persons.
  • Complete death certificates, including the assignment of cause and manner of death.
  • Observe and record the positions and conditions of bodies and related evidence.
  • Observe, record, and preserve any objects or personal property related to deaths, including objects such as medication containers and suicide notes.
  • Interview persons present at death scenes to obtain information useful in determining the manner of death.
  • Arrange for the next of kin to be notified of deaths.
  • Complete reports and forms required to finalize cases.
  • Collect and document any pertinent medical history information.
  • Direct activities of workers conducting autopsies, performing pathological and toxicological analyses, and preparing documents for permanent records.
  • Confer with officials of public health and law enforcement agencies to coordinate interdepartmental activities.
  • Provide information concerning the circumstances of death to relatives of the deceased.
  • Locate and document information regarding the next of kin, including their relationship to the deceased and the status of notification attempts.
  • Inventory personal effects recovered from bodies, such as jewelry or wallets.
  • Coordinate the release of personal effects to authorized persons and facilitate the disposition of unclaimed corpses and personal effects.
  • Remove or supervise removal of bodies from death scenes, using the proper equipment and supplies, and arrange for transportation to morgues.
  • Testify at inquests, hearings, and court trials.
  • Collect wills, burial instructions, and other documentation needed for investigations and for handling of the remains.
  • Record the disposition of minor children, as well as details of arrangements made for their care.
  • Witness and certify deaths that are the result of a judicial order.
13-1041.07Regulatory Affairs Specialists
Coordinate and document internal regulatory processes, such as internal audits, inspections, license renewals, or registrations. May compile and prepare materials for submission to regulatory agencies.
  • Coordinate efforts associated with the preparation of regulatory documents or submissions.
  • Communicate with regulatory agencies regarding pre-submission strategies, potential regulatory pathways, compliance test requirements, or clarification and follow-up of submissions under review.
  • Prepare or direct the preparation of additional information or responses as requested by regulatory agencies.
  • Coordinate, prepare, or review regulatory submissions for domestic or international projects.
  • Prepare or maintain technical files as necessary to obtain and sustain product approval.
  • Interpret regulatory rules or rule changes and ensure that they are communicated through corporate policies and procedures.
  • Determine the types of regulatory submissions or internal documentation that are required in situations such as proposed device changes or labeling changes.
  • Coordinate recall or market withdrawal activities as necessary.
  • Advise project teams on subjects such as premarket regulatory requirements, export and labeling requirements, or clinical study compliance issues.
  • Review adverse drug reactions and file all related reports in accordance with regulatory agency guidelines.
  • Review product promotional materials, labeling, batch records, specification sheets, or test methods for compliance with applicable regulations and policies.
  • Identify relevant guidance documents, international standards, or consensus standards.
  • Provide technical review of data or reports to be incorporated into regulatory submissions to assure scientific rigor, accuracy, and clarity of presentation.
  • Review clinical protocols to ensure collection of data needed for regulatory submissions.
  • Provide pre-, ongoing, and post-inspection follow-up assistance to governmental inspectors.
  • Maintain current knowledge base of existing and emerging regulations, standards, or guidance documents.
  • Recommend changes to company procedures in response to changes in regulations or standards.
  • Participate in internal or external audits.
  • Compile and maintain regulatory documentation databases or systems.
  • Write or update standard operating procedures, work instructions, or policies.
  • Obtain and distribute updated information regarding domestic or international laws, guidelines, or standards.
  • Develop or track quality metrics.
  • Develop or conduct employee regulatory training.
  • Recommend adjudication of product complaints.
  • Determine requirements applying to treatment, storage, shipment, or disposal of potentially hazardous production-related waste.
  • Direct the collection and preparation of laboratory samples as requested by regulatory agencies.
  • Prepare responses to customer requests for information, such as product data, written regulatory affairs statements, surveys, or questionnaires.
  • Specialize in regulatory issues related to agriculture, such as the cultivation of green biotechnology crops or the post-market regulation of genetically altered crops.
  • Determine regulations or procedures related to the management, collection, reuse, recovery, or recycling of packaging waste.
  • Determine the legal implications of the production, supply, or use of ozone-depleting substances or equipment containing such substances.
  • Obtain clearances for the use of recycled plastics in product packaging.
  • Monitor national or international legislation on ozone-depleting substances or global warming.
13-1041.08Customs Brokers
Prepare customs documentation and ensure that shipments meet all applicable laws to facilitate the import and export of goods. Determine and track duties and taxes payable and process payments on behalf of client. Sign documents under a power of attorney. Represent clients in meetings with customs officials and apply for duty refunds and tariff reclassifications. Coordinate transportation and storage of imported goods.
  • Prepare and process import and export documentation according to customs regulations, laws, or procedures.
  • Clear goods through customs and to their destinations for clients.
  • Pay, or arrange for payment of, taxes and duties on shipments.
  • Calculate duty and tariff payments owed on shipments.
  • Request or compile necessary import documentation, such as customs invoices, certificates of origin, and cargo-control documents.
  • Classify goods according to tariff coding system.
  • Stay abreast of changes in import or export laws or regulations by reading current literature, attending meetings or conferences, or conferring with colleagues.
  • Sign documents on behalf of clients, using powers of attorney.
  • Advise customers on import and export restrictions, tariff systems, insurance requirements, quotas, or other customs-related matters.
  • Post bonds for the products being imported or assist clients in obtaining bonds.
  • Quote duty and tax rates on goods to be imported, based on federal tariffs and excise taxes.
  • Arrange for transportation, warehousing, or product distribution of imported or exported products.
  • Monitor or trace the location of goods.
  • Confer with officials in various agencies to facilitate clearance of goods through customs and quarantine.
  • Inform importers and exporters of steps to reduce duties and taxes.
  • Obtain line releases for frequent shippers of low-risk commodities, high-volume entries, or multiple-container loads.
  • Provide advice on transportation options, types of carriers, or shipping routes.
  • Contract with freight forwarders for destination services.
  • Apply for tariff concessions or for duty drawbacks and other refunds.
  • Insure cargo against loss, damage, or pilferage.
  • Prepare papers for shippers to appeal duty charges.
  • Suggest best methods of packaging or labeling products.
  • Maintain relationships with customs brokers in other ports to expedite clearing of cargo.
13-1051.00Cost Estimators
Prepare cost estimates for product manufacturing, construction projects, or services to aid management in bidding on or determining price of product or service. May specialize according to particular service performed or type of product manufactured.
  • Collect historical cost data to estimate costs for current or future products.
  • Consult with clients, vendors, personnel in other departments, or construction foremen to discuss and formulate estimates and resolve issues.
  • Prepare estimates used by management for purposes such as planning, organizing, and scheduling work.
  • Analyze blueprints and other documentation to prepare time, cost, materials, and labor estimates.
  • Confer with engineers, architects, owners, contractors, and subcontractors on changes and adjustments to cost estimates.
  • Assess cost effectiveness of products, projects or services, tracking actual costs relative to bids as the project develops.
  • Prepare estimates for use in selecting vendors or subcontractors.
  • Set up cost monitoring and reporting systems and procedures.
  • Establish and maintain tendering process, and conduct negotiations.
  • Prepare and maintain a directory of suppliers, contractors and subcontractors.
  • Review material and labor requirements to decide whether it is more cost-effective to produce or purchase components.
  • Conduct special studies to develop and establish standard hour and related cost data or to effect cost reduction.
  • Prepare cost and expenditure statements and other necessary documentation at regular intervals for the duration of the project.
  • Visit site and record information about access, drainage and topography, and availability of services such as water and electricity.
13-1071.00Human Resources Specialists
Recruit, screen, interview, or place individuals within an organization. May perform other activities in multiple human resources areas.
  • Interpret and explain human resources policies, procedures, laws, standards, or regulations.
  • Hire employees and process hiring-related paperwork.
  • Maintain current knowledge of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
  • Prepare or maintain employment records related to events, such as hiring, termination, leaves, transfers, or promotions, using human resources management system software.
  • Address employee relations issues, such as harassment allegations, work complaints, or other employee concerns.
  • Review employment applications and job orders to match applicants with job requirements.
  • Inform job applicants of details such as duties and responsibilities, compensation, benefits, schedules, working conditions, or promotion opportunities.
  • Select qualified job applicants or refer them to managers, making hiring recommendations when appropriate.
  • Schedule or conduct new employee orientations.
  • Maintain and update human resources documents, such as organizational charts, employee handbooks or directories, or performance evaluation forms.
  • Confer with management to develop or implement personnel policies or procedures.
  • Contact job applicants to inform them of the status of their applications.
  • Conduct exit interviews and ensure that necessary employment termination paperwork is completed.
  • Interview job applicants to obtain information on work history, training, education, or job skills.
  • Perform searches for qualified job candidates, using sources such as computer databases, networking, Internet recruiting resources, media advertisements, job fairs, recruiting firms, or employee referrals.
  • Provide management with information or training related to interviewing, performance appraisals, counseling techniques, or documentation of performance issues.
  • Analyze employment-related data and prepare required reports.
  • Advise management on organizing, preparing, or implementing recruiting or retention programs.
  • Develop or implement recruiting strategies to meet current or anticipated staffing needs.
  • Administer employee benefit plans.
  • Schedule or administer skill, intelligence, psychological, or drug tests for current or prospective employees.
  • Conduct reference or background checks on job applicants.
  • Review and evaluate applicant qualifications or eligibility for specified licensing, according to established guidelines and designated licensing codes.
  • Evaluate recruitment or selection criteria to ensure conformance to professional, statistical, or testing standards, recommending revisions, as needed.
  • Coordinate with outside staffing agencies to secure temporary employees, based on departmental needs.
  • Evaluate selection or testing techniques by conducting research or follow-up activities and conferring with management or supervisory personnel.
13-1074.00Farm Labor Contractors
Recruit and hire seasonal or temporary agricultural laborers. May transport, house, and provide meals for workers.
  • Pay wages of contracted farm laborers.
  • Provide food, drinking water, and field sanitation facilities to contracted workers.
  • Recruit and hire agricultural workers.
  • Employ foremen to deal directly with workers when recruiting, hiring, instructing, assigning tasks, and enforcing work rules.
  • Supervise the work of contracted employees.
  • Furnish tools for employee use.
  • Direct and transport workers to appropriate work sites.
  • Provide check-cashing services to employees.
13-1075.00Labor Relations Specialists
Resolve disputes between workers and managers, negotiate collective bargaining agreements, or coordinate grievance procedures to handle employee complaints.
  • Negotiate collective bargaining agreements.
  • Monitor company or workforce adherence to labor agreements.
  • Present the position of the company or of labor during arbitration or other labor negotiations.
  • Write letters related to labor relations activities, such as letters to amend collective bargaining agreements, letters of dispute or conciliation, or letters to seek clarification of contract terms.
  • Draft contract proposals or counter-proposals for collective bargaining or other labor negotiations.
  • Call or meet with union, company, government, or other interested parties to discuss labor relations matters, such as contract negotiations or grievances.
  • Interpret contractual agreements for employers and employees engaged in collective bargaining or other labor relations processes.
  • Assess the impact of union proposals on company or government operations.
  • Investigate and evaluate union complaints or arguments to determine viability.
  • Recommend collective bargaining strategies, goals, or objectives.
  • Prepare evidence for disciplinary hearings, including preparing witnesses to testify.
  • Propose resolutions for collective bargaining or other labor or contract negotiations.
  • Mediate discussions between employer and employee representatives in attempt to reconcile differences.
  • Review and approve employee disciplinary actions, such as written reprimands, suspensions, or terminations.
  • Assess risk levels associated with collective bargaining strategies.
  • Advise management on matters related to the administration of contracts or employee discipline or grievance procedures.
  • Select mediators or arbitrators for labor disputes or contract negotiations.
  • Review employer practices or employee data to ensure compliance with contracts on matters such as wages, hours, or conditions of employment.
  • Draft rules or regulations to govern collective bargaining activities in collaboration with company, government, or employee representatives.
  • Train managers or supervisors on topics related to labor relations, such as working conditions, safety, or equal opportunity practices.
  • Provide expert testimony in legal proceedings related to labor relations or labor contracts.
  • Identify alternatives to proposals of unions, employees, companies, or government agencies.
  • Develop methods to monitor employee satisfaction with policies or working conditions, including grievance or complaint procedures.
  • Research case law or outcomes of previous case hearings.
  • Schedule or coordinate the details of grievance hearings or other meetings.
  • Prepare and submit required governmental reports or forms related to labor relations matters, such as equal employment opportunity (EEO) forms, new hire forms, or minority compensation reports.
  • Prepare reports or presentations to communicate employee satisfaction or related data to management.
  • Develop employee health and safety policies.
13-1081.00Logisticians
Analyze and coordinate the ongoing logistical functions of a firm or organization. Responsible for the entire life cycle of a product, including acquisition, distribution, internal allocation, delivery, and final disposal of resources.
  • Maintain and develop positive business relationships with a customer's key personnel involved in, or directly relevant to, a logistics activity.
  • Develop an understanding of customers' needs and take actions to ensure that such needs are met.
  • Manage subcontractor activities, reviewing proposals, developing performance specifications, and serving as liaisons between subcontractors and organizations.
  • Develop proposals that include documentation for estimates.
  • Review logistics performance with customers against targets, benchmarks, and service agreements.
  • Direct availability and allocation of materials, supplies, and finished products.
  • Redesign the movement of goods to maximize value and minimize costs.
  • Explain proposed solutions to customers, management, or other interested parties through written proposals and oral presentations.
  • Direct team activities, establishing task priorities, scheduling and tracking work assignments, providing guidance, and ensuring the availability of resources.
  • Perform managerial duties such as hiring and training employees and overseeing facility needs or requirements.
  • Collaborate with other departments as necessary to meet customer requirements, to take advantage of sales opportunities or, in the case of shortages, to minimize negative impacts on a business.
  • Report project plans, progress, and results.
  • Protect and control proprietary materials.
  • Stay informed of logistics technology advances and apply appropriate technology to improve logistics processes.
  • Develop and implement technical project management tools, such as plans, schedules, and responsibility and compliance matrices.
  • Provide project management services, including the provision and analysis of technical data.
  • Manage the logistical aspects of product life cycles, including coordination or provisioning of samples, and the minimization of obsolescence.
  • Perform system lifecycle cost analysis and develop component studies.
  • Plan, organize, and execute logistics support activities, such as maintenance planning, repair analysis, and test equipment recommendations.
  • Participate in the assessment and review of design alternatives and design change proposal impacts.
  • Direct and support the compilation and analysis of technical source data necessary for product development.
  • Support the development of training materials and technical manuals.
13-1081.01Logistics Engineers
Design or analyze operational solutions for projects such as transportation optimization, network modeling, process and methods analysis, cost containment, capacity enhancement, routing and shipment optimization, or information management.
  • Review contractual commitments, customer specifications, or related information to determine logistics or support requirements.
  • Determine logistics support requirements, such as facility details, staffing needs, or safety or maintenance plans.
  • Propose logistics solutions for customers.
  • Direct the work of logistics analysts.
  • Evaluate effectiveness of current or future logistical processes.
  • Provide logistics technology or information for effective and efficient support of product, equipment, or system manufacturing or service.
  • Evaluate the use of inventory tracking technology, Web-based warehousing software, or intelligent conveyor systems to maximize plant or distribution center efficiency.
  • Develop logistic metrics, internal analysis tools, or key performance indicators for business units.
  • Analyze or interpret logistics data involving customer service, forecasting, procurement, manufacturing, inventory, transportation, or warehousing.
  • Prepare or validate documentation on automated logistics or maintenance-data reporting or management information systems.
  • Identify cost-reduction or process-improvement logistic opportunities.
  • Evaluate the use of technologies, such as global positioning systems (GPS), radio-frequency identification (RFID), route navigation software, or satellite linkup systems, to improve transportation efficiency.
  • Develop or maintain cost estimates, forecasts, or cost models.
  • Develop specifications for equipment, tools, facility layouts, or material-handling systems.
  • Conduct logistics studies or analyses, such as time studies, zero-base analyses, rate analyses, network analyses, flow-path analyses, or supply chain analyses.
  • Apply logistics modeling techniques to address issues such as operational process improvement or facility design or layout.
  • Prepare logistic strategies or conceptual designs for production facilities.
  • Identify or develop business rules or standard operating procedures to streamline operating processes.
  • Design comprehensive supply chains that minimize environmental impacts or costs.
  • Interview key staff or tour facilities to identify efficiency-improvement, cost-reduction, or service-delivery opportunities.
  • Develop or document reverse logistics management processes to ensure maximal efficiency of product recycling, reuse, or final disposal.
  • Determine feasibility of designing new facilities or modifying existing facilities, based on factors such as cost, available space, schedule, technical requirements, or ergonomics.
  • Conduct environmental audits for logistics activities, such as storage, distribution, or transportation.
  • Create models or scenarios to predict the impact of changing circumstances, such as fuel costs, road pricing, energy taxes, or carbon emissions legislation.
  • Review global, national, or regional transportation or logistics reports for ways to improve efficiency or minimize the environmental impact of logistics activities.
  • Determine requirements for compliance with environmental certification standards.
  • Provide logistical facility or capacity planning analyses for distribution or transportation functions.
  • Design plant distribution centers.
  • Develop or document procedures to minimize or mitigate carbon output resulting from the movement of materials or products.
  • Assess the environmental impact or energy efficiency of logistics activities, using carbon mitigation software.
13-1081.02Logistics Analysts
Analyze product delivery or supply chain processes to identify or recommend changes. May manage route activity including invoicing, electronic bills, and shipment tracing.
  • Maintain databases of logistics information.
  • Interpret data on logistics elements, such as availability, maintainability, reliability, supply chain management, strategic sourcing or distribution, supplier management, or transportation.
  • Provide ongoing analyses in areas such as transportation costs, parts procurement, back orders, or delivery processes.
  • Prepare reports on logistics performance measures.
  • Confer with logistics management teams to determine ways to optimize service levels, maintain supply-chain efficiency, or minimize cost.
  • Remotely monitor the flow of vehicles or inventory, using Web-based logistics information systems to track vehicles or containers.
  • Track product flow from origin to final delivery.
  • Recommend improvements to existing or planned logistics processes.
  • Enter logistics-related data into databases.
  • Develop or maintain models for logistics uses, such as cost estimating or demand forecasting.
  • Review procedures, such as distribution or inventory management, to ensure maximum efficiency or minimum cost.
  • Apply analytic methods or tools to understand, predict, or control logistics operations or processes.
  • Monitor inventory transactions at warehouse facilities to assess receiving, storage, shipping, or inventory integrity.
  • Analyze logistics data, using methods such as data mining, data modeling, or cost or benefit analysis.
  • Maintain logistics records in accordance with corporate policies.
  • Compute reporting metrics, such as on-time delivery rates, order fulfillment rates, or inventory turns.
  • Write or revise standard operating procedures for logistics processes.
  • Monitor industry standards, trends, or practices to identify developments in logistics planning or execution.
  • Identify opportunities for inventory reductions.
  • Develop or maintain payment systems to ensure accuracy of vendor payments.
  • Develop or maintain freight rate databases for use by supply chain departments to determine the most economical modes of transportation.
  • Manage systems to ensure that pricing structures adequately reflect logistics costing.
  • Communicate with or monitor service providers, such as ocean carriers, air freight forwarders, global consolidators, customs brokers, or trucking companies.
  • Reorganize shipping schedules to consolidate loads, maximize vehicle usage, or limit the movement of empty vehicles or containers.
  • Determine packaging requirements.
  • Contact potential vendors to determine material availability.
  • Route or reroute drivers in real time with remote route navigation software, satellite linkup systems, or global positioning systems (GPS) to improve operational efficiencies.
  • Arrange for sale or lease of excess storage or transport capacity to minimize losses or inefficiencies associated with empty space.
  • Contact carriers for rates or schedules.
  • Compare locations or environmental policies of carriers or suppliers to make transportation decisions with lower environmental impact.
  • Enter carbon-output or environmental-impact data into spreadsheets or environmental management or auditing software programs.
13-1082.00Project Management Specialists
Analyze and coordinate the schedule, timeline, procurement, staffing, and budget of a product or service on a per project basis. Lead and guide the work of technical staff. May serve as a point of contact for the client or customer.
  • Assign duties or responsibilities to project personnel.
  • Communicate with key stakeholders to determine project requirements and objectives.
  • Confer with project personnel to identify and resolve problems.
  • Create project status presentations for delivery to customers or project personnel.
  • Develop or update project plans including information such as objectives, technologies, schedules, funding, and staffing.
  • Identify project needs such as resources, staff, or finances by reviewing project objectives and schedules.
  • Identify, review, or select vendors or consultants to meet project needs.
  • Monitor costs incurred by project staff to identify budget issues.
  • Monitor project milestones and deliverables.
  • Monitor the performance of project team members to provide performance feedback.
  • Negotiate with project stakeholders or suppliers to obtain resources or materials.
  • Plan, schedule, or coordinate project activities to meet deadlines.
  • Prepare and submit budget estimates, progress reports, or cost tracking reports.
  • Produce and distribute project documents.
  • Propose, review, or approve modifications to project plans.
  • Recruit or hire project personnel.
  • Report project status, such as budget, resources, technical issues, or customer satisfaction, to managers.
  • Request and review project updates to ensure deadlines are met.
  • Schedule or facilitate project meetings.
  • Submit project deliverables to clients, ensuring adherence to quality standards.
13-1111.00Management Analysts
Conduct organizational studies and evaluations, design systems and procedures, conduct work simplification and measurement studies, and prepare operations and procedures manuals to assist management in operating more efficiently and effectively. Includes program analysts and management consultants.
  • Document findings of study and prepare recommendations for implementation of new systems, procedures, or organizational changes.
  • Interview personnel and conduct on-site observation to ascertain unit functions, work performed, and methods, equipment, and personnel used.
  • Analyze data gathered and develop solutions or alternative methods of proceeding.
  • Plan study of work problems and procedures, such as organizational change, communications, information flow, integrated production methods, inventory control, or cost analysis.
  • Confer with personnel concerned to ensure successful functioning of newly implemented systems or procedures.
  • Gather and organize information on problems or procedures.
  • Prepare manuals and train workers in use of new forms, reports, procedures or equipment, according to organizational policy.
  • Review forms and reports and confer with management and users about format, distribution, and purpose, identifying problems and improvements.
  • Develop and implement records management program for filing, protection, and retrieval of records, and assure compliance with program.
  • Design, evaluate, recommend, and approve changes of forms and reports.
  • Recommend purchase of storage equipment and design area layout to locate equipment in space available.
13-1121.00Meeting, Convention, and Event Planners
Coordinate activities of staff, convention personnel, or clients to make arrangements for group meetings, events, or conventions.
  • Consult with customers to determine objectives and requirements for events, such as meetings, conferences, and conventions.
  • Review event bills for accuracy and approve payment.
  • Coordinate services for events, such as accommodation and transportation for participants, facilities, catering, signage, displays, special needs requirements, printing and event security.
  • Arrange the availability of audio-visual equipment, transportation, displays, and other event needs.
  • Confer with staff at a chosen event site to coordinate details.
  • Inspect event facilities to ensure that they conform to customer requirements.
  • Maintain records of event aspects, including financial details.
  • Monitor event activities to ensure compliance with applicable regulations and laws, satisfaction of participants, and resolution of any problems that arise.
  • Negotiate contracts with such service providers and suppliers as hotels, convention centers, and speakers.
  • Evaluate and select providers of services according to customer requirements.
  • Plan and develop programs, agendas, budgets, and services according to customer requirements.
  • Hire, train, and supervise volunteers and support staff required for events.
  • Conduct post-event evaluations to determine how future events could be improved.
  • Direct administrative details, such as financial operations, dissemination of promotional materials, and responses to inquiries.
  • Meet with sponsors and organizing committees to plan scope and format of events, to establish and monitor budgets, or to review administrative procedures and event progress.
  • Read trade publications, attend seminars, and consult with other meeting professionals to keep abreast of meeting management standards and trends.
  • Organize registration of event participants.
  • Develop event topics and choose featured speakers.
  • Promote conference, convention and trades show services by performing tasks such as meeting with professional and trade associations, and producing brochures and other publications.
  • Design and implement efforts to publicize events and promote sponsorships.
  • Obtain permits from fire and health departments to erect displays and exhibits and serve food at events.
13-1131.00Fundraisers
Organize activities to raise funds or otherwise solicit and gather monetary donations or other gifts for an organization. May design and produce promotional materials. May also raise awareness of the organization's work, goals, and financial needs.
  • Identify and build relationships with potential donors.
  • Write and send letters of thanks to donors.
  • Secure commitments of participation or donation from individuals or corporate donors.
  • Develop fundraising activity plans that maximize participation or contributions and minimize costs.
  • Develop strategies to encourage new or increased contributions.
  • Create or update donor databases.
  • Direct or supervise fundraising staff, including volunteer staff members.
  • Develop or implement fundraising activities, such as annual giving campaigns or direct mail programs.
  • Solicit cash or in-kind donations or sponsorships from individual, business, or government donors.
  • Monitor progress of fundraising drives.
  • Conduct research to identify the goals, net worth, charitable donation history, or other data related to potential donors, potential investors, or general donor markets.
  • Compile or develop materials to submit to granting or other funding organizations.
  • Establish fundraising or participation goals for special events or specified time periods.
  • Monitor budgets, expense reports, or other financial data for fundraising organizations.
  • Contact corporate representatives, government officials, or community leaders to increase awareness of organizational causes, activities, or needs.
  • Recruit sponsors, participants, or volunteers for fundraising events.
  • Write reports or prepare presentations to communicate fundraising program data.
  • Design or produce materials such as posters, Web sites, or newsletters to promote, market, or advertise fundraising events.
  • Write speeches, press releases, or other promotional materials to increase awareness of the causes, missions, or goals of organizations seeking funds.
  • Explain the tax advantages of contributions to potential donors.
  • Plan and direct special events for fundraising, such as silent auctions, dances, golf events, or walks.
  • Attend community events, meetings, or conferences to promote organizational goals or solicit donations or sponsorships.
  • Direct or coordinate Web-based fundraising activities, such as online auctions or donation Web sites.
  • Develop corporate fundraising programs, such as employer gift-matching.
  • Secure speakers for charitable events, community meetings, or conferences to increase awareness of charitable, nonprofit, or political causes.
  • Prepare materials such as fundraising envelopes, bid sheets, or gift bags for charitable events.
  • Develop and maintain media contact lists.
  • Coordinate transportation or delivery of materials, supplies, or donations for fundraising events.
13-1141.00Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists
Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.
  • Evaluate job positions, determining classification, exempt or non-exempt status, and salary.
  • Ensure company compliance with federal and state laws, including reporting requirements.
  • Prepare occupational classifications, job descriptions, and salary scales.
  • Provide advice on the resolution of classification and salary complaints.
  • Research job and worker requirements, structural and functional relationships among jobs and occupations, and occupational trends.
  • Advise managers and employees on state and federal employment regulations, collective agreements, benefit and compensation policies, personnel procedures, and classification programs.
  • Perform multifactor data and cost analyses that may be used in areas such as support of collective bargaining agreements.
  • Prepare reports, such as organization and flow charts, and career path reports to summarize job analysis and evaluation and compensation analysis information.
  • Plan, develop, evaluate, improve, and communicate methods and techniques for selecting, promoting, compensating, evaluating, and training workers.
  • Assess need for and develop job analysis instruments and materials.
  • Consult with or serve as a technical liaison between business, industry, government, and union officials.
  • Observe, interview, and survey employees and conduct focus group meetings to collect job, organizational, and occupational information.
  • Assist in preparing and maintaining personnel records and handbooks.
  • Analyze organizational, occupational, and industrial data to facilitate organizational functions and provide technical information to business, industry, and government.
  • Administer employee insurance, pension and savings plans, working with insurance brokers and plan carriers.
  • Research employee benefit and health and safety practices and recommend changes or modifications to existing policies.
  • Develop, implement, administer and evaluate personnel and labor relations programs, including performance appraisal, affirmative action, and employment equity programs.
  • Advise staff of individuals' qualifications.
  • Negotiate collective agreements on behalf of employers or workers, and mediate labor disputes and grievances.
  • Review occupational data on Alien Employment Certification Applications to determine the appropriate occupational title and code, and provide local offices with information about immigration and occupations.
  • Plan and develop curricula and materials for training programs and conduct training.
  • Work with the Department of Labor and promote its use with employers.
  • Prepare research results for publication in form of journals, books, manuals, and film.
  • Speak at conferences and events to promote apprenticeships and related training programs.
13-1151.00Training and Development Specialists
Design or conduct work-related training and development programs to improve individual skills or organizational performance. May analyze organizational training needs or evaluate training effectiveness.
  • Assess training needs through surveys, interviews with employees, focus groups, or consultation with managers, instructors, or customer representatives.
  • Design, plan, organize, or direct orientation and training programs for employees or customers.
  • Offer specific training programs to help workers maintain or improve job skills.
  • Present information using a variety of instructional techniques or formats, such as role playing, simulations, team exercises, group discussions, videos, or lectures.
  • Obtain, organize, or develop training procedure manuals, guides, or course materials, such as handouts or visual materials.
  • Monitor, evaluate, or record training activities or program effectiveness.
  • Develop alternative training methods if expected improvements are not seen.
  • Evaluate training materials prepared by instructors, such as outlines, text, or handouts.
  • Evaluate modes of training delivery, such as in-person or virtual to optimize training effectiveness, training costs, or environmental impacts.
  • Keep up with developments in area of expertise by reading current journals, books, or magazine articles.
  • Negotiate contracts with clients including desired training outcomes, fees, or expenses.
  • Attend meetings or seminars to obtain information for use in training programs or to inform management of training program status.
  • Monitor training costs and prepare budget reports to justify expenditures.
  • Select and assign instructors to conduct training.
  • Schedule classes based on availability of classrooms, equipment, or instructors.
  • Supervise, evaluate, or refer instructors to skill development classes.
  • Devise programs to develop executive potential among employees in lower-level positions.
  • Coordinate recruitment and placement of training program participants.
  • Develop or implement training programs related to efficiency, recycling, or other issues with environmental impacts.
  • Refer trainees to employer relations representatives, to locations offering job placement assistance, or to appropriate social services agencies if warranted.
13-1161.00Market Research Analysts and Marketing Specialists
Research conditions in local, regional, national, or online markets. Gather information to determine potential sales of a product or service, or plan a marketing or advertising campaign. May gather information on competitors, prices, sales, and methods of marketing and distribution. May employ search marketing tactics, analyze web metrics, and develop recommendations to increase search engine ranking and visibility to target markets.
  • Prepare reports of findings, illustrating data graphically and translating complex findings into written text.
  • Collect and analyze data on customer demographics, preferences, needs, and buying habits to identify potential markets and factors affecting product demand.
  • Conduct research on consumer opinions and marketing strategies, collaborating with marketing professionals, statisticians, pollsters, and other professionals.
  • Measure and assess customer and employee satisfaction.
  • Devise and evaluate methods and procedures for collecting data, such as surveys, opinion polls, or questionnaires, or arrange to obtain existing data.
  • Measure the effectiveness of marketing, advertising, and communications programs and strategies.
  • Seek and provide information to help companies determine their position in the marketplace.
  • Forecast and track marketing and sales trends, analyzing collected data.
  • Gather data on competitors and analyze their prices, sales, and method of marketing and distribution.
  • Monitor industry statistics and follow trends in trade literature.
  • Attend staff conferences to provide management with information and proposals concerning the promotion, distribution, design, and pricing of company products or services.
  • Direct trained survey interviewers.
  • Develop and implement procedures for identifying advertising needs.
13-1161.01Search Marketing Strategists
Employ search marketing tactics to increase visibility and engagement with content, products, or services in Internet-enabled devices or interfaces. Examine search query behaviors on general or specialty search engines or other Internet-based content. Analyze research, data, or technology to understand user intent and measure outcomes for ongoing optimization.
  • Collect and analyze Web metrics, such as visits, time on site, page views per visit, transaction volume and revenue, traffic mix, click-through rates, conversion rates, cost per acquisition, or cost per click.
  • Identify appropriate Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) and report key metrics from digital campaigns.
  • Assist in setting up or optimizing analytics tools for tracking visitors' behaviors.
  • Coordinate with developers to optimize Web site architecture, server configuration, or page construction for search engine consumption and optimal visibility.
  • Conduct online marketing initiatives, such as paid ad placement, affiliate programs, sponsorship programs, email promotions, or viral marketing campaigns on social media Web sites.
  • Participate in the development or implementation of online marketing strategy.
  • Improve search-related activities through ongoing analysis, experimentation, or optimization tests, using A/B or multivariate methods.
  • Optimize digital assets, such as text, graphics, or multimedia assets, for search engine optimization (SEO) or for display and usability on internet-connected devices.
  • Create content strategies for digital media.
  • Manage tracking and reporting of search-related activities and provide analyses to marketing executives.
  • Optimize Web site exposure by analyzing search engine patterns to direct online placement of keywords or other content.
  • Combine secondary data sources with keyword research to more accurately profile and satisfy user intent.
  • Communicate and collaborate with merchants, Webmasters, bloggers, or online editors to strategically place hyperlinks.
  • Optimize shopping cart experience or Web site conversion rates against Key Performance Indicators (KPIs).
  • Evaluate new emerging media or technologies and make recommendations for their application within Internet marketing or search marketing campaigns.
  • Collaborate with other marketing staff to integrate and complement marketing strategies across multiple sales channels.
  • Execute or manage social media campaigns to inform search marketing tactics.
  • Propose online or multiple-sales-channel campaigns to marketing executives.
  • Conduct market research analysis to identify search query trends, real-time search and news media activity, popular social media topics, electronic commerce trends, market opportunities, or competitor performance.
  • Purchase or negotiate placement of listings in local search engines, directories, or digital mapping technologies.
  • Conduct financial modeling for online marketing programs or Web site revenue forecasting.
  • Execute or manage banner, video, or other non-text link ad campaigns.
  • Execute and manage communications with digital journalists or bloggers.
  • Coordinate sales or other promotional strategies with merchandising, operations, or inventory control staff to ensure product catalogs are current, accurate, and organized for best findability against user intent.
  • Define product requirements, based on market research analysis, in collaboration with user interface design and engineering staff.
  • Collaborate with Web, multimedia, or art design staffs to create multimedia Web sites or other internet content that conforms to brand and company visual format.
  • Assist in the evaluation or negotiation of contracts with vendors or online partners.
  • Implement online customer service processes to ensure positive and consistent user experiences.
  • Resolve product availability problems in collaboration with customer service staff.
  • Develop transactional Web applications, using Web programming software and knowledge of programming languages, such as hypertext markup language (HTML) and extensible markup language (XML).
  • Prepare electronic commerce designs or prototypes, such as storyboards, mock-ups, or other content, using graphics design software.
  • Identify, evaluate, or procure hardware or software for implementing online marketing campaigns.
  • Assist in the development of online transaction or security policies.
  • Identify and develop commercial or technical specifications, such as usability, pricing, checkout, or data security, to promote transactional internet-enabled commerce functionality.
  • Identify methods for interfacing Web application technologies with enterprise resource planning or other system software.
  • Keep abreast of government regulations and emerging Web technology to ensure regulatory compliance by reviewing current literature, talking with colleagues, participating in educational programs, attending meetings or workshops, or participating in professional organizations or conferences.
13-1199.04Business Continuity Planners
Develop, maintain, or implement business continuity and disaster recovery strategies and solutions, including risk assessments, business impact analyses, strategy selection, and documentation of business continuity and disaster recovery procedures. Plan, conduct, and debrief regular mock-disaster exercises to test the adequacy of existing plans and strategies, updating procedures and plans regularly. Act as a coordinator for continuity efforts after a disruption event.
  • Develop emergency management plans for recovery decision making and communications, continuity of critical departmental processes, or temporary shut-down of non-critical departments to ensure continuity of operation and governance.
  • Develop disaster recovery plans for physical locations with critical assets, such as data centers.
  • Test documented disaster recovery strategies and plans.
  • Analyze impact on, and risk to, essential business functions or information systems to identify acceptable recovery time periods and resource requirements.
  • Write reports to summarize testing activities, including descriptions of goals, planning, scheduling, execution, results, analysis, conclusions, and recommendations.
  • Review existing disaster recovery, crisis management, or business continuity plans.
  • Create scenarios to reestablish operations from various types of business disruptions.
  • Establish, maintain, or test call trees to ensure appropriate communication during disaster.
  • Conduct or oversee contingency plan integration and operation.
  • Identify opportunities for strategic improvement or mitigation of business interruption and other risks caused by business, regulatory, or industry-specific change initiatives.
  • Interpret government regulations and applicable codes to ensure compliance.
  • Create or administer training and awareness presentations or materials.
  • Prepare reports summarizing operational results, financial performance, or accomplishments of specified objectives, goals, or plans.
  • Attend professional meetings, read literature, and participate in training or other educational offerings to keep abreast of new developments and technologies related to disaster recovery and business continuity.
  • Recommend or implement methods to monitor, evaluate, or enable resolution of safety, operations, or compliance interruptions.
  • Create business continuity and disaster recovery budgets.
  • Maintain and update organization information technology applications and network systems blueprints.
  • Design or implement products and services to mitigate risk or facilitate use of technology-based tools and methods.
  • Analyze corporate intelligence data to identify trends, patterns, or warnings indicating threats to security of people, assets, information, or infrastructure.
  • Conduct or oversee collection of corporate intelligence to avoid fraud, financial crime, cyber-attack, terrorism, and infrastructure failure.
  • Identify individual or transaction targets to direct intelligence collection.
13-1199.05Sustainability Specialists
Address organizational sustainability issues, such as waste stream management, green building practices, and green procurement plans.
  • Create or maintain plans or other documents related to sustainability projects.
  • Develop sustainability project goals, objectives, initiatives, or strategies in collaboration with other sustainability professionals.
  • Assess or propose sustainability initiatives, considering factors such as cost effectiveness, technical feasibility, and acceptance.
  • Provide technical or administrative support for sustainability programs or issues.
  • Monitor or track sustainability indicators, such as energy usage, natural resource usage, waste generation, and recycling.
  • Research or review regulatory, technical, or market issues related to sustainability.
  • Review and revise sustainability proposals or policies.
  • Collect information about waste stream management or green building practices to inform decision makers.
  • Develop reports or presentations to communicate the effectiveness of sustainability initiatives.
  • Identify or procure needed resources to implement sustainability programs or projects.
  • Create marketing or outreach media, such as brochures or Web sites, to communicate sustainability issues, procedures, or objectives.
  • Write grant applications, rebate applications, or project proposals to secure funding for sustainability projects.
  • Identify or create new sustainability indicators.
  • Identify or investigate violations of natural resources, waste management, recycling, or other environmental policies.
13-1199.06Online Merchants
Conduct retail activities of businesses operating exclusively online. May perform duties such as preparing business strategies, buying merchandise, managing inventory, implementing marketing activities, fulfilling and shipping online orders, and balancing financial records.
  • Fill customer orders by packaging sold items and documentation for direct shipping or by transferring orders to manufacturers or third-party distributors.
  • Receive and process payments from customers, using electronic transaction services.
  • Create, manage, or automate orders or invoices, using order management or invoicing software.
  • Deliver e-mail confirmation of completed transactions and shipment.
  • Correspond with online customers via electronic mail, telephone, or other electronic messaging to address questions or complaints about products, policies, or shipping methods.
  • Purchase new or used items from online or physical sources for resale via retail or auction Web site.
  • Determine and set product prices.
  • Calculate purchase subtotals, taxes, and shipping costs for submission to customers.
  • Compose descriptions of merchandise for posting to online storefront, auction sites, or other shopping Web sites.
  • Compose images of products, using video or still cameras, lighting equipment, props, or photo or video editing software.
  • Upload digital media, such as photos, video, or scanned images to online storefront, auction sites, or other shopping Web sites.
  • Calculate revenue, sales, and expenses, using financial accounting or spreadsheet software.
  • Cancel orders based on customer requests or inventory or delivery problems.
  • Prepare or organize online storefront marketing material, including product descriptions or subject lines, optimizing content to search engine criteria.
  • Order or purchase merchandise to maintain optimal inventory levels.
  • Determine location for product listings to maximize exposure to online traffic.
  • Create or maintain database of customer accounts.
  • Promote products in online communities through weblog or discussion-forum postings, e-mail marketing programs, or online advertising.
  • Collaborate with search engine shopping specialists to place marketing content in desired online locations.
  • Investigate products or markets to determine areas for opportunity or viability for merchandising specific products, using online or offline sources.
  • Maintain inventory of shipping supplies, such as boxes, labels, tape, bubble wrap, loose packing materials, or tape guns.
  • Measure and analyze Web site usage data to maximize search engine returns or refine customer interfaces.
  • Develop or revise business plans for online business, emphasizing factors such as product line, pricing, inventory, or marketing strategy.
  • Disclose merchant information and terms and policies of transactions in online or offline materials.
  • Design customer interface of online storefront, using web programming or e-commerce software.
  • Select and purchase technical web services, such as web hosting services, online merchant accounts, shopping cart software, payment gateway software, or spyware.
  • Transfer digital media, such as music, video, or software, to customers via the Internet.
  • Devise, select, or purchase domain name and web address.
  • Initiate online auctions through auction hosting sites or auction management software.
  • Implement security practices to preserve assets, minimize liabilities, or ensure customer privacy, using parallel servers, hardware redundancy, fail-safe technology, information encryption, or firewalls.
  • Investigate sources, such as auctions, estate sales, liquidators, wholesalers, or trade shows for new items, used items, or collectibles.
  • Participate in online forums or conferences to stay abreast of online retailing trends, techniques, or security threats.
  • Integrate online retailing strategy with physical or catalogue retailing operations.
  • Create or distribute offline promotional material, such as brochures, pamphlets, business cards, stationary, or signage.
13-1199.07Security Management Specialists
Conduct security assessments for organizations, and design security systems and processes. May specialize in areas such as physical security or the safety of employees and facilities.
  • Assess the nature and level of physical security threats so that the scope of the problem can be determined.
  • Budget and schedule security design work.
  • Conduct security audits to identify potential vulnerabilities related to physical security or staff safety.
  • Design security policies, programs, or practices to ensure adequate security relating to alarm response, access card use, and other security needs.
  • Design, implement, or establish requirements for security systems, video surveillance, motion detection, or closed-circuit television systems to ensure proper installation and operation.
  • Develop conceptual designs of security systems.
  • Develop or review specifications for design or construction of security systems.
  • Engineer, install, maintain, or repair security systems, programmable logic controls, or other security-related electronic systems.
  • Inspect fire, intruder detection, or other security systems.
  • Inspect physical security design features, installations, or programs to ensure compliance with applicable standards or regulations.
  • Interview witnesses or suspects to identify persons responsible for security breaches or to establish losses, pursue prosecutions, or obtain restitution.
  • Monitor tapes or digital recordings to identify the source of losses.
  • Monitor the work of contractors in the design, construction, and startup phases of security systems.
  • Outline system security criteria for pre-bid meetings with clients and companies to ensure comprehensiveness and appropriateness for implementation.
  • Perform risk analyses so that appropriate countermeasures can be developed.
  • Prepare documentation for case reports or court proceedings.
  • Prepare, maintain, or update security procedures, security system drawings, or related documentation.
  • Provide system design and integration recommendations.
  • Recommend improvements in security systems or procedures.
  • Respond to emergency situations on an on-call basis.
  • Review design drawings or technical documents for completeness, correctness, or appropriateness.
  • Test security measures for final acceptance and implement or provide procedures for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the measures.
  • Train personnel in security procedures or use of security equipment.
13-2011.00Accountants and Auditors
Examine, analyze, and interpret accounting records to prepare financial statements, give advice, or audit and evaluate statements prepared by others. Install or advise on systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data.
  • Prepare detailed reports on audit findings.
  • Report to management about asset utilization and audit results, and recommend changes in operations and financial activities.
  • Collect and analyze data to detect deficient controls, duplicated effort, extravagance, fraud, or non-compliance with laws, regulations, and management policies.
  • Inspect account books and accounting systems for efficiency, effectiveness, and use of accepted accounting procedures to record transactions.
  • Supervise auditing of establishments, and determine scope of investigation required.
  • Confer with company officials about financial and regulatory matters.
  • Examine and evaluate financial and information systems, recommending controls to ensure system reliability and data integrity.
  • Examine records and interview workers to ensure recording of transactions and compliance with laws and regulations.
  • Inspect cash on hand, notes receivable and payable, negotiable securities, and canceled checks to confirm records are accurate.
  • Prepare adjusting journal entries.
  • Prepare, examine, or analyze accounting records, financial statements, or other financial reports to assess accuracy, completeness, and conformance to reporting and procedural standards.
  • Review accounts for discrepancies and reconcile differences.
  • Establish tables of accounts and assign entries to proper accounts.
  • Examine inventory to verify journal and ledger entries.
  • Analyze business operations, trends, costs, revenues, financial commitments, and obligations to project future revenues and expenses or to provide advice.
  • Report to management regarding the finances of establishment.
  • Develop, implement, modify, and document recordkeeping and accounting systems, making use of current computer technology.
  • Evaluate taxpayer finances to determine tax liability, using knowledge of interest and discount rates, annuities, valuation of stocks and bonds, and amortization valuation of depletable assets.
  • Examine whether the organization's objectives are reflected in its management activities, and whether employees understand the objectives.
  • Audit payroll and personnel records to determine unemployment insurance premiums, workers' compensation coverage, liabilities, and compliance with tax laws.
  • Review taxpayer accounts, and conduct audits on-site, by correspondence, or by summoning taxpayer to office.
  • Compute taxes owed and prepare tax returns, ensuring compliance with payment, reporting, or other tax requirements.
  • Advise clients in areas such as compensation, employee health care benefits, the design of accounting or data processing systems, or long-range tax or estate plans.
  • Represent clients before taxing authorities and provide support during litigation involving financial issues.
  • Direct activities of personnel engaged in filing, recording, compiling, and transmitting financial records.
  • Conduct pre-implementation audits to determine if systems and programs under development will work as planned.
  • Develop, maintain, or analyze budgets, preparing periodic reports that compare budgeted costs to actual costs.
  • Prepare, analyze, or verify annual reports, financial statements, and other records, using accepted accounting and statistical procedures to assess financial condition and facilitate financial planning.
  • Process invoices for payment.
  • Review data about material assets, net worth, liabilities, capital stock, surplus, income, or expenditures.
13-2022.00Appraisers of Personal and Business Property
Appraise and estimate the fair value of tangible personal or business property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment. May also appraise land.
  • Calculate the value of property based on comparisons to recent sales, estimated cost to reproduce, and anticipated property income streams.
  • Create and maintain a database of completed appraisals.
  • Determine the appropriate type of valuation to make, such as fair market, replacement, or liquidation, based on the needs of the property owner.
  • Document physical characteristics of property such as measurements, quality, and design.
  • Forecast the value of property.
  • Inspect personal or business property.
  • Locate and record data on sales of comparable property using specialized software, internet searches, or personal records.
  • Recommend loan amounts based on the value of property being used as collateral.
  • Take photographs of property.
  • Testify in court as to the value of a piece of tangible property.
  • Update appraisals when property has been improved, damaged, or has otherwise changed.
  • Verify that property matches legal descriptions or certifications.
  • Write and submit appraisal reports for property, such as jewelry, art, antiques, collectibles, and equipment.
  • Write descriptions of the property being appraised.
13-2023.00Appraisers and Assessors of Real Estate
Appraise real estate, exclusively, and estimate its fair value. May assess taxes in accordance with prescribed schedules.
  • Compute final estimation of property values, taking into account such factors as depreciation, replacement costs, value comparisons of similar properties, and income potential.
  • Prepare written reports that estimate property values, outline methods by which the estimations were made, and meet appraisal standards.
  • Inspect new construction and major improvements to existing structures to determine values.
  • Collect and analyze relevant data to identify real estate market trends.
  • Prepare and maintain current data on each parcel assessed, including maps of boundaries, inventories of land and structures, property characteristics, and any applicable exemptions.
  • Explain assessed values to property owners and defend appealed assessments at public hearings.
  • Identify the ownership of each piece of taxable property.
  • Inspect properties, considering factors such as market value, location, and building or replacement costs to determine appraisal value.
  • Complete and maintain assessment rolls that show the assessed values and status of all property in a municipality.
  • Review information about transfers of property to ensure its accuracy, checking basic information on buyers, sellers, and sales prices and making corrections as necessary.
  • Conduct regular reviews of property within jurisdictions to determine changes in property due to construction or demolition.
  • Explain real and personal property taxes to property owners.
  • Establish uniform and equitable systems for assessing all classes and kinds of property.
  • Examine income records and operating costs of income properties.
  • Evaluate land and neighborhoods where properties are situated, considering locations and trends or impending changes that could influence future values.
  • Maintain familiarity with aspects of local real estate markets.
  • Search public records for transactions such as sales, leases, and assessments.
  • Check building codes and zoning bylaws to determine any effects on the properties being appraised.
  • Verify legal descriptions of properties by comparing them to county records.
  • Interview persons familiar with properties and immediate surroundings, such as contractors, home owners, and realtors, to obtain pertinent information.
  • Photograph interiors and exteriors of properties to assist in estimating property value, substantiate findings, and complete appraisal reports.
  • Obtain county land values and sales information about nearby properties to aid in establishment of property values.
  • Examine the type and location of nearby services, such as shopping centers, schools, parks, and other neighborhood features, to evaluate their impact on property values.
  • Estimate building replacement costs, using building valuation manuals and professional cost estimators.
  • Draw land diagrams to be used in appraisal reports to support findings.
  • Testify in court as to the value of a piece of real estate property.
  • Approve applications for property tax exemptions or deductions.
  • Calculate tax bills for properties by multiplying assessed values by jurisdiction tax rates.
  • Analyze trends in sales prices, construction costs, and rents, to assess property values or determine the accuracy of assessments.
  • Determine taxability of properties, using methods such as field inspection, structural measurement, calculation, sales analysis, market trend studies, and income and expense analysis.
13-2031.00Budget Analysts
Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations. Analyze budgeting and accounting reports.
  • Summarize budgets and submit recommendations for the approval or disapproval of funds requests.
  • Analyze monthly department budgeting and accounting reports to maintain expenditure controls.
  • Examine budget estimates for completeness, accuracy, and conformance with procedures and regulations.
  • Direct the preparation of regular and special budget reports.
  • Provide advice and technical assistance with cost analysis, fiscal allocation, and budget preparation.
  • Compile and analyze accounting records and other data to determine the financial resources required to implement a program.
  • Review operating budgets to analyze trends affecting budget needs.
  • Interpret budget directives and establish policies for carrying out directives.
  • Match appropriations for specific programs with appropriations for broader programs, including items for emergency funds.
  • Consult with managers to ensure that budget adjustments are made in accordance with program changes.
  • Perform cost-benefit analyses to compare operating programs, review financial requests, or explore alternative financing methods.
  • Seek new ways to improve efficiency and increase profits.
  • Testify before examining and fund-granting authorities, clarifying and promoting the proposed budgets.
13-2041.00Credit Analysts
Analyze credit data and financial statements of individuals or firms to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money. Prepare reports with credit information for use in decisionmaking.
  • Analyze credit data and financial statements to determine the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money.
  • Generate financial ratios, using computer programs, to evaluate customers' financial status.
  • Consult with customers to resolve complaints and verify financial and credit transactions.
  • Prepare reports that include the degree of risk involved in extending credit or lending money.
  • Compare liquidity, profitability, and credit histories of establishments being evaluated with those of similar establishments in the same industries and geographic locations.
  • Review individual or commercial customer files to identify and select delinquent accounts for collection.
  • Confer with credit association and other business representatives to exchange credit information.
  • Complete loan applications, including credit analyses and summaries of loan requests, and submit to loan committees for approval.
  • Analyze financial data such as income growth, quality of management, and market share to determine expected profitability of loans.
  • Evaluate customer records and recommend payment plans, based on earnings, savings data, payment history, and purchase activity.
13-2051.00Financial and Investment Analysts
Conduct quantitative analyses of information involving investment programs or financial data of public or private institutions, including valuation of businesses.
  • Advise clients on aspects of capitalization, such as amounts, sources, or timing.
  • Analyze financial or operational performance of companies facing financial difficulties to identify or recommend remedies.
  • Assess companies as investments for clients by examining company facilities.
  • Collaborate on projects with other professionals, such as lawyers, accountants, or public relations experts.
  • Collaborate with investment bankers to attract new corporate clients.
  • Conduct financial analyses related to investments in green construction or green retrofitting projects.
  • Confer with clients to restructure debt, refinance debt, or raise new debt.
  • Create client presentations of plan details.
  • Determine the prices at which securities should be syndicated and offered to the public.
  • Develop and maintain client relationships.
  • Draw charts and graphs, using computer spreadsheets, to illustrate technical reports.
  • Employ financial models to develop solutions to financial problems or to assess the financial or capital impact of transactions.
  • Evaluate and compare the relative quality of various securities in a given industry.
  • Evaluate capital needs of clients and assess market conditions to inform structuring of financial packages.
  • Inform investment decisions by analyzing financial information to forecast business, industry, or economic conditions.
  • Interpret data on price, yield, stability, future investment-risk trends, economic influences, and other factors affecting investment programs.
  • Monitor developments in the fields of industrial technology, business, finance, and economic theory.
  • Monitor fundamental economic, industrial, and corporate developments by analyzing information from financial publications and services, investment banking firms, government agencies, trade publications, company sources, or personal interviews.
  • Perform securities valuation or pricing.
  • Prepare all materials for transactions or execution of deals.
  • Prepare plans of action for investment, using financial analyses.
  • Present oral or written reports on general economic trends, individual corporations, and entire industries.
  • Purchase investments for companies in accordance with company policy.
  • Recommend investments and investment timing to companies, investment firm staff, or the public.
  • Specialize in green financial instruments, such as socially responsible mutual funds or exchange-traded funds (ETF) that are comprised of green companies.
  • Supervise, train, or mentor junior team members.
13-2052.00Personal Financial Advisors
Advise clients on financial plans using knowledge of tax and investment strategies, securities, insurance, pension plans, and real estate. Duties include assessing clients' assets, liabilities, cash flow, insurance coverage, tax status, and financial objectives. May also buy and sell financial assets for clients.
  • Interview clients to determine their current income, expenses, insurance coverage, tax status, financial objectives, risk tolerance, or other information needed to develop a financial plan.
  • Answer clients' questions about the purposes and details of financial plans and strategies.
  • Recommend to clients strategies in cash management, insurance coverage, investment planning, or other areas to help them achieve their financial goals.
  • Analyze financial information obtained from clients to determine strategies for meeting clients' financial objectives.
  • Implement financial planning recommendations or refer clients to someone who can assist them with plan implementation.
  • Review clients' accounts and plans regularly to determine whether life changes, economic changes, environmental concerns, or financial performance indicate a need for plan reassessment.
  • Manage client portfolios, keeping client plans up-to-date.
  • Contact clients periodically to determine any changes in their financial status.
  • Prepare or interpret for clients information such as investment performance reports, financial document summaries, or income projections.
  • Recruit and maintain client bases.
  • Explain to clients the personal financial advisor's responsibilities and the types of services to be provided.
  • Investigate available investment opportunities to determine compatibility with client financial plans.
  • Guide clients in the gathering of information, such as bank account records, income tax returns, life and disability insurance records, pension plans, or wills.
  • Monitor financial market trends to ensure that client plans are responsive.
  • Recommend financial products, such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, or insurance.
  • Meet with clients' other advisors, such as attorneys, accountants, trust officers, or investment bankers, to fully understand clients' financial goals and circumstances.
  • Devise debt liquidation plans that include payoff priorities and timelines.
  • Open accounts for clients and disburse funds from accounts to creditors as agent for clients.
  • Inform clients about tax benefits, government rebates, or other financial benefits of alternative fuel vehicle purchases or energy efficient home construction, improvements, or remodeling.
  • Conduct seminars or workshops on financial planning topics, such as retirement planning, estate planning, or the evaluation of severance packages.
  • Recommend environmentally responsible investments, such as cleantech, alternative energy, or conservation technologies, companies, or funds.
13-2053.00Insurance Underwriters
Review individual applications for insurance to evaluate degree of risk involved and determine acceptance of applications.
  • Examine documents to determine degree of risk from factors such as applicant health, financial standing and value, and condition of property.
  • Decline excessive risks.
  • Write to field representatives, medical personnel, or others to obtain further information, quote rates, or explain company underwriting policies.
  • Evaluate possibility of losses due to catastrophe or excessive insurance.
  • Review company records to determine amount of insurance in force on single risk or group of closely related risks.
  • Decrease value of policy when risk is substandard and specify applicable endorsements or apply rating to ensure safe, profitable distribution of risks, using reference materials.
  • Authorize reinsurance of policy when risk is high.
13-2054.00Financial Risk Specialists
Analyze and measure exposure to credit and market risk threatening the assets, earning capacity, or economic state of an organization. May make recommendations to limit risk.
  • Analyze areas of potential risk to the assets, earning capacity, or success of organizations.
  • Analyze new legislation to determine impact on risk exposure.
  • Conduct statistical analyses to quantify risk, using statistical analysis software or econometric models.
  • Confer with traders to identify and communicate risks associated with specific trading strategies or positions.
  • Consult financial literature to ensure use of the latest models or statistical techniques.
  • Contribute to development of risk management systems.
  • Determine potential environmental impacts of new products or processes on long-term growth and profitability.
  • Develop contingency plans to deal with emergencies.
  • Develop or implement risk-assessment models or methodologies.
  • Devise scenario analyses reflecting possible severe market events.
  • Devise systems or processes to monitor validity of risk assessments.
  • Document, and ensure communication of, key risks.
  • Draw charts and graphs, using computer spreadsheets, to illustrate technical reports.
  • Evaluate and compare the relative quality of various securities in a given industry.
  • Evaluate the risks and benefits involved in implementing green building technologies.
  • Evaluate the risks related to green investments, such as renewable energy company stocks.
  • Gather risk-related data from internal or external resources.
  • Identify key risks and mitigating factors of potential investments, such as asset types and values, legal and ownership structures, professional reputations, customer bases, or industry segments.
  • Inform financial decisions by analyzing financial information to forecast business, industry, or economic conditions.
  • Interpret data on price, yield, stability, future investment-risk trends, economic influences, and other factors affecting investment programs.
  • Maintain input or data quality of risk management systems.
  • Meet with clients to answer queries on subjects such as risk exposure, market scenarios, or values-at-risk calculations.
  • Monitor developments in the fields of industrial technology, business, finance, and economic theory.
  • Prepare plans of action for investment, using financial analyses.
  • Produce reports or presentations that outline findings, explain risk positions, or recommend changes.
  • Provide statistical modeling advice to other departments.
  • Recommend investments and investment timing to companies, investment firm staff, or the public.
  • Recommend ways to control or reduce risk.
  • Review or draft risk disclosures for offer documents.
  • Track, measure, or report on aspects of market risk for traded issues.
13-2061.00Financial Examiners
Enforce or ensure compliance with laws and regulations governing financial and securities institutions and financial and real estate transactions. May examine, verify, or authenticate records.
  • Investigate activities of institutions to enforce laws and regulations and to ensure legality of transactions and operations or financial solvency.
  • Prepare reports, exhibits and other supporting schedules that detail an institution's safety and soundness, compliance with laws and regulations, and recommended solutions to questionable financial conditions.
  • Recommend actions to ensure compliance with laws and regulations, or to protect solvency of institutions.
  • Resolve problems concerning the overall financial integrity of banking institutions including loan investment portfolios, capital, earnings, and specific or large troubled accounts.
  • Direct and participate in formal and informal meetings with bank directors, trustees, senior management, counsels, outside accountants and consultants to gather information and discuss findings.
  • Review balance sheets, operating income and expense accounts, and loan documentation to confirm institution assets and liabilities.
  • Plan, supervise, and review work of assigned subordinates.
  • Review audit reports of internal and external auditors to monitor adequacy of scope of reports or to discover specific weaknesses in internal routines.
  • Train other examiners in the financial examination process.
  • Review and analyze new, proposed, or revised laws, regulations, policies, and procedures to interpret their meaning and determine their impact.
  • Examine the minutes of meetings of directors, stockholders and committees to investigate the specific authority extended at various levels of management.
  • Confer with officials of real estate, securities, or financial institution industries to exchange views and discuss issues or pending cases.
  • Establish guidelines for procedures and policies that comply with new and revised regulations and direct their implementation.
  • Evaluate data processing applications for institutions under examination to develop recommendations for coordinating existing systems with examination procedures.
  • Verify and inspect cash reserves, assigned collateral, and bank-owned securities to check internal control procedures.
  • Provide regulatory compliance training to employees.
  • Review applications for mergers, acquisitions, establishment of new institutions, acceptance in Federal Reserve System, or registration of securities sales to determine their public interest value and conformance to regulations, and recommend acceptance or rejection.
13-2071.00Credit Counselors
Advise and educate individuals or organizations on acquiring and managing debt. May provide guidance in determining the best type of loan and explain loan requirements or restrictions. May help develop debt management plans or student financial aid packages. May advise on credit issues, or provide budget, mortgage, bankruptcy, or student financial aid counseling.
  • Assess clients' overall financial situations by reviewing income, assets, debts, expenses, credit reports, or other financial information.
  • Create debt management plans, spending plans, or budgets to assist clients to meet financial goals.
  • Calculate clients' available monthly income to meet debt obligations.
  • Prioritize client debt repayment to avoid dire consequences, such as bankruptcy or foreclosure or to reduce overall costs, such as by paying high-interest or short-term loans first.
  • Recommend strategies for clients to meet their financial goals, such as borrowing money through loans or loan programs, declaring bankruptcy, making budget adjustments, or enrolling in debt management plans.
  • Interview clients by telephone or in person to gather financial information.
  • Explain general financial topics to clients, such as credit report ratings, bankruptcy laws, consumer protection laws, wage attachments, or collection actions.
  • Advise clients on housing matters, such as housing rental, homeownership, mortgage delinquency, or foreclosure prevention.
  • Prepare written documents to establish contracts with or communicate financial recommendations to clients.
  • Explain services or policies to clients, such as debt management program rules, advantages and disadvantages of using services, or creditor concession policies.
  • Maintain or update records of client account activity, including financial transactions, counseling session notes, correspondence, document images, or client inquiries.
  • Advise clients or respond to inquiries about financial matters in person or via phone, email, Web site, or Internet chat.
  • Refer clients to social service or community resources for needs beyond those of credit or debt counseling.
  • Estimate time for debt repayment, given amount of debt, interest rates, and available funds.
  • Negotiate with creditors on behalf of clients to arrange for payment adjustments, interest rate reductions, time extensions, or payment plans.
  • Recommend educational materials or resources to clients on matters such as financial planning, budgeting, or credit.
  • Review changes to financial, family, or employment situations to determine whether changes to existing debt management plans, spending plans, or budgets are needed.
  • Create action plans to assist clients in obtaining permanent housing via rent or mortgage programs.
  • Teach courses or seminars on topics such as budgeting, management of personal finances, or financial literacy.
  • Explain loan information to clients, such as available loan types, eligibility requirements, or loan restrictions.
  • Conduct research to help clients avoid repossessions or foreclosures or remove levies or wage garnishments.
  • Investigate missing checks, payment histories, held funds, returned checks, or other related issues to resolve client or creditor problems.
  • Disburse funds from client accounts to creditors.
13-2072.00Loan Officers
Evaluate, authorize, or recommend approval of commercial, real estate, or credit loans. Advise borrowers on financial status and payment methods. Includes mortgage loan officers and agents, collection analysts, loan servicing officers, loan underwriters, and payday loan officers.
  • Analyze applicants' financial status, credit, and property evaluations to determine feasibility of granting loans.
  • Meet with applicants to obtain information for loan applications and to answer questions about the process.
  • Obtain and compile copies of loan applicants' credit histories, corporate financial statements, and other financial information.
  • Explain to customers the different types of loans and credit options that are available, as well as the terms of those services.
  • Approve loans within specified limits, and refer loan applications outside those limits to management for approval.
  • Review loan agreements to ensure that they are complete and accurate according to policy.
  • Handle customer complaints and take appropriate action to resolve them.
  • Review and update credit and loan files.
  • Stay abreast of new types of loans and other financial services and products to better meet customers' needs.
  • Compute payment schedules.
  • Submit applications to credit analysts for verification and recommendation.
  • Analyze potential loan markets and develop referral networks to locate prospects for loans.
  • Set credit policies, credit lines, procedures and standards in conjunction with senior managers.
  • Market bank products to individuals and firms, promoting bank services that may meet customers' needs.
  • Work with clients to identify their financial goals and to find ways of reaching those goals.
  • Prepare reports to send to customers whose accounts are delinquent, and forward irreconcilable accounts for collector action.
  • Supervise loan personnel.
  • Assist in selection of financial award candidates using electronic databases to certify loan eligibility.
  • Authorize or sign mail collection letters.
  • Calculate amount of debt and funds available to plan methods of payoff and to estimate time for debt liquidation.
  • Confer with underwriters to resolve mortgage application problems.
  • Contact applicants or creditors to resolve questions about applications or to assist with completion of paperwork.
  • Contact borrowers with delinquent accounts to obtain payment in full or to negotiate repayment plans.
  • Counsel clients on personal and family financial problems, such as excessive spending or borrowing of funds.
  • Establish payment priorities according to credit terms and interest rates to reduce clients' overall costs.
  • Inform individuals and groups about the financial assistance available to college or university students.
  • Maintain and review account records, updating and recategorizing them according to status changes.
  • Match individuals' needs and eligibility with available financial aid programs to provide informed recommendations.
  • Review accounts to determine write-offs for collection agencies.
  • Review billing for accuracy.
13-2081.00Tax Examiners and Collectors, and Revenue Agents
Determine tax liability or collect taxes from individuals or business firms according to prescribed laws and regulations.
  • Collect taxes from individuals or businesses according to prescribed laws and regulations.
  • Maintain knowledge of tax code changes, and of accounting procedures and theory to properly evaluate financial information.
  • Maintain records for each case, including contacts, telephone numbers, and actions taken.
  • Contact taxpayers by mail or telephone to address discrepancies and to request supporting documentation.
  • Send notices to taxpayers when accounts are delinquent.
  • Check tax forms to verify that names and taxpayer identification numbers are correct, that computations have been performed correctly, or that amounts match those on supporting documentation.
  • Answer questions from taxpayers and assist them in completing tax forms.
  • Impose payment deadlines on delinquent taxpayers and monitor payments to ensure that deadlines are met.
  • Notify taxpayers of any overpayment or underpayment, and either issue a refund or request further payment.
  • Confer with taxpayers or their representatives to discuss the issues, laws, and regulations involved in returns, and to resolve problems with returns.
  • Enter tax return information into computers for processing.
  • Conduct independent field audits and investigations of income tax returns to verify information or to amend tax liabilities.
  • Review selected tax returns to determine the nature and extent of audits to be performed on them.
  • Investigate claims of inability to pay taxes by researching court information for the status of liens, mortgages, or financial statements, or by locating assets through third parties.
  • Process individual and corporate income tax returns, and sales and excise tax returns.
  • Recommend criminal prosecutions or civil penalties.
  • Examine accounting systems and records to determine whether accounting methods used were appropriate and in compliance with statutory provisions.
  • Review filed tax returns to determine whether claimed tax credits and deductions are allowed by law.
  • Participate in informal appeals hearings on contested cases from other agents.
  • Examine and analyze tax assets and liabilities to determine resolution of delinquent tax problems.
  • Direct service of legal documents, such as subpoenas, warrants, notices of assessment, and garnishments.
  • Secure a taxpayer's agreement to discharge a tax assessment or submit contested determinations to other administrative or judicial conferees for appeals hearings.
  • Determine appropriate methods of debt settlement, such as offers of compromise, wage garnishment, or seizure and sale of property.
  • Request that the state or federal revenue service prepare a return on a taxpayer's behalf in cases where taxes have not been filed.
  • Prepare briefs and assist in searching and seizing records to prepare charges and documentation for court cases.
  • Install systems of recording costs or other financial and budgetary data or provide advice on such systems, based on examination of current financial records.
13-2082.00Tax Preparers
Prepare tax returns for individuals or small businesses.
  • Interview clients to obtain additional information on taxable income and deductible expenses and allowances.
  • Use all appropriate adjustments, deductions, and credits to keep clients' taxes to a minimum.
  • Prepare or assist in preparing simple to complex tax returns for individuals or small businesses.
  • Compute taxes owed or overpaid, using adding machines or personal computers, and complete entries on forms, following tax form instructions and tax tables.
  • Furnish taxpayers with sufficient information and advice to ensure correct tax form completion.
  • Check data input or verify totals on forms prepared by others to detect errors in arithmetic, data entry, or procedures.
  • Consult tax law handbooks or bulletins to determine procedures for preparation of atypical returns.
  • Calculate form preparation fees according to return complexity and processing time required.
  • Answer questions and provide future tax planning to clients.
  • Review financial records such as income statements and documentation of expenditures to determine forms needed to prepare tax returns.
  • Explain federal and state tax laws to individuals and companies.
13-2099.01Financial Quantitative Analysts
Develop quantitative techniques to inform securities investing, equities investing, pricing, or valuation of financial instruments. Develop mathematical or statistical models for risk management, asset optimization, pricing, or relative value analysis.
  • Develop core analytical capabilities or model libraries, using advanced statistical, quantitative, or econometric techniques.
  • Provide application or analytical support to researchers or traders on issues such as valuations or data.
  • Research or develop analytical tools to address issues such as portfolio construction or optimization, performance measurement, attribution, profit and loss measurement, or pricing models.
  • Maintain or modify all financial analytic models in use.
  • Apply mathematical or statistical techniques to address practical issues in finance, such as derivative valuation, securities trading, risk management, or financial market regulation.
  • Research new financial products or analytics to determine their usefulness.
  • Devise or apply independent models or tools to help verify results of analytical systems.
  • Define or recommend model specifications or data collection methods.
  • Confer with other financial engineers or analysts on trading strategies, market dynamics, or trading system performance to inform development of quantitative techniques.
  • Interpret results of financial analysis procedures.
  • Collaborate with product development teams to research, model, validate, or implement quantitative structured solutions for new or expanded markets.
  • Produce written summary reports of financial research results.
  • Consult traders or other financial industry personnel to determine the need for new or improved analytical applications.
  • Identify, track, or maintain metrics for trading system operations.
  • Prepare requirements documentation for use by software developers.
  • Collaborate in the development or testing of new analytical software to ensure compliance with user requirements, specifications, or scope.
  • Develop solutions to help clients hedge carbon exposure or risk.
  • Analyze pricing or risks of carbon trading products.
  • Develop methods of assessing or measuring corporate performance in terms of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues.
  • Develop tools to assess green technologies or green financial products, such as green hedge funds or social responsibility investment funds.
  • Assess the potential impact of climate change on business financial issues, such as damage repairs, insurance costs, or potential disruptions of daily activities.
13-2099.04Fraud Examiners, Investigators and Analysts
Obtain evidence, take statements, produce reports, and testify to findings regarding resolution of fraud allegations. May coordinate fraud detection and prevention activities.
  • Document all investigative activities.
  • Prepare written reports of investigation findings.
  • Analyze financial data to detect irregularities in areas such as billing trends, financial relationships, and regulatory compliance procedures.
  • Gather financial documents related to investigations.
  • Interview witnesses or suspects and take statements.
  • Review reports of suspected fraud to determine need for further investigation.
  • Conduct in-depth investigations of suspicious financial activity, such as suspected money-laundering efforts.
  • Lead, or participate in, fraud investigation teams.
  • Prepare evidence for presentation in court.
  • Coordinate investigative efforts with law enforcement officers and attorneys.
  • Testify in court regarding investigation findings.
  • Recommend actions in fraud cases.
  • Evaluate business operations to identify risk areas for fraud.
  • Create and maintain logs, records, or databases of information about fraudulent activity.
  • Maintain knowledge of current events and trends in such areas as money laundering and criminal tools and techniques.
  • Advise businesses or agencies on ways to improve fraud detection.
  • Negotiate with responsible parties to arrange for recovery of losses due to fraud.
  • Train others in fraud detection and prevention techniques.
  • Design, implement, or maintain fraud detection tools or procedures.
  • Conduct field surveillance to gather case-related information.
  • Research or evaluate new technologies for use in fraud detection systems.
  • Arrest individuals to be charged with fraud.
  • Obtain and serve subpoenas.
15-1211.00Computer Systems Analysts
Analyze science, engineering, business, and other data processing problems to develop and implement solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions, improve existing computer systems, and review computer system capabilities, workflow, and schedule limitations. May analyze or recommend commercially available software.
  • Test, maintain, and monitor computer programs and systems, including coordinating the installation of computer programs and systems.
  • Troubleshoot program and system malfunctions to restore normal functioning.
  • Expand or modify system to serve new purposes or improve work flow.
  • Use the computer in the analysis and solution of business problems, such as development of integrated production and inventory control and cost analysis systems.
  • Consult with management to ensure agreement on system principles.
  • Confer with clients regarding the nature of the information processing or computation needs a computer program is to address.
  • Develop, document and revise system design procedures, test procedures, and quality standards.
  • Train staff and users to work with computer systems and programs.
  • Coordinate and link the computer systems within an organization to increase compatibility and so information can be shared.
  • Assess the usefulness of pre-developed application packages and adapt them to a user environment.
  • Define the goals of the system and devise flow charts and diagrams describing logical operational steps of programs.
  • Provide staff and users with assistance solving computer related problems, such as malfunctions and program problems.
  • Use object-oriented programming languages, as well as client and server applications development processes and multimedia and Internet technology.
  • Review and analyze computer printouts and performance indicators to locate code problems, and correct errors by correcting codes.
  • Supervise computer programmers or other systems analysts or serve as project leaders for particular systems projects.
  • Read manuals, periodicals, and technical reports to learn how to develop programs that meet staff and user requirements.
  • Determine computer software or hardware needed to set up or alter system.
  • Analyze information processing or computation needs and plan and design computer systems, using techniques such as structured analysis, data modeling and information engineering.
  • Interview or survey workers, observe job performance or perform the job to determine what information is processed and how it is processed.
  • Specify inputs accessed by the system and plan the distribution and use of the results.
  • Prepare cost-benefit and return-on-investment analyses to aid in decisions on system implementation.
  • Recommend new equipment or software packages.
15-1211.01Health Informatics Specialists
Apply knowledge of nursing and informatics to assist in the design, development, and ongoing modification of computerized health care systems. May educate staff and assist in problem solving to promote the implementation of the health care system.
  • Translate nursing practice information between nurses and systems engineers, analysts, or designers using object-oriented models or other techniques.
  • Apply knowledge of computer science, information science, nursing, and informatics theory to nursing practice, education, administration, or research, in collaboration with other health informatics specialists.
  • Design, develop, select, test, implement, and evaluate new or modified informatics solutions, data structures, and decision-support mechanisms to support patients, health care professionals, and their information management and human-computer and human-technology interactions within health care contexts.
  • Analyze and interpret patient, nursing, or information systems data to improve nursing services.
  • Develop, implement, or evaluate health information technology applications, tools, processes, or structures to assist nurses with data management.
  • Identify, collect, record, or analyze data that are relevant to the nursing care of patients.
  • Use informatics science to design or implement health information technology applications to resolve clinical or health care administrative problems.
  • Provide consultation to nurses regarding hardware or software configuration.
  • Analyze computer and information technologies to determine applicability to nursing practice, education, administration, and research.
  • Develop strategies, policies or procedures for introducing, evaluating, or modifying information technology applied to nursing practice, administration, education, or research.
  • Develop or implement policies or practices to ensure the privacy, confidentiality, or security of patient information.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, and participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in informatics.
  • Develop or deliver training programs for health information technology, creating operating manuals as needed.
  • Disseminate information about nursing informatics science and practice to the profession, other health care professions, nursing students, and the public.
  • Design, conduct, or provide support to nursing informatics research.
  • Inform local, state, national, and international health policies related to information management and communication, confidentiality and security, patient safety, infrastructure development, and economics.
  • Plan, install, repair, or troubleshoot telehealth technology applications or systems in homes.
15-1212.00Information Security Analysts
Plan, implement, upgrade, or monitor security measures for the protection of computer networks and information. Assess system vulnerabilities for security risks and propose and implement risk mitigation strategies. May ensure appropriate security controls are in place that will safeguard digital files and vital electronic infrastructure. May respond to computer security breaches and viruses.
  • Develop plans to safeguard computer files against accidental or unauthorized modification, destruction, or disclosure and to meet emergency data processing needs.
  • Monitor current reports of computer viruses to determine when to update virus protection systems.
  • Encrypt data transmissions and erect firewalls to conceal confidential information as it is being transmitted and to keep out tainted digital transfers.
  • Perform risk assessments and execute tests of data processing system to ensure functioning of data processing activities and security measures.
  • Modify computer security files to incorporate new software, correct errors, or change individual access status.
  • Review violations of computer security procedures and discuss procedures with violators to ensure violations are not repeated.
  • Document computer security and emergency measures policies, procedures, and tests.
  • Confer with users to discuss issues such as computer data access needs, security violations, and programming changes.
  • Monitor use of data files and regulate access to safeguard information in computer files.
  • Coordinate implementation of computer system plan with establishment personnel and outside vendors.
  • Train users and promote security awareness to ensure system security and to improve server and network efficiency.
  • Maintain permanent fleet cryptologic and carry-on direct support systems required in special land, sea surface and subsurface operations.
15-1221.00Computer and Information Research Scientists
Conduct research into fundamental computer and information science as theorists, designers, or inventors. Develop solutions to problems in the field of computer hardware and software.
  • Analyze problems to develop solutions involving computer hardware and software.
  • Apply theoretical expertise and innovation to create or apply new technology, such as adapting principles for applying computers to new uses.
  • Assign or schedule tasks to meet work priorities and goals.
  • Meet with managers, vendors, and others to solicit cooperation and resolve problems.
  • Design computers and the software that runs them.
  • Conduct logical analyses of business, scientific, engineering, and other technical problems, formulating mathematical models of problems for solution by computers.
  • Evaluate project plans and proposals to assess feasibility issues.
  • Participate in multidisciplinary projects in areas such as virtual reality, human-computer interaction, or robotics.
  • Consult with users, management, vendors, and technicians to determine computing needs and system requirements.
  • Develop and interpret organizational goals, policies, and procedures.
  • Develop performance standards, and evaluate work in light of established standards.
  • Maintain network hardware and software, direct network security measures, and monitor networks to ensure availability to system users.
  • Direct daily operations of departments, coordinating project activities with other departments.
  • Participate in staffing decisions and direct training of subordinates.
  • Approve, prepare, monitor, and adjust operational budgets.
15-1231.00Computer Network Support Specialists
Analyze, test, troubleshoot, and evaluate existing network systems, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), cloud networks, servers, and other data communications networks. Perform network maintenance to ensure networks operate correctly with minimal interruption.
  • Back up network data.
  • Configure security settings or access permissions for groups or individuals.
  • Analyze and report computer network security breaches or attempted breaches.
  • Identify the causes of networking problems, using diagnostic testing software and equipment.
  • Document network support activities.
  • Configure wide area network (WAN) or local area network (LAN) routers or related equipment.
  • Install network software, including security or firewall software.
  • Troubleshoot network or connectivity problems for users or user groups.
  • Provide telephone support related to networking or connectivity issues.
  • Evaluate local area network (LAN) or wide area network (WAN) performance data to ensure sufficient availability or speed, to identify network problems, or for disaster recovery purposes.
  • Analyze network data to determine network usage, disk space availability, or server function.
  • Perform routine maintenance or standard repairs to networking components or equipment.
  • Configure and define parameters for installation or testing of local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), hubs, routers, switches, controllers, multiplexers, or related networking equipment.
  • Install new hardware or software systems or components, ensuring integration with existing network systems.
  • Test computer software or hardware, using standard diagnostic testing equipment and procedures.
  • Install or repair network cables, including fiber optic cables.
  • Monitor industry websites or publications for information about patches, releases, viruses, or potential problem identification.
  • Create or update technical documentation for network installations or changes to existing installations.
  • Train users in procedures related to network applications software or related systems.
  • Test repaired items to ensure proper operation.
  • Install and configure wireless networking equipment.
  • Maintain logs of network activity.
  • Document help desk requests and resolutions.
  • Research hardware or software products to meet technical networking or security needs.
  • Create or revise user instructions, procedures, or manuals.
  • Run monthly network reports.
15-1232.00Computer User Support Specialists
Provide technical assistance to computer users. Answer questions or resolve computer problems for clients in person, via telephone, or electronically. May provide assistance concerning the use of computer hardware and software, including printing, installation, word processing, electronic mail, and operating systems.
  • Answer user inquiries regarding computer software or hardware operation to resolve problems.
  • Oversee the daily performance of computer systems.
  • Read technical manuals, confer with users, or conduct computer diagnostics to investigate and resolve problems or to provide technical assistance and support.
  • Set up equipment for employee use, performing or ensuring proper installation of cables, operating systems, or appropriate software.
  • Develop training materials and procedures, or train users in the proper use of hardware or software.
  • Refer major hardware or software problems or defective products to vendors or technicians for service.
  • Enter commands and observe system functioning to verify correct operations and detect errors.
  • Maintain records of daily data communication transactions, problems and remedial actions taken, or installation activities.
  • Install and perform minor repairs to hardware, software, or peripheral equipment, following design or installation specifications.
  • Prepare evaluations of software or hardware, and recommend improvements or upgrades.
  • Confer with staff, users, and management to establish requirements for new systems or modifications.
  • Modify and customize commercial programs for internal needs.
  • Inspect equipment and read order sheets to prepare for delivery to users.
  • Conduct office automation feasibility studies, including workflow analysis, space design, or cost comparison analysis.
  • Read trade magazines and technical manuals, or attend conferences and seminars to maintain knowledge of hardware and software.
  • Hire, supervise, and direct workers engaged in special project work, problem solving, monitoring, and installing data communication equipment and software.
15-1241.00Computer Network Architects
Design and implement computer and information networks, such as local area networks (LAN), wide area networks (WAN), intranets, extranets, and other data communications networks. Perform network modeling, analysis, and planning, including analysis of capacity needs for network infrastructures. May also design network and computer security measures. May research and recommend network and data communications hardware and software.
  • Develop or recommend network security measures, such as firewalls, network security audits, or automated security probes.
  • Develop disaster recovery plans.
  • Monitor and analyze network performance and reports on data input or output to detect problems, identify inefficient use of computer resources, or perform capacity planning.
  • Coordinate network or design activities with designers of associated networks.
  • Develop conceptual, logical, or physical network designs.
  • Develop and implement solutions for network problems.
  • Determine specific network hardware or software requirements, such as platforms, interfaces, bandwidths, or routine schemas.
  • Communicate with system users to ensure accounts are set up properly or to diagnose and solve operational problems.
  • Visit vendors, attend conferences or training sessions, or study technical journals to keep up with changes in technology.
  • Evaluate network designs to determine whether customer requirements are met efficiently and effectively.
  • Participate in network technology upgrade or expansion projects, including installation of hardware and software and integration testing.
  • Adjust network sizes to meet volume or capacity demands.
  • Prepare detailed network specifications, including diagrams, charts, equipment configurations, or recommended technologies.
  • Develop network-related documentation.
  • Estimate time and materials needed to complete projects.
  • Supervise engineers or other staff in the design or implementation of network solutions.
  • Coordinate network operations, maintenance, repairs, or upgrades.
  • Develop procedures to track, project, or report network availability, reliability, capacity, or utilization.
  • Research and test new or modified hardware or software products to determine performance and interoperability.
  • Communicate with customers, sales staff, or marketing staff to determine customer needs.
  • Prepare design presentations and proposals for staff or customers.
  • Design, build, or operate equipment configuration prototypes, including network hardware, software, servers, or server operation systems.
  • Prepare or monitor project schedules, budgets, or cost control systems.
  • Develop plans or budgets for network equipment replacement.
  • Coordinate installation of new equipment.
  • Explain design specifications to integration or test engineers.
  • Develop or maintain project reporting systems.
  • Use network computer-aided design (CAD) software packages to optimize network designs.
  • Maintain or coordinate the maintenance of network peripherals, such as printers.
  • Develop and write procedures for installation, use, or troubleshooting of communications hardware or software.
  • Communicate with vendors to gather information about products, alert them to future needs, resolve problems, or address system maintenance issues.
  • Maintain networks by performing activities such as file addition, deletion, or backup.
  • Design, organize, and deliver product awareness, skills transfer, or product education sessions for staff or suppliers.
15-1241.01Telecommunications Engineering Specialists
Design or configure wired, wireless, and satellite communications systems for voice, video, and data services. Supervise installation, service, and maintenance.
  • Communicate with telecommunications vendors to obtain pricing and technical specifications for available hardware, software, or services.
  • Keep abreast of changes in industry practices and emerging telecommunications technology by reviewing current literature, talking with colleagues, participating in educational programs, attending meetings or workshops, or participating in professional organizations or conferences.
  • Implement or perform preventive maintenance, backup, or recovery procedures.
  • Consult with users, administrators, and engineers to identify business and technical requirements for proposed system modifications or technology purchases.
  • Assess existing facilities' needs for new or modified telecommunications systems.
  • Order or maintain inventory of telecommunications equipment for customer premises equipment (CPE), facilities, access networks, or backbone networks.
  • Install, or coordinate installation of, new or modified hardware, software, or programming modules of telecommunications systems.
  • Develop, maintain, or implement telecommunications disaster recovery plans to ensure business continuity.
  • Monitor and analyze system performance, such as network traffic, security, and capacity.
  • Estimate costs for system or component implementation and operation.
  • Implement system renovation projects in collaboration with technical staff, engineering consultants, installers, and vendors.
  • Provide user support by diagnosing network and device problems and implementing technical or procedural solutions.
  • Document procedures for hardware and software installation and use.
  • Test and evaluate hardware and software to determine efficiency, reliability, or compatibility with existing systems.
  • Work with personnel and facilities management staff to install, remove, or relocate user connectivity equipment and devices.
  • Inspect sites to determine physical configuration, such as device locations and conduit pathways.
  • Supervise maintenance of telecommunications equipment.
  • Review and evaluate requests from engineers, managers, and technicians for system modifications.
  • Document user support activity, such as system problems, corrective actions, resolution status, and completed equipment installations.
  • Prepare purchase requisitions for computer hardware and software, networking and telecommunications equipment, test equipment, cabling, or tools.
  • Document technical specifications and operating standards for telecommunications equipment.
  • Instruct in use of voice, video, and data communications systems.
  • Prepare system activity and performance reports.
  • Use computer-aided design (CAD) software to prepare or evaluate network diagrams, floor plans, or site configurations for existing facilities, renovations, or new systems.
  • Implement controls to provide security for operating systems, software, and data.
  • Manage user access to systems and equipment through account management and password administration.
15-1242.00Database Administrators
Administer, test, and implement computer databases, applying knowledge of database management systems. Coordinate changes to computer databases. Identify, investigate, and resolve database performance issues, database capacity, and database scalability. May plan, coordinate, and implement security measures to safeguard computer databases.
  • Test programs or databases, correct errors, and make necessary modifications.
  • Plan, coordinate and implement security measures to safeguard information in computer files against accidental or unauthorized damage, modification or disclosure.
  • Modify existing databases and database management systems or direct programmers and analysts to make changes.
  • Specify users and user access levels for each segment of database.
  • Write and code logical and physical database descriptions and specify identifiers of database to management system or direct others in coding descriptions.
  • Develop standards and guidelines to guide the use and acquisition of software and to protect vulnerable information.
  • Review procedures in database management system manuals for making changes to database.
  • Revise company definition of data as defined in data dictionary.
  • Train users and answer questions.
  • Review workflow charts developed by programmer analyst to understand tasks computer will perform, such as updating records.
  • Approve, schedule, plan, and supervise the installation and testing of new products and improvements to computer systems, such as the installation of new databases.
  • Identify and evaluate industry trends in database systems to serve as a source of information and advice for upper management.
  • Develop data model describing data elements and how they are used, following procedures and using pen, template or computer software.
  • Select and enter codes to monitor database performance and to create production database.
  • Identify, evaluate and recommend hardware or software technologies to achieve desired database performance.
  • Plan and install upgrades of database management system software to enhance database performance.
  • Provide technical support to junior staff or clients.
  • Test changes to database applications or systems.
15-1243.00Database Architects
Design strategies for enterprise databases, data warehouse systems, and multidimensional networks. Set standards for database operations, programming, query processes, and security. Model, design, and construct large relational databases or data warehouses. Create and optimize data models for warehouse infrastructure and workflow. Integrate new systems with existing warehouse structure and refine system performance and functionality.
  • Design databases to support business applications, ensuring system scalability, security, performance and reliability.
  • Develop database architectural strategies at the modeling, design and implementation stages to address business or industry requirements.
  • Collaborate with system architects, software architects, design analysts, and others to understand business or industry requirements.
  • Develop data models for applications, metadata tables, views or related database structures.
  • Set up database clusters, backup, or recovery processes.
  • Create and enforce database development standards.
  • Design database applications, such as interfaces, data transfer mechanisms, global temporary tables, data partitions, and function-based indexes to enable efficient access of the generic database structure.
  • Develop and document database architectures.
  • Document and communicate database schemas, using accepted notations.
  • Identify, evaluate and recommend hardware or software technologies to achieve desired database performance.
  • Demonstrate database technical functionality, such as performance, security and reliability.
  • Develop load-balancing processes to eliminate down time for backup processes.
  • Develop or maintain archived procedures, procedural codes, or queries for applications.
  • Identify and correct deviations from database development standards.
  • Provide technical support to junior staff or clients.
  • Plan and install upgrades of database management system software to enhance database performance.
  • Develop data model describing data elements and how they are used, following procedures and using pen, template or computer software.
  • Develop methods for integrating different products so they work properly together such as customizing commercial databases to fit specific needs.
  • Establish and calculate optimum values for database parameters, using manuals and calculator.
  • Identify and evaluate industry trends in database systems to serve as a source of information and advice for upper management.
  • Review project requests describing database user needs to estimate time and cost required to accomplish project.
  • Test programs or databases, correct errors, and make necessary modifications.
  • Train users and answer questions.
  • Work as part of a project team to coordinate database development and determine project scope and limitations.
  • Write and code logical and physical database descriptions and specify identifiers of database to management system or direct others in coding descriptions.
15-1243.01Data Warehousing Specialists
Design, model, or implement corporate data warehousing activities. Program and configure warehouses of database information and provide support to warehouse users.
  • Develop data warehouse process models, including sourcing, loading, transformation, and extraction.
  • Verify the structure, accuracy, or quality of warehouse data.
  • Map data between source systems, data warehouses, and data marts.
  • Develop and implement data extraction procedures from other systems, such as administration, billing, or claims.
  • Design and implement warehouse database structures.
  • Develop or maintain standards, such as organization, structure, or nomenclature, for the design of data warehouse elements, such as data architectures, models, tools, and databases.
  • Provide or coordinate troubleshooting support for data warehouses.
  • Write new programs or modify existing programs to meet customer requirements, using current programming languages and technologies.
  • Design, implement, or operate comprehensive data warehouse systems to balance optimization of data access with batch loading and resource utilization factors, according to customer requirements.
  • Perform system analysis, data analysis or programming, using a variety of computer languages and procedures.
  • Create supporting documentation, such as metadata and diagrams of entity relationships, business processes, and process flow.
  • Create or implement metadata processes and frameworks.
  • Review designs, codes, test plans, or documentation to ensure quality.
  • Create plans, test files, and scripts for data warehouse testing, ranging from unit to integration testing.
  • Select methods, techniques, or criteria for data warehousing evaluative procedures.
  • Implement business rules via stored procedures, middleware, or other technologies.
  • Prepare functional or technical documentation for data warehouses.
  • Test software systems or applications for software enhancements or new products.
15-1244.00Network and Computer Systems Administrators
Install, configure, and maintain an organization's local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), data communications network, operating systems, and physical and virtual servers. Perform system monitoring and verify the integrity and availability of hardware, network, and server resources and systems. Review system and application logs and verify completion of scheduled jobs, including system backups. Analyze network and server resource consumption and control user access. Install and upgrade software and maintain software licenses. May assist in network modeling, analysis, planning, and coordination between network and data communications hardware and software.
  • Maintain and administer computer networks and related computing environments including computer hardware, systems software, applications software, and all configurations.
  • Perform data backups and disaster recovery operations.
  • Diagnose, troubleshoot, and resolve hardware, software, or other network and system problems, and replace defective components when necessary.
  • Configure, monitor, and maintain email applications or virus protection software.
  • Operate master consoles to monitor the performance of computer systems and networks, and to coordinate computer network access and use.
  • Monitor network performance to determine whether adjustments need to be made, and to determine where changes will need to be made in the future.
  • Plan, coordinate, and implement network security measures to protect data, software, and hardware.
  • Analyze equipment performance records to determine the need for repair or replacement.
  • Confer with network users about how to solve existing system problems.
  • Recommend changes to improve systems and network configurations, and determine hardware or software requirements related to such changes.
  • Design, configure, and test computer hardware, networking software and operating system software.
  • Perform routine network startup and shutdown procedures, and maintain control records.
  • Load computer tapes and disks, and install software and printer paper or forms.
  • Train people in computer system use.
  • Maintain logs related to network functions, as well as maintenance and repair records.
  • Gather data pertaining to customer needs, and use the information to identify, predict, interpret, and evaluate system and network requirements.
  • Coordinate with vendors and with company personnel to facilitate purchases.
  • Implement and provide technical support for voice services and equipment, such as private branch exchange, voice mail system, and telecom system.
  • Maintain an inventory of parts for emergency repairs.
  • Research new technologies by attending seminars, reading trade articles, or taking classes, and implement or recommend the implementation of new technologies.
15-1251.00Computer Programmers
Create, modify, and test the code and scripts that allow computer applications to run. Work from specifications drawn up by software and web developers or other individuals. May develop and write computer programs to store, locate, and retrieve specific documents, data, and information.
  • Write, analyze, review, and rewrite programs, using workflow chart and diagram, and applying knowledge of computer capabilities, subject matter, and symbolic logic.
  • Correct errors by making appropriate changes and rechecking the program to ensure that the desired results are produced.
  • Perform or direct revision, repair, or expansion of existing programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements.
  • Write, update, and maintain computer programs or software packages to handle specific jobs such as tracking inventory, storing or retrieving data, or controlling other equipment.
  • Consult with managerial, engineering, and technical personnel to clarify program intent, identify problems, and suggest changes.
  • Conduct trial runs of programs and software applications to be sure they will produce the desired information and that the instructions are correct.
  • Prepare detailed workflow charts and diagrams that describe input, output, and logical operation, and convert them into a series of instructions coded in a computer language.
  • Compile and write documentation of program development and subsequent revisions, inserting comments in the coded instructions so others can understand the program.
  • Consult with and assist computer operators or system analysts to define and resolve problems in running computer programs.
  • Perform systems analysis and programming tasks to maintain and control the use of computer systems software as a systems programmer.
  • Write or contribute to instructions or manuals to guide end users.
  • Investigate whether networks, workstations, the central processing unit of the system, or peripheral equipment are responding to a program's instructions.
  • Assign, coordinate, and review work and activities of programming personnel.
  • Train subordinates in programming and program coding.
  • Develop Web sites.
  • Train users on the use and function of computer programs.
  • Collaborate with computer manufacturers and other users to develop new programming methods.
15-1252.00Software Developers
Research, design, and develop computer and network software or specialized utility programs. Analyze user needs and develop software solutions, applying principles and techniques of computer science, engineering, and mathematical analysis. Update software or enhance existing software capabilities. May work with computer hardware engineers to integrate hardware and software systems, and develop specifications and performance requirements. May maintain databases within an application area, working individually or coordinating database development as part of a team.
  • Analyze information to determine, recommend, and plan installation of a new system or modification of an existing system.
  • Analyze user needs and software requirements to determine feasibility of design within time and cost constraints.
  • Confer with data processing or project managers to obtain information on limitations or capabilities for data processing projects.
  • Confer with systems analysts, engineers, programmers and others to design systems and to obtain information on project limitations and capabilities, performance requirements and interfaces.
  • Consult with customers or other departments on project status, proposals, or technical issues, such as software system design or maintenance.
  • Coordinate installation of software system.
  • Design, develop and modify software systems, using scientific analysis and mathematical models to predict and measure outcomes and consequences of design.
  • Determine system performance standards.
  • Develop or direct software system testing or validation procedures, programming, or documentation.
  • Modify existing software to correct errors, adapt it to new hardware, or upgrade interfaces and improve performance.
  • Monitor functioning of equipment to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications.
  • Obtain and evaluate information on factors such as reporting formats required, costs, or security needs to determine hardware configuration.
  • Prepare reports or correspondence concerning project specifications, activities, or status.
  • Recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, or humidity in area of system installation.
  • Specify power supply requirements and configuration.
  • Store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements.
  • Supervise and assign work to programmers, designers, technologists, technicians, or other engineering or scientific personnel.
  • Supervise the work of programmers, technologists and technicians and other engineering and scientific personnel.
  • Train users to use new or modified equipment.
15-1253.00Software Quality Assurance Analysts and Testers
Develop and execute software tests to identify software problems and their causes. Test system modifications to prepare for implementation. Document software and application defects using a bug tracking system and report defects to software or web developers. Create and maintain databases of known defects. May participate in software design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, operational characteristics, product designs, and schedules.
  • Design test plans, scenarios, scripts, or procedures.
  • Document software defects, using a bug tracking system, and report defects to software developers.
  • Identify, analyze, and document problems with program function, output, online screen, or content.
  • Develop testing programs that address areas such as database impacts, software scenarios, regression testing, negative testing, error or bug retests, or usability.
  • Document test procedures to ensure replicability and compliance with standards.
  • Participate in product design reviews to provide input on functional requirements, product designs, schedules, or potential problems.
  • Plan test schedules or strategies in accordance with project scope or delivery dates.
  • Conduct software compatibility tests with programs, hardware, operating systems, or network environments.
  • Test system modifications to prepare for implementation.
  • Monitor bug resolution efforts and track successes.
  • Review software documentation to ensure technical accuracy, compliance, or completeness, or to mitigate risks.
  • Provide feedback and recommendations to developers on software usability and functionality.
  • Update automated test scripts to ensure currency.
  • Create or maintain databases of known test defects.
  • Install and configure recreations of software production environments to allow testing of software performance.
  • Install, maintain, or use software testing programs.
  • Monitor program performance to ensure efficient and problem-free operations.
  • Identify program deviance from standards, and suggest modifications to ensure compliance.
  • Design or develop automated testing tools.
  • Develop or specify standards, methods, or procedures to determine product quality or release readiness.
  • Investigate customer problems referred by technical support.
  • Conduct historical analyses of test results.
  • Perform initial debugging procedures by reviewing configuration files, logs, or code pieces to determine breakdown source.
  • Evaluate or recommend software for testing or bug tracking.
  • Coordinate user or third-party testing.
  • Collaborate with field staff or customers to evaluate or diagnose problems and recommend possible solutions.
  • Visit beta testing sites to evaluate software performance.
  • Modify existing software to correct errors, allow it to adapt to new hardware, or to improve its performance.
  • Recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, or humidity in area of system installation.
  • Store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements.
15-1254.00Web Developers
Develop and implement websites, web applications, application databases, and interactive web interfaces. Evaluate code to ensure that it is properly structured, meets industry standards, and is compatible with browsers and devices. Optimize website performance, scalability, and server-side code and processes. May develop website infrastructure and integrate websites with other computer applications.
  • Write supporting code for Web applications or Web sites.
  • Design, build, or maintain Web sites, using authoring or scripting languages, content creation tools, management tools, and digital media.
  • Back up files from Web sites to local directories for instant recovery in case of problems.
  • Select programming languages, design tools, or applications.
  • Evaluate code to ensure that it is valid, is properly structured, meets industry standards, and is compatible with browsers, devices, or operating systems.
  • Develop databases that support Web applications and Web sites.
  • Perform Web site tests according to planned schedules, or after any Web site or product revision.
  • Perform or direct Web site updates.
  • Maintain understanding of current Web technologies or programming practices through continuing education, reading, or participation in professional conferences, workshops, or groups.
  • Analyze user needs to determine technical requirements.
  • Renew domain name registrations.
  • Respond to user email inquiries, or set up automated systems to send responses.
  • Confer with management or development teams to prioritize needs, resolve conflicts, develop content criteria, or choose solutions.
  • Collaborate with management or users to develop e-commerce strategies and to integrate these strategies with Web sites.
  • Communicate with network personnel or Web site hosting agencies to address hardware or software issues affecting Web sites.
  • Document test plans, testing procedures, or test results.
  • Establish appropriate server directory trees.
  • Recommend and implement performance improvements.
  • Document technical factors such as server load, bandwidth, database performance, and browser and device types.
  • Develop or implement procedures for ongoing Web site revision.
  • Create Web models or prototypes that include physical, interface, logical, or data models.
  • Provide clear, detailed descriptions of Web site specifications, such as product features, activities, software, communication protocols, programming languages, and operating systems software and hardware.
  • Evaluate or recommend server hardware or software.
  • Monitor security system performance logs to identify problems and notify security specialists when problems occur.
  • Install and configure hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) servers and associated operating systems.
  • Research, document, rate, or select alternatives for Web architecture or technologies.
  • Develop system interaction or sequence diagrams.
  • Design and implement Web site security measures, such as firewalls and message encryption.
  • Incorporate technical considerations into Web site design plans, such as budgets, equipment, performance requirements, and legal issues including accessibility and privacy.
15-1255.00Web and Digital Interface Designers
Design digital user interfaces or websites. Develop and test layouts, interfaces, functionality, and navigation menus to ensure compatibility and usability across browsers or devices. May use web framework applications as well as client-side code and processes. May evaluate web design following web and accessibility standards, and may analyze web use metrics and optimize websites for marketability and search engine ranking. May design and test interfaces that facilitate the human-computer interaction and maximize the usability of digital devices, websites, and software with a focus on aesthetics and design. May create graphics used in websites and manage website content and links.
  • Collaborate with management or users to develop e-commerce strategies and to integrate these strategies with Web sites.
  • Collaborate with web development professionals, such as front-end or back-end developers, to complete the full scope of web development projects.
  • Communicate with network personnel or Web site hosting agencies to address hardware or software issues affecting Web sites.
  • Conduct user research to determine design requirements and analyze user feedback to improve design quality.
  • Confer with management or development teams to prioritize needs, resolve conflicts, develop content criteria, or choose solutions.
  • Create searchable indices for Web page content.
  • Create Web models or prototypes that include physical, interface, logical, or data models.
  • Design, build, or maintain Web sites, using authoring or scripting languages, content creation tools, management tools, and digital media.
  • Develop and document style guidelines for Web site content.
  • Develop new visual design concepts and modify concepts based on stakeholder feedback.
  • Develop or implement procedures for ongoing Web site revision.
  • Develop system interaction or sequence diagrams.
  • Develop Web site maps, application models, image templates, or page templates that meet project goals, user needs, or industry standards.
  • Develop, validate, and document test routines and schedules to ensure that test cases mimic external interfaces and address all browser and device types.
  • Direct and execute pre-production activities, such as creating moodboards or storyboards and establishing a project timeline.
  • Document technical factors such as server load, bandwidth, database performance, and browser and device types.
  • Identify or maintain links to and from other Web sites and check links to ensure proper functioning.
  • Identify problems uncovered by testing or customer feedback, and correct problems or refer problems to appropriate personnel for correction.
  • Incorporate technical considerations into Web site design plans, such as budgets, equipment, performance requirements, or legal issues including accessibility and privacy.
  • Maintain understanding of current Web technologies or programming practices through continuing education, reading, or participation in professional conferences, workshops, or groups.
  • Perform or direct Web site updates.
  • Perform Web site tests according to planned schedules, or after any Web site or product revision.
  • Provide clear, detailed descriptions of Web site specifications, such as product features, activities, software, communication protocols, programming languages, and operating systems software and hardware.
  • Register Web sites with search engines to increase Web site traffic.
  • Research and apply innovative solutions for product design, visuals, and user experience to meet the needs of individual web development projects.
  • Research, document, rate, or select alternatives for Web architecture or technologies.
  • Respond to user email inquiries, or set up automated systems to send responses.
  • Select programming languages, design tools, or applications.
  • Write and edit technical documentation for digital interface products and designs, such as user manuals, testing protocols, and reports.
  • Write supporting code for Web applications or Web sites.
15-1255.01Video Game Designers
Design core features of video games. Specify innovative game and role-play mechanics, story lines, and character biographies. Create and maintain design documentation. Guide and collaborate with production staff to produce games as designed.
  • Balance and adjust gameplay experiences to ensure the critical and commercial success of the product.
  • Provide feedback to designers and other colleagues regarding game design features.
  • Create core game features including storylines, role-play mechanics, and character biographies for a new video game or game franchise.
  • Devise missions, challenges, or puzzles to be encountered in game play.
  • Guide design discussions between development teams.
  • Develop and maintain design level documentation, including mechanics, guidelines, and mission outlines.
  • Create and manage documentation, production schedules, prototyping goals, and communication plans in collaboration with production staff.
  • Present new game design concepts to management and technical colleagues, including artists, animators, and programmers.
  • Conduct regular design reviews throughout the game development process.
  • Solicit, obtain, and integrate feedback from design and technical staff into original game design.
  • Document all aspects of formal game design, using mock-up screenshots, sample menu layouts, gameplay flowcharts, and other graphical devices.
  • Provide feedback to production staff regarding technical game qualities or adherence to original design.
  • Prepare two-dimensional concept layouts or three-dimensional mock-ups.
  • Consult with multiple stakeholders to define requirements and implement online features.
  • Oversee gameplay testing to ensure intended gaming experience and game adherence to original vision.
  • Keep abreast of game design technology and techniques, industry trends, or audience interests, reactions, and needs by reviewing current literature, talking with colleagues, participating in educational programs, attending meetings or workshops, or participating in professional organizations or conferences.
  • Create gameplay prototypes for presentation to creative and technical staff and management.
  • Write or supervise the writing of game text and dialogue.
  • Collaborate with artists to achieve appropriate visual style.
  • Determine supplementary virtual features, such as currency, item catalog, menu design, and audio direction.
  • Review or evaluate competitive products, film, music, television, and other art forms to generate new game design ideas.
  • Prepare and revise initial game sketches using two- and three-dimensional graphical design software.
  • Provide test specifications to quality assurance staff.
  • Create gameplay test plans for internal and external test groups.
15-1299.01Web Administrators
Manage web environment design, deployment, development and maintenance activities. Perform testing and quality assurance of web sites and web applications.
  • Monitor systems for intrusions or denial of service attacks, and report security breaches to appropriate personnel.
  • Identify or document backup or recovery plans.
  • Back up or modify applications and related data to provide for disaster recovery.
  • Correct testing-identified problems, or recommend actions for their resolution.
  • Identify, standardize, and communicate levels of access and security.
  • Determine sources of Web page or server problems, and take action to correct such problems.
  • Implement updates, upgrades, and patches in a timely manner to limit loss of service.
  • Implement Web site security measures, such as firewalls or message encryption.
  • Collaborate with development teams to discuss, analyze, or resolve usability issues.
  • Test issues such as system integration, performance, and system security on a regular schedule or after any major program modifications.
  • Perform user testing or usage analyses to determine Web sites' effectiveness or usability.
  • Document application and Web site changes or change procedures.
  • Track, compile, and analyze Web site usage data.
  • Test backup or recovery plans regularly and resolve any problems.
  • Recommend Web site improvements, and develop budgets to support recommendations.
  • Review or update Web page content or links in a timely manner, using appropriate tools.
  • Install or configure Web server software or hardware to ensure that directory structure is well-defined, logical, and secure, and that files are named properly.
  • Gather, analyze, or document user feedback to locate or resolve sources of problems.
  • Set up or maintain monitoring tools on Web servers or Web sites.
  • Monitor Web developments through continuing education, reading, or participation in professional conferences, workshops, or groups.
  • Develop or document style guidelines for Web site content.
  • Develop Web site performance metrics.
  • Collaborate with Web developers to create and operate internal and external Web sites, or to manage projects, such as e-marketing campaigns.
  • Identify or address interoperability requirements.
  • Develop or implement procedures for ongoing Web site revision.
  • Check and analyze operating system or application log files regularly to verify proper system performance.
  • Provide training or technical assistance in Web site implementation or use.
  • Evaluate testing routines or procedures for adequacy, sufficiency, and effectiveness.
  • Inform Web site users of problems, problem resolutions, or application changes and updates.
  • Document installation or configuration procedures to allow maintenance and repetition.
  • Develop testing routines and procedures.
  • Test new software packages for use in Web operations or other applications.
  • Develop and implement marketing plans for home pages, including print advertising or advertisement rotation.
  • Evaluate or recommend server hardware or software.
  • Administer internet or intranet infrastructure, including Web, file, and mail servers.
15-1299.02Geographic Information Systems Technologists and Technicians
Assist scientists or related professionals in building, maintaining, modifying, or using geographic information systems (GIS) databases. May also perform some custom application development or provide user support.
  • Produce data layers, maps, tables, or reports, using spatial analysis procedures or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, equipment, or systems.
  • Design or prepare graphic representations of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, using GIS hardware or software applications.
  • Maintain or modify existing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases.
  • Provide technical expertise in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to clients or users.
  • Perform computer programming, data analysis, or software development for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications, including the maintenance of existing systems or research and development for future enhancements.
  • Enter data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases, using techniques such as coordinate geometry, keyboard entry of tabular data, manual digitizing of maps, scanning or automatic conversion to vectors, or conversion of other sources of digital data.
  • Review existing or incoming data for currency, accuracy, usefulness, quality, or completeness of documentation.
  • Perform geospatial data building, modeling, or analysis, using advanced spatial analysis, data manipulation, or cartography software.
  • Design or coordinate the development of integrated Geographic Information Systems (GIS) spatial or non-spatial databases.
  • Perform integrated or computerized Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses to address scientific problems.
  • Select cartographic elements needed for effective presentation of information.
  • Provide technical support to users or clients regarding the maintenance, development, or operation of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases, equipment, or applications.
  • Collect, compile, or integrate Geographic Information Systems (GIS) data, such as remote sensing or cartographic data for inclusion in map manuscripts.
  • Interpret aerial or ortho photographs.
  • Meet with clients to discuss topics such as technical specifications, customized solutions, or operational problems.
  • Create, analyze, report, convert, or transfer data, using specialized applications program software.
  • Document, design, code, or test Geographic Information Systems (GIS) models, internet mapping solutions, or other applications.
  • Confer with users to analyze, configure, or troubleshoot applications.
  • Design, program, or model Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications or procedures.
  • Develop specialized computer software routines, internet-based Geographic Information Systems (GIS) databases, or business applications to customize geographic information.
  • Make recommendations regarding upgrades, considering implications of new or revised Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, equipment, or applications.
  • Assist users in formulating Geographic Information Systems (GIS) requirements or understanding the implications of alternatives.
  • Create visual representations of geospatial data, using complex procedures such as analytical modeling, three-dimensional renderings, or plot creation.
  • Transfer or rescale information from original photographs onto maps or other photographs.
  • Prepare training materials for, or make presentations to, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) users.
  • Apply three-dimensional (3D) or four-dimensional (4D) technologies to geospatial data to allow for new or different analyses or applications.
  • Conduct research, data analysis, systems design, or support for software such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) or Global Positioning Systems (GPS) mapping software.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, continue education, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, equipment, or systems.
  • Recommend procedures, equipment, or software upgrades to increase data accessibility or ease of use.
15-1299.03Document Management Specialists
Implement and administer enterprise-wide document management systems and related procedures that allow organizations to capture, store, retrieve, share, and destroy electronic records and documents.
  • Conduct needs assessments to identify document management requirements of departments or end users.
  • Consult with end users regarding problems in accessing electronic content.
  • Monitor regulatory activity to maintain compliance with records and document management laws.
  • Assist in determining document management policies to facilitate efficient, legal, and secure access to electronic content.
  • Implement electronic document processing, retrieval, and distribution systems in collaboration with other information technology specialists.
  • Administer document and system access rights and revision control to ensure security of system and integrity of master documents.
  • Develop or configure document management system features, such as user interfaces, access profiles, and document workflow procedures.
  • Assist in the assessment, acquisition, or deployment of new electronic document management systems.
  • Search electronic sources, such as databases or repositories, or manual sources for information.
  • Keep abreast of developments in document management technologies and techniques by reviewing current literature, talking with colleagues, participating in educational programs, attending meetings or workshops, or participating in professional organizations or conferences.
  • Retrieve electronic assets from repository for distribution to users, collecting and returning to repository, if necessary.
  • Develop, document, or maintain standards, best practices, or system usage procedures.
  • Write, review, or execute plans for testing new or established document management systems.
  • Implement scanning or other automated data entry procedures, using imaging devices and document imaging software.
  • Identify and classify documents or other electronic content according to characteristics such as security level, function, and metadata.
  • Prepare and record changes to official documents and confirm changes with legal and compliance management staff, including enterprise-wide records management staff.
  • Assist in the development of document or content classification taxonomies to facilitate information capture, search, and retrieval.
  • Prepare support documentation and training materials for end users of document management systems.
  • Propose recommendations for improving content management system capabilities.
  • Operate data capture technology to import digitized documents into document management system.
  • Document technical functions and specifications for new or proposed content management systems.
  • Exercise security surveillance over document processing, reproduction, distribution, storage, or archiving.
  • Analyze, interpret, or disseminate system performance data.
15-1299.04Penetration Testers
Evaluate network system security by conducting simulated internal and external cyberattacks using adversary tools and techniques. Attempt to breach and exploit critical systems and gain access to sensitive information to assess system security.
  • Assess the physical security of servers, systems, or network devices to identify vulnerability to temperature, vandalism, or natural disasters.
  • Collect stakeholder data to evaluate risk and to develop mitigation strategies.
  • Conduct network and security system audits using established criteria.
  • Configure information systems to incorporate principles of least functionality and least access.
  • Design security solutions to address known device vulnerabilities.
  • Develop and execute tests that simulate the techniques of known cyber threat actors.
  • Develop infiltration tests that exploit device vulnerabilities.
  • Develop presentations on threat intelligence.
  • Develop security penetration testing processes, such as wireless, data networks, and telecommunication security tests.
  • Discuss security solutions with information technology teams or management.
  • Document penetration test findings.
  • Evaluate vulnerability assessments of local computing environments, networks, infrastructures, or enclave boundaries.
  • Gather cyber intelligence to identify vulnerabilities.
  • Identify new threat tactics, techniques, or procedures used by cyber threat actors.
  • Identify security system weaknesses using penetration tests.
  • Investigate security incidents by using computer forensics, network forensics, root cause analysis, or malware analysis.
  • Keep up with new penetration testing tools and methods.
  • Maintain up-to-date knowledge of hacking trends.
  • Prepare and submit reports describing the results of security fixes.
  • Test the security of systems by attempting to gain access to networks, web-based applications, or computers.
  • Update corporate policies to improve cyber security.
  • Write audit reports to communicate technical and procedural findings and recommend solutions.
15-1299.05Information Security Engineers
Develop and oversee the implementation of information security procedures and policies. Build, maintain and upgrade security technology, such as firewalls, for the safe use of computer networks and the transmission and retrieval of information. Design and implement appropriate security controls to identify vulnerabilities and protect digital files and electronic infrastructures. Monitor and respond to computer security breaches, viruses, and intrusions, and perform forensic investigation. May oversee the assessment of information security systems.
  • Assess the quality of security controls using performance indicators.
  • Conduct investigations of information security breaches to identify vulnerabilities and evaluate the damage.
  • Coordinate documentation of computer security or emergency measure policies, procedures, or tests.
  • Coordinate monitoring of networks or systems for security breaches or intrusions.
  • Coordinate vulnerability assessments or analysis of information security systems.
  • Develop information security standards and best practices.
  • Develop or implement software tools to assist in the detection, prevention, and analysis of security threats.
  • Develop or install software, such as firewalls and data encryption programs, to protect sensitive information.
  • Develop response and recovery strategies for security breaches.
  • Identify or implement solutions to information security problems.
  • Identify security system weaknesses using penetration tests.
  • Oversee development of plans to safeguard computer files against accidental or unauthorized modification, destruction, or disclosure or to meet emergency data processing needs.
  • Oversee performance of risk assessment or execution of system tests to ensure the functioning of data processing activities or security measures.
  • Provide technical support to computer users for installation and use of security products.
  • Recommend information security enhancements to management.
  • Review security assessments for computing environments or check for compliance with cybersecurity standards and regulations.
  • Scan networks using vulnerability assessment tools to identify vulnerabilities.
  • Train staff on and oversee the use of information security standards, policies, and best practices.
  • Troubleshoot security and network problems.
  • Write reports regarding investigations of information security breaches or network evaluations.
15-1299.06Digital Forensics Analysts
Conduct investigations on computer-based crimes establishing documentary or physical evidence, such as digital media and logs associated with cyber intrusion incidents. Analyze digital evidence and investigate computer security incidents to derive information in support of system and network vulnerability mitigation. Preserve and present computer-related evidence in support of criminal, fraud, counterintelligence, or law enforcement investigations.
  • Adhere to legal policies and procedures related to handling digital media.
  • Analyze log files or other digital information to identify the perpetrators of network intrusions.
  • Conduct predictive or reactive analyses on security measures to support cyber security initiatives.
  • Create system images or capture network settings from information technology environments to preserve as evidence.
  • Develop plans for investigating alleged computer crimes, violations, or suspicious activity.
  • Develop policies or requirements for data collection, processing, or reporting.
  • Duplicate digital evidence to use for data recovery and analysis procedures.
  • Identify or develop reverse-engineering tools to improve system capabilities or detect vulnerabilities.
  • Maintain cyber defense software or hardware to support responses to cyber incidents.
  • Maintain knowledge of laws, regulations, policies or other issuances pertaining to digital forensics or information privacy.
  • Perform file signature analysis to verify files on storage media or discover potential hidden files.
  • Perform forensic investigations of operating or file systems.
  • Perform web service network traffic analysis or waveform analysis to detect anomalies, such as unusual events or trends.
  • Preserve and maintain digital forensic evidence for analysis.
  • Recommend cyber defense software or hardware to support responses to cyber incidents.
  • Recover data or decrypt seized data.
  • Write and execute scripts to automate tasks, such as parsing large data files.
  • Write cyber defense recommendations, reports, or white papers using research or experience.
  • Write reports, sign affidavits, or give depositions for legal proceedings.
  • Write technical summaries to report findings.
15-1299.07Blockchain Engineers
Maintain and support distributed and decentralized blockchain-based networks or block-chain applications such as cryptocurrency exchange, payment processing, document sharing, and digital voting. Design and deploy secure block-chain design patterns and solutions over geographically distributed networks using advanced technologies. May assist with infrastructure setup and testing for application transparency and security.
  • Assess blockchain threats, such as untested code and unprotected keys.
  • Automate the deployment of software updates over geographically distributed network nodes.
  • Design and deploy blockchain design patterns to make transactions secure, transparent, and immutable.
  • Design and develop blockchain technologies for industries such as finance and music.
  • Design and implement dashboard and data visualizations to meet customer reporting needs.
  • Design and implement data repositories to integrate data.
  • Design and verify cryptographic protocols to protect private information.
  • Determine specifications for, or implement, logging.
  • Develop a maintainable code base using object-oriented design principles, practices, or patterns.
  • Discuss and plan systems with solution architects, system engineers, or cybersecurity experts to meet customer requirements.
  • Discuss data needs with engineers, product managers, or data scientists to identify blockchain requirements.
  • Evaluate blockchain processes or risks based on security assessments or control matrix reviews.
  • Evaluate new blockchain technologies and vendor products.
  • Implement catastrophic failure handlers to identify security breaches and prevent serious damage.
  • Run infrastructure tests to examine the behavior of large peer-to-peer networks.
  • Test the security and performance of blockchain infrastructures.
  • Update client and server applications responsible for integration and business logic.
15-1299.08Computer Systems Engineers/Architects
Design and develop solutions to complex applications problems, system administration issues, or network concerns. Perform systems management and integration functions.
  • Verify stability, interoperability, portability, security, or scalability of system architecture.
  • Develop system engineering, software engineering, system integration, or distributed system architectures.
  • Collaborate with engineers or software developers to select appropriate design solutions or ensure the compatibility of system components.
  • Identify system data, hardware, or software components required to meet user needs.
  • Communicate with staff or clients to understand specific system requirements.
  • Research, test, or verify proper functioning of software patches and fixes.
  • Provide advice on project costs, design concepts, or design changes.
  • Perform security analyses of developed or packaged software components.
  • Provide technical guidance or support for the development or troubleshooting of systems.
  • Document design specifications, installation instructions, and other system-related information.
  • Communicate project information through presentations, technical reports, or white papers.
  • Define and analyze objectives, scope, issues, or organizational impact of information systems.
  • Monitor system operation to detect potential problems.
  • Design and conduct hardware or software tests.
  • Evaluate current or emerging technologies to consider factors such as cost, portability, compatibility, or usability.
  • Provide customers or installation teams guidelines for implementing secure systems.
  • Establish functional or system standards to address operational requirements, quality requirements, and design constraints.
  • Investigate system component suitability for specified purposes and make recommendations regarding component use.
  • Complete models and simulations, using manual or automated tools, to analyze or predict system performance under different operating conditions.
  • Develop or approve project plans, schedules, or budgets.
  • Develop efficient and effective system controllers.
  • Evaluate existing systems to determine effectiveness and suggest changes to meet organizational requirements.
  • Configure servers to meet functional specifications.
  • Direct the analysis, development, and operation of complete computer systems.
  • Develop application-specific software.
  • Perform ongoing hardware and software maintenance operations, including installing or upgrading hardware or software.
  • Direct the installation of operating systems, network or application software, or computer or network hardware.
  • Train system users in system operation or maintenance.
15-1299.09Information Technology Project Managers
Plan, initiate, and manage information technology (IT) projects. Lead and guide the work of technical staff. Serve as liaison between business and technical aspects of projects. Plan project stages and assess business implications for each stage. Monitor progress to assure deadlines, standards, and cost targets are met.
  • Manage project execution to ensure adherence to budget, schedule, and scope.
  • Confer with project personnel to identify and resolve problems.
  • Monitor or track project milestones and deliverables.
  • Submit project deliverables, ensuring adherence to quality standards.
  • Assess current or future customer needs and priorities by communicating directly with customers, conducting surveys, or other methods.
  • Initiate, review, or approve modifications to project plans.
  • Schedule and facilitate meetings related to information technology projects.
  • Direct or coordinate activities of project personnel.
  • Develop implementation plans that include analyses such as cost-benefit or return on investment (ROI).
  • Identify need for initial or supplemental project resources.
  • Develop or update project plans for information technology projects including information such as project objectives, technologies, systems, information specifications, schedules, funding, and staffing.
  • Perform risk assessments to develop response strategies.
  • Prepare project status reports by collecting, analyzing, and summarizing information and trends.
  • Identify, review, or select vendors or consultants to meet project needs.
  • Develop and manage annual budgets for information technology projects.
  • Establish and execute a project communication plan.
  • Develop and manage work breakdown structure (WBS) of information technology projects.
  • Monitor the performance of project team members, providing and documenting performance feedback.
  • Coordinate recruitment or selection of project personnel.
  • Assign duties, responsibilities, and spans of authority to project personnel.
  • Negotiate with project stakeholders or suppliers to obtain resources or materials.
15-2011.00Actuaries
Analyze statistical data, such as mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates and construct probability tables to forecast risk and liability for payment of future benefits. May ascertain insurance rates required and cash reserves necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.
  • Ascertain premium rates required and cash reserves and liabilities necessary to ensure payment of future benefits.
  • Design, review and help administer insurance, annuity and pension plans, determining financial soundness and calculating premiums.
  • Determine or help determine company policy, and explain complex technical matters to company executives, government officials, shareholders, policyholders, or the public.
  • Provide advice to clients on a contract basis, working as a consultant.
  • Analyze statistical information to estimate mortality, accident, sickness, disability, and retirement rates.
  • Construct probability tables for events such as fires, natural disasters, and unemployment, based on analysis of statistical data and other pertinent information.
  • Negotiate terms and conditions of reinsurance with other companies.
  • Collaborate with programmers, underwriters, accounts, claims experts, and senior management to help companies develop plans for new lines of business or improvements to existing business.
  • Determine equitable basis for distributing surplus earnings under participating insurance and annuity contracts in mutual companies.
  • Testify before public agencies on proposed legislation affecting businesses.
  • Determine policy contract provisions for each type of insurance.
  • Testify in court as expert witness or to provide legal evidence on matters such as the value of potential lifetime earnings of a person who is disabled or killed in an accident.
  • Provide expertise to help financial institutions manage risks and maximize returns associated with investment products or credit offerings.
  • Manage credit and help price corporate security offerings.
  • Explain changes in contract provisions to customers.
15-2021.00Mathematicians
Conduct research in fundamental mathematics or in application of mathematical techniques to science, management, and other fields. Solve problems in various fields using mathematical methods.
  • Develop computational methods for solving problems that occur in areas of science and engineering or that come from applications in business or industry.
  • Apply mathematical theories and techniques to the solution of practical problems in business, engineering, the sciences, or other fields.
  • Develop mathematical or statistical models of phenomena to be used for analysis or for computational simulation.
  • Assemble sets of assumptions and explore the consequences of each set.
  • Maintain knowledge in the field by reading professional journals, talking with other mathematicians, and attending professional conferences.
  • Address the relationships of quantities, magnitudes, and forms through the use of numbers and symbols.
  • Disseminate research by writing reports, publishing papers, or presenting at professional conferences.
  • Perform computations and apply methods of numerical analysis to data.
  • Develop new principles and new relationships between existing mathematical principles to advance mathematical science.
  • Design, analyze, and decipher encryption systems designed to transmit military, political, financial, or law-enforcement-related information in code.
  • Conduct research to extend mathematical knowledge in traditional areas, such as algebra, geometry, probability, and logic.
15-2031.00Operations Research Analysts
Formulate and apply mathematical modeling and other optimizing methods to develop and interpret information that assists management with decisionmaking, policy formulation, or other managerial functions. May collect and analyze data and develop decision support software, services, or products. May develop and supply optimal time, cost, or logistics networks for program evaluation, review, or implementation.
  • Formulate mathematical or simulation models of problems, relating constants and variables, restrictions, alternatives, conflicting objectives, and their numerical parameters.
  • Perform validation and testing of models to ensure adequacy and reformulate models as necessary.
  • Collaborate with senior managers and decision makers to identify and solve a variety of problems and to clarify management objectives.
  • Present the results of mathematical modeling and data analysis to management or other end users.
  • Collaborate with others in the organization to ensure successful implementation of chosen problem solutions.
  • Analyze information obtained from management to conceptualize and define operational problems.
  • Study and analyze information about alternative courses of action to determine which plan will offer the best outcomes.
  • Prepare management reports defining and evaluating problems and recommending solutions.
  • Define data requirements and gather and validate information, applying judgment and statistical tests.
  • Observe the current system in operation and gather and analyze information about each of the parts of component problems, using a variety of sources.
  • Break systems into their components, assign numerical values to each component, and examine the mathematical relationships between them.
  • Design, conduct, and evaluate experimental operational models in cases where models cannot be developed from existing data.
  • Educate staff in the use of mathematical models.
  • Specify manipulative or computational methods to be applied to models.
  • Develop and apply time and cost networks to plan, control, and review large projects.
  • Develop business methods and procedures, including accounting systems, file systems, office systems, logistics systems, and production schedules.
15-2041.00Statisticians
Develop or apply mathematical or statistical theory and methods to collect, organize, interpret, and summarize numerical data to provide usable information. May specialize in fields such as biostatistics, agricultural statistics, business statistics, or economic statistics. Includes mathematical and survey statisticians.
  • Analyze and interpret statistical data to identify significant differences in relationships among sources of information.
  • Identify relationships and trends in data, as well as any factors that could affect the results of research.
  • Determine whether statistical methods are appropriate, based on user needs or research questions of interest.
  • Prepare data for processing by organizing information, checking for inaccuracies, and adjusting and weighting the raw data.
  • Present statistical and nonstatistical results, using charts, bullets, and graphs, in meetings or conferences to audiences such as clients, peers, and students.
  • Report results of statistical analyses, including information in the form of graphs, charts, and tables.
  • Design research projects that apply valid scientific techniques and use information obtained from baselines or historical data to structure uncompromised and efficient analyses.
  • Process large amounts of data for statistical modeling and graphic analysis, using computers.
  • Adapt statistical methods to solve specific problems in many fields, such as economics, biology, and engineering.
  • Evaluate the statistical methods and procedures used to obtain data to ensure validity, applicability, efficiency, and accuracy.
  • Report results of statistical analyses in peer-reviewed papers and technical manuals.
  • Evaluate sources of information to determine any limitations, in terms of reliability or usability.
  • Develop and test experimental designs, sampling techniques, and analytical methods.
  • Plan data collection methods for specific projects and determine the types and sizes of sample groups to be used.
  • Supervise and provide instructions for workers collecting and tabulating data.
  • Examine theories, such as those of probability and inference, to discover mathematical bases for new or improved methods of obtaining and evaluating numerical data.
  • Prepare and structure data warehouses for storing data.
  • Develop software applications or programming to use for statistical modeling and graphic analysis.
  • Apply sampling techniques or use complete enumeration bases to determine and define groups to be surveyed.
15-2041.01Biostatisticians
Develop and apply biostatistical theory and methods to the study of life sciences.
  • Draw conclusions or make predictions, based on data summaries or statistical analyses.
  • Design research studies in collaboration with physicians, life scientists, or other professionals.
  • Analyze clinical or survey data, using statistical approaches such as longitudinal analysis, mixed-effect modeling, logistic regression analyses, and model-building techniques.
  • Provide biostatistical consultation to clients or colleagues.
  • Write research proposals or grant applications for submission to external bodies.
  • Prepare articles for publication or presentation at professional conferences.
  • Calculate sample size requirements for clinical studies.
  • Write detailed analysis plans and descriptions of analyses and findings for research protocols or reports.
  • Monitor clinical trials or experiments to ensure adherence to established procedures or to verify the quality of data collected.
  • Review clinical or other medical research protocols and recommend appropriate statistical analyses.
  • Prepare tables and graphs to present clinical data or results.
  • Develop or implement data analysis algorithms.
  • Prepare statistical data for inclusion in reports to data monitoring committees, federal regulatory agencies, managers, or clients.
  • Write program code to analyze data with statistical analysis software.
  • Read current literature, attend meetings or conferences, and talk with colleagues to keep abreast of methodological or conceptual developments in fields such as biostatistics, pharmacology, life sciences, and social sciences.
  • Assign work to biostatistical assistants or programmers.
  • Teach graduate or continuing education courses or seminars in biostatistics.
  • Plan or direct research studies related to life sciences.
  • Determine project plans, timelines, or technical objectives for statistical aspects of biological research studies.
  • Apply research or simulation results to extend biological theory or recommend new research projects.
  • Collect data through surveys or experimentation.
  • Design or maintain databases of biological data.
  • Develop or use mathematical models to track changes in biological phenomena, such as the spread of infectious diseases.
  • Analyze archival data, such as birth, death, and disease records.
  • Design surveys to assess health issues.
15-2051.00Data Scientists
Develop and implement a set of techniques or analytics applications to transform raw data into meaningful information using data-oriented programming languages and visualization software. Apply data mining, data modeling, natural language processing, and machine learning to extract and analyze information from large structured and unstructured datasets. Visualize, interpret, and report data findings. May create dynamic data reports.
  • Analyze, manipulate, or process large sets of data using statistical software.
  • Apply feature selection algorithms to models predicting outcomes of interest, such as sales, attrition, and healthcare use.
  • Apply sampling techniques to determine groups to be surveyed or use complete enumeration methods.
  • Clean and manipulate raw data using statistical software.
  • Compare models using statistical performance metrics, such as loss functions or proportion of explained variance.
  • Create graphs, charts, or other visualizations to convey the results of data analysis using specialized software.
  • Deliver oral or written presentations of the results of mathematical modeling and data analysis to management or other end users.
  • Design surveys, opinion polls, or other instruments to collect data.
  • Identify business problems or management objectives that can be addressed through data analysis.
  • Identify relationships and trends or any factors that could affect the results of research.
  • Identify solutions to business problems, such as budgeting, staffing, and marketing decisions, using the results of data analysis.
  • Propose solutions in engineering, the sciences, and other fields using mathematical theories and techniques.
  • Read scientific articles, conference papers, or other sources of research to identify emerging analytic trends and technologies.
  • Recommend data-driven solutions to key stakeholders.
  • Test, validate, and reformulate models to ensure accurate prediction of outcomes of interest.
  • Write new functions or applications in programming languages to conduct analyses.
15-2051.01Business Intelligence Analysts
Produce financial and market intelligence by querying data repositories and generating periodic reports. Devise methods for identifying data patterns and trends in available information sources.
  • Analyze competitive market strategies through analysis of related product, market, or share trends.
  • Synthesize current business intelligence or trend data to support recommendations for action.
  • Communicate with customers, competitors, suppliers, professional organizations, or others to stay abreast of industry or business trends.
  • Manage timely flow of business intelligence information to users.
  • Collect business intelligence data from available industry reports, public information, field reports, or purchased sources.
  • Identify and analyze industry or geographic trends with business strategy implications.
  • Analyze technology trends to identify markets for future product development or to improve sales of existing products.
  • Generate standard or custom reports summarizing business, financial, or economic data for review by executives, managers, clients, and other stakeholders.
  • Identify or monitor current and potential customers, using business intelligence tools.
  • Maintain or update business intelligence tools, databases, dashboards, systems, or methods.
  • Maintain library of model documents, templates, or other reusable knowledge assets.
  • Create business intelligence tools or systems, including design of related databases, spreadsheets, or outputs.
  • Conduct or coordinate tests to ensure that intelligence is consistent with defined needs.
  • Disseminate information regarding tools, reports, or metadata enhancements.
  • Document specifications for business intelligence or information technology reports, dashboards, or other outputs.
  • Create or review technical design documentation to ensure the accurate development of reporting solutions.
  • Provide technical support for existing reports, dashboards, or other tools.
15-2051.02Clinical Data Managers
Apply knowledge of health care and database management to analyze clinical data, and to identify and report trends.
  • Design and validate clinical databases, including designing or testing logic checks.
  • Process clinical data, including receipt, entry, verification, or filing of information.
  • Generate data queries, based on validation checks or errors and omissions identified during data entry, to resolve identified problems.
  • Develop project-specific data management plans that address areas such as coding, reporting, or transfer of data, database locks, and work flow processes.
  • Monitor work productivity or quality to ensure compliance with standard operating procedures.
  • Prepare appropriate formatting to data sets as requested.
  • Design forms for receiving, processing, or tracking data.
  • Prepare data analysis listings and activity, performance, or progress reports.
  • Confer with end users to define or implement clinical system requirements such as data release formats, delivery schedules, and testing protocols.
  • Perform quality control audits to ensure accuracy, completeness, or proper usage of clinical systems and data.
  • Analyze clinical data using appropriate statistical tools.
  • Evaluate processes and technologies, and suggest revisions to increase productivity and efficiency.
  • Develop technical specifications for data management programming and communicate needs to information technology staff.
  • Write work instruction manuals, data capture guidelines, or standard operating procedures.
  • Track the flow of work forms, including in-house data flow or electronic forms transfer.
  • Supervise the work of data management project staff.
  • Contribute to the compilation, organization, and production of protocols, clinical study reports, regulatory submissions, or other controlled documentation.
  • Read technical literature and participate in continuing education or professional associations to maintain awareness of current database technology and best practices.
  • Train staff on technical procedures or software program usage.
  • Develop or select specific software programs for various research scenarios.
  • Provide support and information to functional areas such as marketing, clinical monitoring, and medical affairs.
15-2099.01Bioinformatics Technicians
Apply principles and methods of bioinformatics to assist scientists in areas such as pharmaceuticals, medical technology, biotechnology, computational biology, proteomics, computer information science, biology and medical informatics. Apply bioinformatics tools to visualize, analyze, manipulate or interpret molecular data. May build and maintain databases for processing and analyzing genomic or other biological information.
  • Analyze or manipulate bioinformatics data using software packages, statistical applications, or data mining techniques.
  • Extend existing software programs, web-based interactive tools, or database queries as sequence management and analysis needs evolve.
  • Maintain awareness of new and emerging computational methods and technologies.
  • Conduct quality analyses of data inputs and resulting analyses or predictions.
  • Enter or retrieve information from structural databases, protein sequence motif databases, mutation databases, genomic databases or gene expression databases.
  • Develop or maintain applications that process biologically based data into searchable databases for purposes of analysis, calculation, or presentation.
  • Confer with researchers, clinicians, or information technology staff to determine data needs and programming requirements and to provide assistance with database-related research activities.
  • Participate in the preparation of reports or scientific publications.
  • Write computer programs or scripts to be used in querying databases.
  • Document all database changes, modifications, or problems.
  • Create data management or error-checking procedures and user manuals.
  • Develop or apply data mining and machine learning algorithms.
  • Design or implement web-based tools for querying large-scale biological databases.
  • Monitor database performance and perform any necessary maintenance, upgrades, or repairs.
  • Confer with database users about project timelines and changes.
  • Perform routine system administrative functions, such as troubleshooting, back-ups, or upgrades.
  • Package bioinformatics data for submission to public repositories.
  • Train bioinformatics staff or researchers in the use of databases.
  • Test new or updated software or tools and provide feedback to developers.
17-1011.00Architects, Except Landscape and Naval
Plan and design structures, such as private residences, office buildings, theaters, factories, and other structural property.
  • Prepare scale drawings or architectural designs, using computer-aided design or other tools.
  • Plan or design structures such as residences, office buildings, theatres, factories, or other structural properties in accordance with environmental, safety, or other regulations.
  • Direct activities of technicians engaged in preparing drawings or specification documents.
  • Prepare contract documents for building contractors.
  • Prepare information regarding design, structure specifications, materials, color, equipment, estimated costs, or construction time.
  • Meet with clients to review or discuss architectural drawings.
  • Integrate engineering elements into unified architectural designs.
  • Administer construction contracts.
  • Consult with clients to determine functional or spatial requirements of structures.
  • Develop marketing materials, proposals, or presentation to generate new work opportunities.
  • Develop final construction plans that include aesthetic representations of the structure or details for its construction.
  • Conduct periodic on-site observations of construction work to monitor compliance with plans.
  • Monitor the work of specialists, such as electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, interior designers, or sound specialists to ensure optimal form or function of designs or final structures.
  • Plan layouts of structural architectural projects.
  • Design or plan construction of green building projects to minimize adverse environmental impact or conserve energy.
  • Represent clients in obtaining bids or awarding construction contracts.
  • Design structures that incorporate environmentally friendly building practices or concepts, such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) standards.
  • Perform predesign services, such as feasibility or environmental impact studies.
  • Inspect proposed building sites to determine suitability for construction.
  • Create three-dimensional or interactive representations of designs, using computer-assisted design software.
  • Design environmentally sound structural upgrades to existing buildings, such as natural lighting systems, green roofs, or rainwater collection systems.
  • Gather information related to projects' environmental sustainability or operational efficiency.
  • Prepare operating and maintenance manuals, studies, or reports.
  • Calculate potential energy savings by comparing estimated energy consumption of proposed design to baseline standards.
17-1012.00Landscape Architects
Plan and design land areas for projects such as parks and other recreational facilities, airports, highways, hospitals, schools, land subdivisions, and commercial, industrial, and residential sites.
  • Confer with clients, engineering personnel, or architects on landscape projects.
  • Prepare site plans, specifications, or cost estimates for land development.
  • Analyze data on conditions such as site location, drainage, or structure location for environmental reports or landscaping plans.
  • Develop marketing materials, proposals, or presentation to generate new work opportunities.
  • Inspect landscape work to ensure compliance with specifications, evaluate quality of materials or work, or advise clients or construction personnel.
  • Prepare graphic representations or drawings of proposed plans or designs.
  • Present project plans or designs to public stakeholders, such as government agencies or community groups.
  • Integrate existing land features or landscaping into designs.
  • Manage the work of subcontractors to ensure quality control.
  • Create landscapes that minimize water consumption such as by incorporating drought-resistant grasses or indigenous plants.
  • Collaborate with architects or related professionals on whole building design to maximize the aesthetic features of structures or surrounding land and to improve energy efficiency.
  • Research latest products, technology, or design trends to stay current in the field.
  • Inspect proposed sites to identify structural elements of land areas or other important site information, such as soil condition, existing landscaping, or the proximity of water management facilities.
  • Develop planting plans to help clients garden productively or to achieve particular aesthetic effects.
  • Identify and select appropriate sustainable materials for use in landscape designs, such as recycled wood or recycled concrete boards for structural elements or recycled tires for playground bedding.
  • Design and integrate rainwater harvesting or gray and reclaimed water systems to conserve water into building or land designs.
  • Collaborate with estimators to cost projects, create project plans, or coordinate bids from landscaping contractors.
  • Prepare conceptual drawings, graphics, or other visual representations of land areas to show predicted growth or development of land areas over time.
  • Provide follow-up consultations for clients to ensure landscape designs are maturing or developing as planned.
17-1021.00Cartographers and Photogrammetrists
Research, study, and prepare maps and other spatial data in digital or graphic form for one or more purposes, such as legal, social, political, educational, and design purposes. May work with Geographic Information Systems (GIS). May design and evaluate algorithms, data structures, and user interfaces for GIS and mapping systems. May collect, analyze, and interpret geographic information provided by geodetic surveys, aerial photographs, and satellite data.
  • Compile data required for map preparation, including aerial photographs, survey notes, records, reports, and original maps.
  • Delineate aerial photographic detail, such as control points, hydrography, topography, and cultural features, using precision stereoplotting apparatus or drafting instruments.
  • Prepare and alter trace maps, charts, tables, detailed drawings, and three-dimensional optical models of terrain using stereoscopic plotting and computer graphics equipment.
  • Study legal records to establish boundaries of local, national, and international properties.
  • Inspect final compositions to ensure completeness and accuracy.
  • Revise existing maps and charts, making all necessary corrections and adjustments.
  • Identify, scale, and orient geodetic points, elevations, and other planimetric or topographic features, applying standard mathematical formulas.
  • Collect information about specific features of the Earth, using aerial photography and other digital remote sensing techniques.
  • Examine and analyze data from ground surveys, reports, aerial photographs, and satellite images to prepare topographic maps, aerial-photograph mosaics, and related charts.
  • Build and update digital databases.
  • Determine map content and layout, as well as production specifications such as scale, size, projection, and colors, and direct production to ensure that specifications are followed.
  • Determine guidelines that specify which source material is acceptable for use.
  • Select aerial photographic and remote sensing techniques and plotting equipment needed to meet required standards of accuracy.
  • Travel over photographed areas to observe, identify, record, and verify all relevant features.
17-1022.00Surveyors
Make exact measurements and determine property boundaries. Provide data relevant to the shape, contour, gravitation, location, elevation, or dimension of land or land features on or near the earth's surface for engineering, mapmaking, mining, land evaluation, construction, and other purposes.
  • Verify the accuracy of survey data, including measurements and calculations conducted at survey sites.
  • Direct or conduct surveys to establish legal boundaries for properties, based on legal deeds and titles.
  • Prepare or supervise preparation of all data, charts, plots, maps, records, and documents related to surveys.
  • Prepare and maintain sketches, maps, reports, and legal descriptions of surveys to describe, certify, and assume liability for work performed.
  • Write descriptions of property boundary surveys for use in deeds, leases, or other legal documents.
  • Search legal records, survey records, and land titles to obtain information about property boundaries in areas to be surveyed.
  • Coordinate findings with the work of engineering and architectural personnel, clients, and others concerned with projects.
  • Establish fixed points for use in making maps, using geodetic and engineering instruments.
  • Calculate heights, depths, relative positions, property lines, and other characteristics of terrain.
  • Adjust surveying instruments to maintain their accuracy.
  • Train assistants and helpers, and direct their work in such activities as performing surveys or drafting maps.
  • Record the results of surveys including the shape, contour, location, elevation, and dimensions of land or land features.
  • Determine longitudes and latitudes of important features and boundaries in survey areas, using theodolites, transits, levels, and satellite-based global positioning systems (GPS).
  • Compute geodetic measurements and interpret survey data to determine positions, shapes, and elevations of geomorphic and topographic features.
  • Analyze survey objectives and specifications to prepare survey proposals or to direct others in survey proposal preparation.
  • Testify as an expert witness in court cases on land survey issues, such as property boundaries.
  • Plan and conduct ground surveys designed to establish baselines, elevations, and other geodetic measurements.
  • Develop criteria for survey methods and procedures.
  • Survey bodies of water to determine navigable channels and to secure data for construction of breakwaters, piers, and other marine structures.
  • Direct aerial surveys of specified geographical areas.
  • Conduct research in surveying and mapping methods using knowledge of techniques of photogrammetric map compilation and electronic data processing.
  • Determine specifications for photographic equipment to be used for aerial photography, as well as altitudes from which to photograph terrain.
  • Develop criteria for the design and modification of survey instruments.
  • Locate and mark sites selected for geophysical prospecting activities such as efforts to locate petroleum or other mineral products.
17-1022.01Geodetic Surveyors
Measure large areas of the Earth's surface using satellite observations, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS), light detection and ranging (LIDAR), or related sources.
  • Calculate the exact horizontal and vertical position of points on the Earth's surface.
  • Maintain databases of geodetic and related information, including coordinate, descriptive, or quality assurance data.
  • Verify the mathematical correctness of newly collected survey data.
  • Conduct surveys to determine exact positions, measurement of points, elevations, lines, areas, volumes, contours, or other features of land surfaces.
  • Compute horizontal and vertical coordinates of control networks, using direct leveling or other geodetic survey techniques, such as triangulation, trilateration, and traversing, to establish features of the Earth's surface.
  • Analyze control or survey data to ensure adherence to project specifications or land survey standards.
  • Plan or direct the work of geodetic surveying staff, providing technical consultation as needed.
  • Assess the quality of control data to determine the need for additional survey data for engineering, construction, or other projects.
  • Request additional survey data when field collection errors occur or engineering surveying specifications are not maintained.
  • Distribute compiled geodetic data to government agencies or the general public.
  • Review existing standards, controls, or equipment used, recommending changes or upgrades as needed.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, continue education, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in technology, equipment, or systems.
  • Compute, retrace, or adjust existing surveys of features such as highway alignments, property boundaries, utilities, control and other surveys to match the ground elevation-dependent grids, geodetic grids, or property boundaries and to ensure accuracy and continuity of data used in engineering, surveying, or construction projects.
  • Prepare progress or technical reports.
  • Provide training and interpretation in the use of methods or procedures for observing and checking controls for geodetic and plane coordinates.
  • Determine orientation of tracts of land, including position, boundaries, size, and shape, using theodolites, electronic distance-measuring equipment, satellite-based positioning equipment, land information systems, or other geodetic survey equipment.
17-2011.00Aerospace Engineers
Perform engineering duties in designing, constructing, and testing aircraft, missiles, and spacecraft. May conduct basic and applied research to evaluate adaptability of materials and equipment to aircraft design and manufacture. May recommend improvements in testing equipment and techniques.
  • Formulate mathematical models or other methods of computer analysis to develop, evaluate, or modify design, according to customer engineering requirements.
  • Plan or conduct experimental, environmental, operational, or stress tests on models or prototypes of aircraft or aerospace systems or equipment.
  • Formulate conceptual design of aeronautical or aerospace products or systems to meet customer requirements or conform to environmental regulations.
  • Plan or coordinate investigation and resolution of customers' reports of technical problems with aircraft or aerospace vehicles.
  • Write technical reports or other documentation, such as handbooks or bulletins, for use by engineering staff, management, or customers.
  • Direct or coordinate activities of engineering or technical personnel involved in designing, fabricating, modifying, or testing of aircraft or aerospace products.
  • Evaluate product data or design from inspections or reports for conformance to engineering principles, customer requirements, environmental regulations, or quality standards.
  • Develop design criteria for aeronautical or aerospace products or systems, including testing methods, production costs, quality standards, environmental standards, or completion dates.
  • Analyze project requests, proposals, or engineering data to determine feasibility, productibility, cost, or production time of aerospace or aeronautical products.
  • Maintain records of performance reports for future reference.
  • Diagnose performance problems by reviewing reports or documentation from customers or field engineers or by inspecting malfunctioning or damaged products.
  • Direct aerospace research and development programs.
  • Research new materials to determine quality or conformance to environmental standards.
  • Evaluate and approve selection of vendors by studying past performance or new advertisements.
  • Review aerospace engineering designs to determine how to reduce negative environmental impacts.
  • Design new or modify existing aerospace systems to reduce polluting emissions, such as nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, or smoke emissions.
  • Design or engineer filtration systems that reduce harmful emissions.
  • Evaluate biofuel performance specifications to determine feasibility for aerospace applications.
17-2021.00Agricultural Engineers
Apply knowledge of engineering technology and biological science to agricultural problems concerned with power and machinery, electrification, structures, soil and water conservation, and processing of agricultural products.
  • Prepare reports, sketches, working drawings, specifications, proposals, and budgets for proposed sites or systems.
  • Discuss plans with clients, contractors, consultants, and other engineers so that they can be evaluated and necessary changes made.
  • Meet with clients, such as district or regional councils, farmers, and developers, to discuss their needs.
  • Provide advice on water quality and issues related to pollution management, river control, and ground and surface water resources.
  • Plan and direct construction of rural electric-power distribution systems, and irrigation, drainage, and flood control systems for soil and water conservation.
  • Design agricultural machinery components and equipment, using computer-aided design (CAD) technology.
  • Test agricultural machinery and equipment to ensure adequate performance.
  • Design food processing plants and related mechanical systems.
  • Visit sites to observe environmental problems, to consult with contractors, or to monitor construction activities.
  • Design structures for crop storage, animal shelter and loading, and animal and crop processing, and supervise their construction.
  • Design and supervise environmental and land reclamation projects in agriculture and related industries.
  • Design sensing, measuring, and recording devices, and other instrumentation used to study plant or animal life.
  • Conduct educational programs that provide farmers or farm cooperative members with information that can help them improve agricultural productivity.
  • Supervise food processing or manufacturing plant operations.
17-2031.00Bioengineers and Biomedical Engineers
Apply knowledge of engineering, biology, chemistry, computer science, and biomechanical principles to the design, development, and evaluation of biological, agricultural, and health systems and products, such as artificial organs, prostheses, instrumentation, medical information systems, and health management and care delivery systems.
  • Conduct research, along with life scientists, chemists, and medical scientists, on the engineering aspects of the biological systems of humans and animals.
  • Adapt or design computer hardware or software for medical science uses.
  • Evaluate the safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of biomedical equipment.
  • Develop models or computer simulations of human biobehavioral systems to obtain data for measuring or controlling life processes.
  • Research new materials to be used for products, such as implanted artificial organs.
  • Write documents describing protocols, policies, standards for use, maintenance, and repair of medical equipment.
  • Analyze new medical procedures to forecast likely outcomes.
  • Conduct training or in-services to educate clinicians and other personnel on proper use of equipment.
  • Advise hospital administrators on the planning, acquisition, and use of medical equipment.
  • Advise manufacturing staff regarding problems with fermentation, filtration, or other bioproduction processes.
  • Collaborate with manufacturing or quality assurance staff to prepare product specification or safety sheets, standard operating procedures, user manuals, or qualification and validation reports.
  • Communicate with bioregulatory authorities regarding licensing or compliance responsibilities.
  • Communicate with suppliers regarding the design or specifications of bioproduction equipment, instrumentation, or materials.
  • Confer with research and biomanufacturing personnel to ensure the compatibility of design and production.
  • Consult with chemists or biologists to develop or evaluate novel technologies.
  • Design and deliver technology, such as prosthetic devices, to assist people with disabilities.
  • Design or conduct follow-up experimentation, based on generated data, to meet established process objectives.
  • Design or develop medical diagnostic or clinical instrumentation, equipment, or procedures, using the principles of engineering and biobehavioral sciences.
  • Design or direct bench or pilot production experiments to determine the scale of production methods that optimize product yield and minimize production costs.
  • Develop bioremediation processes to reduce pollution, protect the environment, or treat waste products.
  • Develop methodologies for transferring procedures or biological processes from laboratories to commercial-scale manufacturing production.
  • Develop statistical models or simulations using statistical or modeling software.
  • Lead studies to examine or recommend changes in process sequences or operation protocols.
  • Maintain databases of experiment characteristics or results.
  • Manage teams of engineers by creating schedules, tracking inventory, creating or using budgets, or overseeing contract obligations or deadlines.
  • Prepare project plans for equipment or facility improvements, including time lines, budgetary estimates, or capital spending requests.
  • Prepare technical reports, data summary documents, or research articles for scientific publication, regulatory submissions, or patent applications.
  • Read current scientific or trade literature to stay abreast of scientific, industrial, or technological advances.
  • Recommend process formulas, instrumentation, or equipment specifications, based on results of bench or pilot experimentation.
  • Review existing manufacturing processes to identify opportunities for yield improvement or reduced process variation.
17-2041.00Chemical Engineers
Design chemical plant equipment and devise processes for manufacturing chemicals and products, such as gasoline, synthetic rubber, plastics, detergents, cement, paper, and pulp, by applying principles and technology of chemistry, physics, and engineering.
  • Monitor and analyze data from processes and experiments.
  • Develop safety procedures to be employed by workers operating equipment or working in close proximity to ongoing chemical reactions.
  • Develop processes to separate components of liquids or gases or generate electrical currents, using controlled chemical processes.
  • Troubleshoot problems with chemical manufacturing processes.
  • Evaluate chemical equipment and processes to identify ways to optimize performance or to ensure compliance with safety and environmental regulations.
  • Conduct research to develop new and improved chemical manufacturing processes.
  • Perform laboratory studies of steps in manufacture of new products and test proposed processes in small-scale operation, such as a pilot plant.
  • Prepare estimate of production costs and production progress reports for management.
  • Design measurement and control systems for chemical plants based on data collected in laboratory experiments and in pilot plant operations.
  • Determine most effective arrangement of operations such as mixing, crushing, heat transfer, distillation, and drying.
  • Direct activities of workers who operate or are engaged in constructing and improving absorption, evaporation, or electromagnetic equipment.
  • Perform tests and monitor performance of processes throughout stages of production to determine degree of control over variables such as temperature, density, specific gravity, and pressure.
  • Design and plan layout of equipment.
17-2051.00Civil Engineers
Perform engineering duties in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures and facilities, such as roads, railroads, airports, bridges, harbors, channels, dams, irrigation projects, pipelines, power plants, and water and sewage systems.
  • Inspect project sites to monitor progress and ensure conformance to design specifications and safety or sanitation standards.
  • Compute load and grade requirements, water flow rates, or material stress factors to determine design specifications.
  • Provide technical advice to industrial or managerial personnel regarding design, construction, program modifications, or structural repairs.
  • Test soils or materials to determine the adequacy and strength of foundations, concrete, asphalt, or steel.
  • Manage and direct the construction, operations, or maintenance activities at project site.
  • Direct or participate in surveying to lay out installations or establish reference points, grades, or elevations to guide construction.
  • Estimate quantities and cost of materials, equipment, or labor to determine project feasibility.
  • Plan and design transportation or hydraulic systems or structures, using computer-assisted design or drawing tools.
  • Prepare or present public reports on topics such as bid proposals, deeds, environmental impact statements, or property and right-of-way descriptions.
  • Design energy-efficient or environmentally sound civil structures.
  • Identify environmental risks and develop risk management strategies for civil engineering projects.
  • Direct engineering activities, ensuring compliance with environmental, safety, or other governmental regulations.
  • Analyze survey reports, maps, drawings, blueprints, aerial photography, or other topographical or geologic data.
  • Conduct studies of traffic patterns or environmental conditions to identify engineering problems and assess potential project impact.
  • Design or engineer systems to efficiently dispose of chemical, biological, or other toxic wastes.
  • Develop or implement engineering solutions to clean up industrial accidents or other contaminated sites.
  • Analyze manufacturing processes or byproducts to identify engineering solutions to minimize the output of carbon or other pollutants.
17-2051.01Transportation Engineers
Develop plans for surface transportation projects, according to established engineering standards and state or federal construction policy. Prepare designs, specifications, or estimates for transportation facilities. Plan modifications of existing streets, highways, or freeways to improve traffic flow.
  • Check construction plans, design calculations, or cost estimations to ensure completeness, accuracy, or conformity to engineering standards or practices.
  • Design or prepare plans for new transportation systems or parts of systems, such as airports, commuter trains, highways, streets, bridges, drainage structures, or roadway lighting.
  • Confer with contractors, utility companies, or government agencies to discuss plans, specifications, or work schedules.
  • Design or engineer drainage, erosion, or sedimentation control systems for transportation projects.
  • Prepare project budgets, schedules, or specifications for labor or materials.
  • Plan alteration or modification of existing transportation structures to improve safety or function.
  • Investigate traffic problems and recommend methods to improve traffic flow or safety.
  • Prepare final project layout drawings that include details such as stress calculations.
  • Estimate transportation project costs.
  • Present data, maps, or other information at construction-related public hearings or meetings.
  • Prepare administrative, technical, or statistical reports on traffic-operation matters, such as accidents, safety measures, or pedestrian volume or practices.
  • Evaluate transportation systems or traffic control devices or lighting systems to determine need for modification or expansion.
  • Review development plans to determine potential traffic impact.
  • Inspect completed transportation projects to ensure safety or compliance with applicable standards or regulations.
  • Evaluate traffic control devices or lighting systems to determine need for modification or expansion.
  • Direct the surveying, staking, or laying-out of construction projects.
  • Participate in contract bidding, negotiation, or administration.
  • Model transportation scenarios to evaluate the impacts of activities such as new development or to identify possible solutions to transportation problems.
  • Investigate or test specific construction project materials to determine compliance to specifications or standards.
  • Supervise the maintenance or repair of transportation systems or system components.
  • Inspect completed transportation projects to ensure compliance with environmental regulations.
  • Evaluate construction project materials for compliance with environmental standards.
  • Develop plans to deconstruct damaged or obsolete roadways or other transportation structures in a manner that is environmentally sound or prepares the land for sustainable development.
  • Analyze environmental impact statements for transportation projects.
  • Design transportation systems or structures, using sustainable materials or products, such as porous pavement or bioretention structures.
  • Develop or assist in the development of transportation-related computer software or computer processes.
17-2051.02Water/Wastewater Engineers
Design or oversee projects involving provision of potable water, disposal of wastewater and sewage, or prevention of flood-related damage. Prepare environmental documentation for water resources, regulatory program compliance, data management and analysis, and field work. Perform hydraulic modeling and pipeline design.
  • Provide technical direction or supervision to junior engineers, engineering or computer-aided design (CAD) technicians, or other technical personnel.
  • Conduct feasibility studies for the construction of facilities, such as water supply systems, runoff collection networks, water and wastewater treatment plants, or wastewater collection systems.
  • Design pumping systems, pumping stations, pipelines, force mains, or sewers for the collection of wastewater.
  • Design domestic or industrial water or wastewater treatment plants, including advanced facilities with sequencing batch reactors (SBR), membranes, lift stations, headworks, surge overflow basins, ultraviolet disinfection systems, aerobic digesters, sludge lagoons, or control buildings.
  • Analyze storm water or floodplain drainage systems to control erosion, stabilize river banks, repair channel streams, or design bridges.
  • Design water distribution systems for potable or non-potable water.
  • Design or select equipment for use in wastewater processing to ensure compliance with government standards.
  • Identify design alternatives for the development of new water resources.
  • Design water or wastewater lift stations, including water wells.
  • Perform hydraulic analyses of water supply systems or water distribution networks to model flow characteristics, test for pressure losses, or to identify opportunities to mitigate risks and improve operational efficiency.
  • Gather and analyze water use data to forecast water demand.
  • Design water storage tanks or other water storage facilities.
  • Conduct cost-benefit analyses for the construction of water supply systems, runoff collection networks, water and wastewater treatment plants, or wastewater collection systems.
  • Analyze and recommend chemical, biological, or other wastewater treatment methods to prepare water for industrial or domestic use.
  • Review and critique proposals, plans, or designs related to water or wastewater treatment systems.
  • Write technical reports or publications related to water resources development or water use efficiency.
  • Design sludge treatment plants.
  • Conduct water quality studies to identify and characterize water pollutant sources.
  • Provide technical support on water resource or treatment issues to government agencies.
  • Analyze and recommend sludge treatment or disposal methods.
  • Design water runoff collection networks, water supply channels, or water supply system networks.
  • Perform hydrological analyses, using three-dimensional simulation software, to model the movement of water or forecast the dispersion of chemical pollutants in the water supply.
  • Oversee the construction of decentralized or on-site wastewater treatment systems, including reclaimed water facilities.
  • Develop plans for new water resources or water efficiency programs.
  • Analyze the efficiency of water delivery structures, such as dams, tainter gates, canals, pipes, penstocks, or cofferdams.
  • Conduct environmental impact studies related to water and wastewater collection, treatment, or distribution.
  • Perform mathematical modeling of underground or surface water resources, such as floodplains, ocean coastlines, streams, rivers, or wetlands.
17-2061.00Computer Hardware Engineers
Research, design, develop, or test computer or computer-related equipment for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use. May supervise the manufacturing and installation of computer or computer-related equipment and components.
  • Update knowledge and skills to keep up with rapid advancements in computer technology.
  • Build, test, and modify product prototypes, using working models or theoretical models constructed with computer simulation.
  • Write detailed functional specifications that document the hardware development process and support hardware introduction.
  • Specify power supply requirements and configuration, drawing on system performance expectations and design specifications.
  • Confer with engineering staff and consult specifications to evaluate interface between hardware and software and operational and performance requirements of overall system.
  • Design and develop computer hardware and support peripherals, including central processing units (CPUs), support logic, microprocessors, custom integrated circuits, and printers and disk drives.
  • Select hardware and material, assuring compliance with specifications and product requirements.
  • Monitor functioning of equipment and make necessary modifications to ensure system operates in conformance with specifications.
  • Test and verify hardware and support peripherals to ensure that they meet specifications and requirements, by recording and analyzing test data.
  • Direct technicians, engineering designers or other technical support personnel as needed.
  • Provide technical support to designers, marketing and sales departments, suppliers, engineers and other team members throughout the product development and implementation process.
  • Store, retrieve, and manipulate data for analysis of system capabilities and requirements.
  • Evaluate factors such as reporting formats required, cost constraints, and need for security restrictions to determine hardware configuration.
  • Analyze user needs and recommend appropriate hardware.
  • Analyze information to determine, recommend, and plan layout, including type of computers and peripheral equipment modifications.
  • Assemble and modify existing pieces of equipment to meet special needs.
  • Recommend purchase of equipment to control dust, temperature, and humidity in area of system installation.
  • Provide training and support to system designers and users.
17-2071.00Electrical Engineers
Research, design, develop, test, or supervise the manufacturing and installation of electrical equipment, components, or systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use.
  • Operate computer-assisted engineering or design software or equipment to perform engineering tasks.
  • Prepare technical drawings, specifications of electrical systems, or topographical maps to ensure that installation and operations conform to standards and customer requirements.
  • Confer with engineers, customers, or others to discuss existing or potential engineering projects or products.
  • Design, implement, maintain, or improve electrical instruments, equipment, facilities, components, products, or systems for commercial, industrial, or domestic purposes.
  • Direct or coordinate manufacturing, construction, installation, maintenance, support, documentation, or testing activities to ensure compliance with specifications, codes, or customer requirements.
  • Compile data and write reports regarding existing or potential electrical engineering studies or projects.
  • Perform detailed calculations to compute and establish manufacturing, construction, or installation standards or specifications.
  • Prepare specifications for purchases of materials or equipment.
  • Estimate labor, material, or construction costs for budget preparation purposes.
  • Supervise or train project team members, as necessary.
  • Conduct field surveys or study maps, graphs, diagrams, or other data to identify and correct power system problems.
  • Investigate customer or public complaints to determine the nature and extent of problems.
  • Oversee project production efforts to assure projects are completed on time and within budget.
  • Inspect completed installations and observe operations to ensure conformance to design and equipment specifications and compliance with operational, safety, or environmental standards.
  • Plan or implement research methodology or procedures to apply principles of electrical theory to engineering projects.
  • Design electrical systems or components that minimize electric energy requirements, such as lighting systems designed to account for natural lighting.
  • Plan layout of electric power generating plants or distribution lines or stations.
  • Assist in developing capital project programs for new equipment or major repairs.
  • Investigate or test vendors' or competitors' products.
  • Collect data relating to commercial or residential development, population, or power system interconnection to determine operating efficiency of electrical systems.
  • Develop systems that produce electricity with renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, or biofuels.
  • Integrate electrical systems with renewable energy systems to improve overall efficiency.
17-2072.00Electronics Engineers, Except Computer
Research, design, develop, or test electronic components and systems for commercial, industrial, military, or scientific use employing knowledge of electronic theory and materials properties. Design electronic circuits and components for use in fields such as telecommunications, aerospace guidance and propulsion control, acoustics, or instruments and controls.
  • Determine project material or equipment needs.
  • Prepare engineering sketches or specifications for construction, relocation, or installation of equipment, facilities, products, or systems.
  • Prepare documentation containing information such as confidential descriptions or specifications of proprietary hardware or software, product development or introduction schedules, product costs, or information about product performance weaknesses.
  • Evaluate project work to ensure effectiveness, technical adequacy, or compatibility in the resolution of complex electronics engineering problems.
  • Analyze electronics system requirements, capacity, cost, or customer needs to determine project feasibility.
  • Confer with engineers, customers, vendors, or others to discuss existing or potential electronics engineering projects or products.
  • Operate computer-assisted engineering or design software or equipment to perform electronics engineering tasks.
  • Prepare necessary criteria, procedures, reports, or plans for successful conduct of the project with consideration given to site preparation, facility validation, installation, quality assurance, or testing.
  • Plan or develop applications or modifications for electronic properties used in components, products, or systems to improve technical performance.
  • Direct or coordinate activities concerned with manufacture, construction, installation, maintenance, operation, or modification of electronic equipment, products, or systems.
  • Recommend repair or design modifications of electronics components or systems, based on factors such as environment, service, cost, or system capabilities.
  • Develop or perform operational, maintenance, or testing procedures for electronic products, components, equipment, or systems.
  • Design electronic components, software, products, or systems for commercial, industrial, medical, military, or scientific applications.
  • Inspect electronic equipment, instruments, products, or systems to ensure conformance to specifications, safety standards, or applicable codes or regulations.
  • Provide technical support or instruction to staff or customers regarding electronics equipment standards.
  • Research or develop electronics technologies for use in electric-drive vehicles.
  • Prepare, review, or maintain maintenance schedules, design documentation, or operational reports or charts.
  • Prepare budget or cost estimates for equipment, construction, or installation projects or control expenditures.
  • Represent employer at conferences, meetings, boards, panels, committees, or working groups to present, explain, or defend findings or recommendations, negotiate compromises or agreements, or exchange information.
  • Research or develop new green electronics technologies, such as lighting, optical data storage devices, or energy efficient televisions.
  • Develop solar photovoltaic products, such as inverters or energy management systems.
  • Investigate green consumer electronics applications for consumer electronic devices, power saving devices for computers or televisions, or energy efficient power chargers.
17-2072.01Radio Frequency Identification Device Specialists
Design and implement radio frequency identification device (RFID) systems used to track shipments or goods.
  • Identify operational requirements for new systems to inform selection of technological solutions.
  • Integrate tags, readers, or software in radio frequency identification device (RFID) designs.
  • Perform systems analysis or programming of radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology.
  • Test radio frequency identification device (RFID) software to ensure proper functioning.
  • Select appropriate radio frequency identification device (RFID) tags and determine placement locations.
  • Perform site analyses to determine system configurations, processes to be impacted, or on-site obstacles to technology implementation.
  • Perform acceptance testing on newly installed or updated systems.
  • Determine means of integrating radio frequency identification device (RFID) into other applications.
  • Provide technical support for radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology.
  • Collect data about existing client hardware, software, networking, or key business processes to inform implementation of radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology.
  • Install, test, or maintain radio frequency identification device (RFID) systems.
  • Test tags or labels to ensure readability.
  • Determine usefulness of new radio frequency identification device (RFID) technologies.
  • Verify compliance of developed applications with architectural standards and established practices.
  • Train users in details of system operation.
  • Develop process flows, work instructions, or standard operating procedures for radio frequency identification device (RFID) systems.
  • Read current literature, attend meetings or conferences, or talk with colleagues to stay abreast of industry research about new technologies.
  • Document equipment or process details of radio frequency identification device (RFID) technology.
  • Define and compare possible radio frequency identification device (RFID) solutions to inform selection for specific projects.
  • Create simulations or models of radio frequency identification device (RFID) systems to provide information for selection and configuration.
  • Analyze radio frequency identification device (RFID)-related supply chain data.
17-2081.00Environmental Engineers
Research, design, plan, or perform engineering duties in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental hazards using various engineering disciplines. Work may include waste treatment, site remediation, or pollution control technology.
  • Design, or supervise the design of, systems, processes, or equipment for control, management, or remediation of water, air, or soil quality.
  • Advise corporations or government agencies of procedures to follow in cleaning up contaminated sites to protect people and the environment.
  • Collaborate with environmental scientists, planners, hazardous waste technicians, engineers, experts in law or business, or other specialists to address environmental problems.
  • Obtain, update, or maintain plans, permits, or standard operating procedures.
  • Serve as liaison with federal, state, or local agencies or officials on issues pertaining to solid or hazardous waste program requirements.
  • Provide technical support for environmental remediation or litigation projects, including remediation system design or determination of regulatory applicability.
  • Prepare, review, or update environmental investigation or recommendation reports.
  • Develop site-specific health and safety protocols, such as spill contingency plans or methods for loading or transporting waste.
  • Inspect industrial or municipal facilities or programs to evaluate operational effectiveness or ensure compliance with environmental regulations.
  • Provide assistance with planning, quality assurance, safety inspection protocols, or sampling as part of a team conducting multimedia inspections at complex facilities.
  • Prepare or present public briefings on the status of environmental engineering projects.
  • Develop proposed project objectives and targets and report to management on progress in attaining them.
  • Coordinate or manage environmental protection programs or projects, assigning or evaluating work.
  • Advise industries or government agencies about environmental policies and standards.
  • Direct installation or operation of environmental monitoring devices or supervise related data collection programs.
  • Monitor progress of environmental improvement programs.
  • Prepare hazardous waste manifests or land disposal restriction notifications.
  • Assess the existing or potential environmental impact of land use projects on air, water, or land.
  • Prepare, maintain, or revise quality assurance documentation or procedures.
  • Assist in budget implementation, forecasts, or administration.
  • Provide environmental engineering assistance in network analysis, regulatory analysis, or planning or reviewing database development.
  • Inform company employees or other interested parties of environmental issues.
  • Develop or present environmental compliance training or orientation sessions.
  • Provide administrative support for projects by collecting data, providing project documentation, training staff, or performing other general administrative duties.
  • Assess, sort, characterize, or pack known or unknown materials.
  • Request bids from suppliers or consultants.
  • Develop, implement, or manage plans or programs related to conservation or management of natural resources.
  • Write reports or articles for Web sites or newsletters related to environmental engineering issues.
17-2111.00Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors
Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.
  • Investigate industrial accidents, injuries, or occupational diseases to determine causes and preventive measures.
  • Conduct research to evaluate safety levels for products.
  • Evaluate product designs for safety.
  • Conduct or coordinate worker training in areas such as safety laws and regulations, hazardous condition monitoring, and use of safety equipment.
  • Maintain and apply knowledge of current policies, regulations, and industrial processes.
  • Recommend procedures for detection, prevention, and elimination of physical, chemical, or other product hazards.
  • Evaluate potential health hazards or damage that could occur from product misuse.
  • Report or review findings from accident investigations, facilities inspections, or environmental testing.
  • Evaluate adequacy of actions taken to correct health inspection violations.
  • Interpret safety regulations for others interested in industrial safety, such as safety engineers, labor representatives, and safety inspectors.
  • Review plans and specifications for construction of new machinery or equipment to determine whether all safety requirements have been met.
  • Participate in preparation of product usage and precautionary label instructions.
  • Conduct or direct testing of air quality, noise, temperature, or radiation levels to verify compliance with health and safety regulations.
  • Interview employers and employees to obtain information about work environments and workplace incidents.
  • Provide expert testimony in litigation cases.
  • Review employee safety programs to determine their adequacy.
  • Provide technical advice and guidance to organizations on how to handle health-related problems and make needed changes.
  • Develop industry standards of product safety.
  • Maintain liaisons with outside organizations, such as fire departments, mutual aid societies, and rescue teams, so that emergency responses can be facilitated.
  • Plan and conduct industrial hygiene research.
  • Compile, analyze, and interpret statistical data related to occupational illnesses and accidents.
  • Write and revise safety regulations and codes.
  • Confer with medical professionals to assess health risks and to develop ways to manage health issues and concerns.
  • Design and build safety equipment.
  • Check floors of plants to ensure that they are strong enough to support heavy machinery.
  • Inspect facilities, machinery, or safety equipment to identify and correct potential hazards, and to ensure safety regulation compliance.
  • Install safety devices on machinery or direct device installation.
17-2111.02Fire-Prevention and Protection Engineers
Research causes of fires, determine fire protection methods, and design or recommend materials or equipment such as structural components or fire-detection equipment to assist organizations in safeguarding life and property against fire, explosion, and related hazards.
  • Advise architects, builders, and other construction personnel on fire prevention equipment and techniques and on fire code and standard interpretation and compliance.
  • Inspect buildings or building designs to determine fire protection system requirements and potential problems in areas such as water supplies, exit locations, and construction materials.
  • Design fire detection equipment, alarm systems, and fire extinguishing devices and systems.
  • Prepare and write reports detailing specific fire prevention and protection issues, such as work performed, revised codes or standards, and proposed review schedules.
  • Determine causes of fires and ways in which they could have been prevented.
  • Direct the purchase, modification, installation, maintenance, and operation of fire protection systems.
  • Develop plans for the prevention of destruction by fire, wind, and water.
  • Consult with authorities to discuss safety regulations and to recommend changes as necessary.
  • Study the relationships between ignition sources and materials to determine how fires start.
  • Develop training materials and conduct training sessions on fire protection.
  • Conduct research on fire retardants and the fire safety of materials and devices.
  • Attend workshops, seminars, or conferences to present or obtain information regarding fire prevention and protection.
  • Evaluate fire department performance and the laws and regulations affecting fire prevention or fire safety.
17-2112.00Industrial Engineers
Design, develop, test, and evaluate integrated systems for managing industrial production processes, including human work factors, quality control, inventory control, logistics and material flow, cost analysis, and production coordination.
  • Plan and establish sequence of operations to fabricate and assemble parts or products and to promote efficient utilization.
  • Review production schedules, engineering specifications, orders, and related information to obtain knowledge of manufacturing methods, procedures, and activities.
  • Estimate production costs, cost saving methods, and the effects of product design changes on expenditures for management review, action, and control.
  • Draft and design layout of equipment, materials, and workspace to illustrate maximum efficiency using drafting tools and computer.
  • Coordinate and implement quality control objectives, activities, or procedures to resolve production problems, maximize product reliability, or minimize costs.
  • Communicate with management and user personnel to develop production and design standards.
  • Recommend methods for improving utilization of personnel, material, and utilities.
  • Develop manufacturing methods, labor utilization standards, and cost analysis systems to promote efficient staff and facility utilization.
  • Confer with clients, vendors, staff, and management personnel regarding purchases, product and production specifications, manufacturing capabilities, or project status.
  • Apply statistical methods and perform mathematical calculations to determine manufacturing processes, staff requirements, and production standards.
  • Study operations sequence, material flow, functional statements, organization charts, and project information to determine worker functions and responsibilities.
  • Complete production reports, purchase orders, and material, tool, and equipment lists.
  • Record or oversee recording of information to ensure currency of engineering drawings and documentation of production problems.
  • Evaluate precision and accuracy of production and testing equipment and engineering drawings to formulate corrective action plan.
  • Analyze statistical data and product specifications to determine standards and establish quality and reliability objectives of finished product.
  • Regulate and alter workflow schedules according to established manufacturing sequences and lead times to expedite production operations.
  • Direct workers engaged in product measurement, inspection, and testing activities to ensure quality control and reliability.
  • Formulate sampling procedures and designs and develop forms and instructions for recording, evaluating, and reporting quality and reliability data.
  • Implement methods and procedures for disposition of discrepant material and defective or damaged parts, and assess cost and responsibility.
  • Schedule deliveries based on production forecasts, material substitutions, storage and handling facilities, and maintenance requirements.
17-2112.01Human Factors Engineers and Ergonomists
Design objects, facilities, and environments to optimize human well-being and overall system performance, applying theory, principles, and data regarding the relationship between humans and respective technology. Investigate and analyze characteristics of human behavior and performance as it relates to the use of technology.
  • Design or evaluate human work systems, using human factors engineering and ergonomic principles to optimize usability, cost, quality, safety, or performance.
  • Collect data through direct observation of work activities or witnessing the conduct of tests.
  • Conduct interviews or surveys of users or customers to collect information on topics such as requirements, needs, fatigue, ergonomics, or interfaces.
  • Prepare reports or presentations summarizing results or conclusions of human factors engineering or ergonomics activities, such as testing, investigation, or validation.
  • Recommend workplace changes to improve health and safety, using knowledge of potentially harmful factors, such as heavy loads or repetitive motions.
  • Assess the user-interface or usability characteristics of products.
  • Review health, safety, accident, or worker compensation records to evaluate safety program effectiveness or to identify jobs with high incidence of injury.
  • Perform functional, task, or anthropometric analysis, using tools such as checklists, surveys, videotaping or force measurement.
  • Advocate for end users in collaboration with other professionals, including engineers, designers, managers, or customers.
  • Conduct research to evaluate potential solutions related to changes in equipment design, procedures, manpower, personnel, or training.
  • Integrate human factors requirements into operational hardware.
  • Train users in task techniques or ergonomic principles.
  • Develop or implement research methodologies or statistical analysis plans to test and evaluate developmental prototypes used in new products or processes, such as cockpit designs, user workstations, or computerized human models.
  • Provide technical support to clients through activities such as rearranging workplace fixtures to reduce physical hazards or discomfort or modifying task sequences to reduce cycle time.
  • Inspect work sites to identify physical hazards.
  • Analyze complex systems to determine potential for further development, production, interoperability, compatibility, or usefulness in a particular area, such as aviation.
  • Develop or implement human performance research, investigation, or analysis protocols.
  • Write, review, or comment on documents, such as proposals, test plans, or procedures.
  • Apply modeling or quantitative analysis to forecast events, such as human decisions or behaviors, the structure or processes of organizations, or the attitudes or actions of human groups.
  • Establish system operating or training requirements to ensure optimized human-machine interfaces.
  • Perform statistical analyses, such as social network pattern analysis, network modeling, discrete event simulation, agent-based modeling, statistical natural language processing, computational sociology, mathematical optimization, or systems dynamics.
  • Provide human factors technical expertise on topics such as advanced user-interface technology development or the role of human users in automated or autonomous sub-systems in advanced vehicle systems.
  • Operate testing equipment, such as heat stress meters, octave band analyzers, motion analysis equipment, inclinometers, light meters, thermoanemometers, sling psychrometers, or colorimetric detection tubes.
  • Investigate theoretical or conceptual issues, such as the human design considerations of lunar landers or habitats.
  • Estimate time or resource requirements for ergonomic or human factors research or development projects.
  • Design cognitive aids, such as procedural storyboards or decision support systems.
17-2112.02Validation Engineers
Design or plan protocols for equipment or processes to produce products meeting internal and external purity, safety, and quality requirements.
  • Study product characteristics or customer requirements to determine validation objectives and standards.
  • Analyze validation test data to determine whether systems or processes have met validation criteria or to identify root causes of production problems.
  • Develop validation master plans, process flow diagrams, test cases, or standard operating procedures.
  • Prepare detailed reports or design statements, based on results of validation and qualification tests or reviews of procedures and protocols.
  • Maintain validation test equipment.
  • Conduct validation or qualification tests of new or existing processes, equipment, or software in accordance with internal protocols or external standards.
  • Communicate with regulatory agencies regarding compliance documentation or validation results.
  • Prepare, maintain, or review validation and compliance documentation, such as engineering change notices, schematics, or protocols.
  • Recommend resolution of identified deviations from established product or process standards.
  • Design validation study features, such as sampling, testing, or analytical methodologies.
  • Prepare validation or performance qualification protocols for new or modified manufacturing processes, systems, or equipment for production of pharmaceuticals, electronics, or other products.
  • Create, populate, or maintain databases for tracking validation activities, test results, or validated systems.
  • Resolve testing problems by modifying testing methods or revising test objectives and standards.
  • Conduct audits of validation or performance qualification processes to ensure compliance with internal or regulatory requirements.
  • Draw samples of raw materials, intermediate products, or finished products for validation testing.
  • Direct validation activities, such as protocol creation or testing.
  • Coordinate the implementation or scheduling of validation testing with affected departments and personnel.
  • Participate in internal or external training programs to maintain knowledge of validation principles, industry trends, or novel technologies.
  • Validate or characterize sustainable or environmentally friendly products, using electronic testing platforms.
  • Assist in training equipment operators or other staff on validation protocols and standard operating procedures.
  • Plan or conduct validation testing of alternative energy products, such as synthetic jet fuels or energy storage systems, such as fuel cells.
  • Devise automated lab validation test stations or other test fixtures or equipment.
17-2112.03Manufacturing Engineers
Design, integrate, or improve manufacturing systems or related processes. May work with commercial or industrial designers to refine product designs to increase producibility and decrease costs.
  • Troubleshoot new or existing product problems involving designs, materials, or processes.
  • Investigate or resolve operational problems, such as material use variances or bottlenecks.
  • Identify opportunities or implement changes to improve manufacturing processes or products or to reduce costs, using knowledge of fabrication processes, tooling and production equipment, assembly methods, quality control standards, or product design, materials and parts.
  • Apply continuous improvement methods such as lean manufacturing to enhance manufacturing quality, reliability, or cost-effectiveness.
  • Provide technical expertise or support related to manufacturing.
  • Incorporate new manufacturing methods or processes to improve existing operations.
  • Review product designs for manufacturability or completeness.
  • Determine root causes of failures or recommend changes in designs, tolerances, or processing methods, using statistical procedures.
  • Prepare reports summarizing information or trends related to manufacturing performance.
  • Prepare documentation for new manufacturing processes or engineering procedures.
  • Design layout of equipment or workspaces to achieve maximum efficiency.
  • Communicate manufacturing capabilities, production schedules, or other information to facilitate production processes.
  • Supervise technicians, technologists, analysts, administrative staff, or other engineers.
  • Design, install, or troubleshoot manufacturing equipment.
  • Evaluate manufactured products according to specifications and quality standards.
  • Estimate costs, production times, or staffing requirements for new designs.
  • Train production personnel in new or existing methods.
  • Design tests of finished products or process capabilities to establish standards or validate process requirements.
  • Analyze the financial impacts of sustainable manufacturing processes or sustainable product manufacturing.
  • Develop sustainable manufacturing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize raw material use, replace toxic materials with non-toxic materials, replace non-renewable materials with renewable materials, or reduce waste.
  • Purchase equipment, materials, or parts.
  • Evaluate current or proposed manufacturing processes or practices for environmental sustainability, considering factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, water pollution, energy use, or waste creation.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, participate in educational programs, attend meetings, attend workshops, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in the manufacturing field.
  • Redesign packaging for manufactured products to minimize raw material use or waste.
17-2121.00Marine Engineers and Naval Architects
Design, develop, and evaluate the operation of marine vessels, ship machinery, and related equipment, such as power supply and propulsion systems.
  • Design complete hull and superstructure according to specifications and test data, in conformity with standards of safety, efficiency, and economy.
  • Supervise other engineers and crew members and train them for routine and emergency duties.
  • Study design proposals and specifications to establish basic characteristics of craft, such as size, weight, speed, propulsion, displacement, and draft.
  • Perform monitoring activities to ensure that ships comply with international regulations and standards for life-saving equipment and pollution preventatives.
  • Evaluate performance of craft during dock and sea trials to determine design changes and conformance with national and international standards.
  • Oversee construction and testing of prototype in model basin and develop sectional and waterline curves of hull to establish center of gravity, ideal hull form, and buoyancy and stability data.
  • Prepare plans, estimates, design and construction schedules, and contract specifications, including any special provisions.
  • Check, test, and maintain automatic controls and alarm systems.
  • Design layout of craft interior, including cargo space, passenger compartments, ladder wells, and elevators.
  • Act as liaisons between ships' captains and shore personnel to ensure that schedules and budgets are maintained, and that ships are operated safely and efficiently.
  • Evaluate operation of marine equipment during acceptance testing and shakedown cruises.
  • Conduct environmental, operational, or performance tests on marine machinery and equipment.
  • Inspect marine equipment and machinery to draw up work requests and job specifications.
  • Investigate and observe tests on machinery and equipment for compliance with standards.
  • Maintain records of engineering department activities, including expense records and details of equipment maintenance and repairs.
  • Prepare, or direct the preparation of, product or system layouts and detailed drawings and schematics.
  • Coordinate activities with regulatory bodies to ensure repairs and alterations are at minimum cost and consistent with safety.
  • Design and oversee testing, installation, and repair of marine apparatus and equipment.
  • Prepare technical reports for use by engineering, management, or sales personnel.
  • Procure materials needed to repair marine equipment and machinery.
  • Maintain contact with, and formulate reports for, contractors and clients to ensure completion of work at minimum cost.
  • Maintain and coordinate repair of marine machinery and equipment for installation on vessels.
  • Conduct analytical, environmental, operational, or performance studies to develop designs for products, such as marine engines, equipment, and structures.
  • Confer with research personnel to clarify or resolve problems and to develop or modify designs.
  • Determine conditions under which tests are to be conducted, as well as sequences and phases of test operations.
  • Review work requests and compare them with previous work completed on ships to ensure that costs are economically sound.
  • Analyze data to determine feasibility of product proposals.
  • Schedule machine overhauls and the servicing of electrical, heating, ventilation, refrigeration, water, and sewage systems.
  • Conduct analyses of ships, such as stability, structural, weight, and vibration analyses.
  • Establish arrangement of boiler room equipment and propulsion machinery, heating and ventilating systems, refrigeration equipment, piping, and other functional equipment.
17-2131.00Materials Engineers
Evaluate materials and develop machinery and processes to manufacture materials for use in products that must meet specialized design and performance specifications. Develop new uses for known materials. Includes those engineers working with composite materials or specializing in one type of material, such as graphite, metal and metal alloys, ceramics and glass, plastics and polymers, and naturally occurring materials. Includes metallurgists and metallurgical engineers, ceramic engineers, and welding engineers.
  • Review new product plans and make recommendations for material selection, based on design objectives such as strength, weight, heat resistance, electrical conductivity, and cost.
  • Supervise the work of technologists, technicians, and other engineers and scientists.
  • Analyze product failure data and laboratory test results to determine causes of problems and develop solutions.
  • Conduct or supervise tests on raw materials or finished products to ensure their quality.
  • Plan and implement laboratory operations to develop material and fabrication procedures that meet cost, product specification, and performance standards.
  • Design and direct the testing or control of processing procedures.
  • Monitor material performance and evaluate material deterioration.
  • Perform managerial functions, such as preparing proposals and budgets, analyzing labor costs, and writing reports.
  • Plan and evaluate new projects, consulting with other engineers and corporate executives as necessary.
  • Guide technical staff in developing materials for specific uses in projected products or devices.
  • Evaluate technical specifications and economic factors relating to process or product design objectives.
  • Modify properties of metal alloys, using thermal and mechanical treatments.
  • Determine appropriate methods for fabricating and joining materials.
  • Solve problems in a number of engineering fields, such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, civil, nuclear, and aerospace.
  • Supervise production and testing processes in industrial settings, such as metal refining facilities, smelting or foundry operations, or nonmetallic materials production operations.
  • Teach in colleges and universities.
  • Replicate the characteristics of materials and their components with computers.
  • Design processing plants and equipment.
  • Write for technical magazines, journals, and trade association publications.
  • Conduct training sessions on new material products, applications, or manufacturing methods for customers and their employees.
17-2141.00Mechanical Engineers
Perform engineering duties in planning and designing tools, engines, machines, and other mechanically functioning equipment. Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, and repair of equipment such as centralized heat, gas, water, and steam systems.
  • Read and interpret blueprints, technical drawings, schematics, or computer-generated reports.
  • Research, design, evaluate, install, operate, or maintain mechanical products, equipment, systems or processes to meet requirements.
  • Confer with engineers or other personnel to implement operating procedures, resolve system malfunctions, or provide technical information.
  • Develop, coordinate, or monitor all aspects of production, including selection of manufacturing methods, fabrication, or operation of product designs.
  • Investigate equipment failures or difficulties to diagnose faulty operation and recommend remedial actions.
  • Develop or test models of alternate designs or processing methods to assess feasibility, sustainability, operating condition effects, potential new applications, or necessity of modification.
  • Specify system components or direct modification of products to ensure conformance with engineering design, performance specifications, or environmental regulations.
  • Recommend design modifications to eliminate machine or system malfunctions.
  • Assist drafters in developing the structural design of products, using drafting tools or computer-assisted drafting equipment or software.
  • Oversee installation, operation, maintenance, or repair to ensure that machines or equipment are installed and functioning according to specifications.
  • Conduct research that tests or analyzes the feasibility, design, operation, or performance of equipment, components, or systems.
  • Design test control apparatus or equipment or develop procedures for testing products.
  • Provide feedback to design engineers on customer problems or needs.
  • Research and analyze customer design proposals, specifications, manuals, or other data to evaluate the feasibility, cost, or maintenance requirements of designs or applications.
  • Estimate costs or submit bids for engineering, construction, or extraction projects.
  • Recommend the use of utility or energy services that minimize carbon footprints.
  • Evaluate mechanical designs or prototypes for energy performance or environmental impact.
  • Direct the installation, operation, maintenance, or repair of renewable energy equipment, such as heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) or water systems.
  • Design integrated mechanical or alternative systems, such as mechanical cooling systems with natural ventilation systems, to improve energy efficiency.
  • Apply engineering principles or practices to emerging fields, such as robotics, waste management, or biomedical engineering.
  • Write performance requirements for product development or engineering projects.
  • Perform personnel functions, such as supervision of production workers, technicians, technologists, or other engineers.
  • Calculate energy losses for buildings, using equipment such as computers, combustion analyzers, or pressure gauges.
  • Solicit new business.
  • Provide technical customer service.
  • Study industrial processes to maximize the efficiency of equipment applications, including equipment placement.
  • Establish or coordinate the maintenance or safety procedures, service schedule, or supply of materials required to maintain machines or equipment in the prescribed condition.
  • Select or install combined heat units, power units, cogeneration equipment, or trigeneration equipment that reduces energy use or pollution.
17-2141.01Fuel Cell Engineers
Design, evaluate, modify, or construct fuel cell components or systems for transportation, stationary, or portable applications.
  • Conduct fuel cell testing projects, using fuel cell test stations, analytical instruments, or electrochemical diagnostics, such as cyclic voltammetry or impedance spectroscopy.
  • Design or implement fuel cell testing or development programs.
  • Write technical reports or proposals related to engineering projects.
  • Plan or implement fuel cell cost reduction or product improvement projects in collaboration with other engineers, suppliers, support personnel, or customers.
  • Validate design of fuel cells, fuel cell components, or fuel cell systems.
  • Define specifications for fuel cell materials.
  • Plan or conduct experiments to validate new materials, optimize startup protocols, reduce conditioning time, or examine contaminant tolerance.
  • Calculate the efficiency or power output of a fuel cell system or process.
  • Conduct post-service or failure analyses, using electromechanical diagnostic principles or procedures.
  • Read current literature, attend meetings or conferences, or talk with colleagues to stay abreast of new technology or competitive products.
  • Prepare test stations, instrumentation, or data acquisition systems for use in specific tests of fuel cell components or systems.
  • Develop fuel cell materials or fuel cell test equipment.
  • Simulate or model fuel cell, motor, or other system information, using simulation software programs.
  • Characterize component or fuel cell performances by generating operating maps, defining operating conditions, identifying design refinements, or executing durability assessments.
  • Fabricate prototypes of fuel cell components, assemblies, stacks, or systems.
  • Analyze fuel cell or related test data, using statistical software.
  • Design fuel cell systems, subsystems, stacks, assemblies, or components, such as electric traction motors or power electronics.
  • Recommend or implement changes to fuel cell system designs.
  • Provide technical consultation or direction related to the development or production of fuel cell systems.
  • Develop or evaluate systems or methods of hydrogen storage for fuel cell applications.
  • Evaluate the power output, system cost, or environmental impact of new hydrogen or non-hydrogen fuel cell system designs.
  • Authorize release of fuel cell parts, components, or subsystems for production.
  • Coordinate fuel cell engineering or test schedules with departments outside engineering, such as manufacturing.
  • Identify or define vehicle and system integration challenges for fuel cell vehicles.
  • Manage fuel cell battery hybrid system architecture, including sizing of components, such as fuel cells, energy storage units, or electric drives.
  • Integrate electric drive subsystems with other vehicle systems to optimize performance or mitigate faults.
17-2141.02Automotive Engineers
Develop new or improved designs for vehicle structural members, engines, transmissions, or other vehicle systems, using computer-assisted design technology. Direct building, modification, or testing of vehicle or components.
  • Conduct or direct system-level automotive testing.
  • Conduct automotive design reviews.
  • Develop engineering specifications or cost estimates for automotive design concepts.
  • Provide technical direction to other engineers or engineering support personnel.
  • Perform failure, variation, or root cause analyses.
  • Establish production or quality control standards.
  • Write, review, or maintain engineering documentation.
  • Prepare or present technical or project status reports.
  • Design vehicles that use lighter materials, such as aluminum, magnesium alloy, or plastic, to improve fuel efficiency.
  • Alter or modify designs to obtain specified functional or operational performance.
  • Coordinate production activities with other functional units, such as procurement, maintenance, or quality control.
  • Design or analyze automobile systems in areas such as aerodynamics, alternate fuels, ergonomics, hybrid power, brakes, transmissions, steering, calibration, safety, or diagnostics.
  • Conduct research studies to develop new concepts in the field of automotive engineering.
  • Research or implement green automotive technologies involving alternative fuels, electric or hybrid cars, or lighter or more fuel-efficient vehicles.
  • Create design alternatives for vehicle components, such as camless or dual-clutch engines or alternative air-conditioning systems, to increase fuel efficiency.
  • Develop calibration methodologies, test methodologies, or tools.
  • Read current literature, attend meetings or conferences, or talk with colleagues to stay abreast of new automotive technology or competitive products.
  • Calibrate vehicle systems, including control algorithms or other software systems.
  • Design control systems or algorithms for purposes such as automotive energy management, emissions management, or increased operational safety or performance.
  • Develop or implement operating methods or procedures.
  • Develop or integrate control feature requirements.
  • Develop specifications for vehicles powered by alternative fuels or alternative power methods.
  • Build models for algorithm or control feature verification testing.
  • Design vehicles for increased recyclability or use of natural, renewable, or recycled materials in vehicle construction.
  • Research computerized automotive applications, such as telemetrics, intelligent transportation systems, artificial intelligence, or automatic control.
17-2151.00Mining and Geological Engineers, Including Mining Safety Engineers
Conduct subsurface surveys to identify the characteristics of potential land or mining development sites. May specify the ground support systems, processes, and equipment for safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction or underground construction activities. May inspect areas for unsafe geological conditions, equipment, and working conditions. May design, implement, and coordinate mine safety programs.
  • Prepare technical reports for use by mining, engineering, and management personnel.
  • Inspect mining areas for unsafe structures, equipment, and working conditions.
  • Select or develop mineral location, extraction, and production methods, based on factors such as safety, cost, and deposit characteristics.
  • Select locations and plan underground or surface mining operations, specifying processes, labor usage, and equipment that will result in safe, economical, and environmentally sound extraction of minerals and ores.
  • Prepare schedules, reports, and estimates of the costs involved in developing and operating mines.
  • Monitor mine production rates to assess operational effectiveness.
  • Supervise, train, and evaluate technicians, technologists, survey personnel, engineers, scientists or other mine personnel.
  • Examine maps, deposits, drilling locations, or mines to determine the location, size, accessibility, contents, value, and potential profitability of mineral, oil, and gas deposits.
  • Design, implement, and monitor the development of mines, facilities, systems, or equipment.
  • Test air to detect toxic gases and recommend measures to remove them, such as installation of ventilation shafts.
  • Implement and coordinate mine safety programs, including the design and maintenance of protective and rescue equipment and safety devices.
  • Devise solutions to problems of land reclamation and water and air pollution, such as methods of storing excavated soil and returning exhausted mine sites to natural states.
  • Lay out, direct, and supervise mine construction operations, such as the construction of shafts and tunnels.
  • Design, develop, and implement computer applications for use in mining operations such as mine design, modeling, or mapping or for monitoring mine conditions.
  • Select or devise materials-handling methods and equipment to transport ore, waste materials, and mineral products efficiently and economically.
  • Evaluate data to develop new mining products, equipment, or processes.
  • Design mining and mineral treatment equipment and machinery in collaboration with other engineering specialists.
  • Conduct or direct mining experiments to test or prove research findings.
17-2161.00Nuclear Engineers
Conduct research on nuclear engineering projects or apply principles and theory of nuclear science to problems concerned with release, control, and use of nuclear energy and nuclear waste disposal.
  • Initiate corrective actions or order plant shutdowns in emergency situations.
  • Monitor nuclear facility operations to identify any design, construction, or operation practices that violate safety regulations and laws or that could jeopardize the safety of operations.
  • Design or develop nuclear equipment, such as reactor cores, radiation shielding, or associated instrumentation or control mechanisms.
  • Examine accidents to obtain data that can be used to design preventive measures.
  • Direct operating or maintenance activities of operational nuclear power plants to ensure efficiency and conformity to safety standards.
  • Recommend preventive measures to be taken in the handling of nuclear technology, based on data obtained from operations monitoring or from evaluation of test results.
  • Write operational instructions to be used in nuclear plant operation or nuclear fuel or waste handling and disposal.
  • Conduct environmental studies related to topics such as nuclear power generation, nuclear waste disposal, or nuclear weapon deployment.
  • Direct environmental compliance activities associated with nuclear plant operations or maintenance.
  • Prepare environmental impact statements, reports, or presentations for regulatory or other agencies.
  • Prepare technical reports of findings or recommendations, based on synthesized analyses of test results.
  • Develop or contribute to the development of plans to remediate or restore environments affected by nuclear radiation, such as waste disposal sites.
  • Conduct tests of nuclear fuel behavior and cycles or performance of nuclear machinery and equipment to optimize performance of existing plants.
  • Design or oversee construction or operation of nuclear reactors or power plants or nuclear fuels reprocessing and reclamation systems.
  • Design or direct nuclear research projects to test or modify theoretical models, develop new theoretical models, or discover new uses for current models.
  • Design fuel cycle models or processes to reduce the quantity of radioactive waste generated from nuclear activities.
  • Consult with other scientists to determine parameters of experimentation or suitability of analytical models.
  • Perform experiments that will provide information about acceptable methods of nuclear material usage, nuclear fuel reclamation, or waste disposal.
  • Discuss construction project proposals with interested parties, such as vendors, contractors, or nuclear facility review boards.
  • Keep abreast of developments and changes in the nuclear field by reading technical journals or by independent study and research.
17-2171.00Petroleum Engineers
Devise methods to improve oil and gas extraction and production and determine the need for new or modified tool designs. Oversee drilling and offer technical advice.
  • Assess costs and estimate the production capabilities and economic value of oil and gas wells, to evaluate the economic viability of potential drilling sites.
  • Develop plans for oil and gas field drilling, and for product recovery and treatment.
  • Direct and monitor the completion and evaluation of wells, well testing, or well surveys.
  • Analyze data to recommend placement of wells and supplementary processes to enhance production.
  • Monitor production rates, and plan rework processes to improve production.
  • Interpret drilling and testing information for personnel.
  • Specify and supervise well modification and stimulation programs to maximize oil and gas recovery.
  • Assist engineering and other personnel to solve operating problems.
  • Confer with scientific, engineering, and technical personnel to resolve design, research, and testing problems.
  • Coordinate the installation, maintenance, and operation of mining and oil field equipment.
  • Maintain records of drilling and production operations.
  • Write technical reports for engineering and management personnel.
  • Assign work to staff to obtain maximum utilization of personnel.
  • Evaluate findings to develop, design, or test equipment or processes.
  • Simulate reservoir performance for different recovery techniques, using computer models.
  • Design and implement environmental controls on oil and gas operations.
  • Coordinate activities of workers engaged in research, planning, and development.
  • Take samples to assess the amount and quality of oil, the depth at which resources lie, and the equipment needed to properly extract them.
  • Supervise the removal of drilling equipment, the removal of any waste, and the safe return of land to structural stability when wells or pockets are exhausted.
  • Inspect oil and gas wells to determine that installations are completed.
  • Conduct engineering research experiments to improve or modify mining and oil machinery and operations.
  • Design or modify mining and oil field machinery and tools, applying engineering principles.
  • Test machinery and equipment to ensure that it is safe and conforms to performance specifications.
17-2199.03Energy Engineers, Except Wind and Solar
Design, develop, or evaluate energy-related projects or programs to reduce energy costs or improve energy efficiency during the designing, building, or remodeling stages of construction. May specialize in electrical systems; heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; green buildings; lighting; air quality; or energy procurement.
  • Identify and recommend energy savings strategies to achieve more energy-efficient operation.
  • Conduct energy audits to evaluate energy use and to identify conservation and cost reduction measures.
  • Monitor and analyze energy consumption.
  • Monitor energy related design or construction issues, such as energy engineering, energy management, or sustainable design.
  • Inspect or monitor energy systems, including heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) or daylighting systems to determine energy use or potential energy savings.
  • Advise clients or colleagues on topics such as climate control systems, energy modeling, data logging, sustainable design, or energy auditing.
  • Analyze, interpret, or create graphical representations of energy data, using engineering software.
  • Verify energy bills and meter readings.
  • Collect data for energy conservation analyses, using jobsite observation, field inspections, or sub-metering.
  • Manage the development, design, or construction of energy conservation projects to ensure acceptability of budgets and time lines, conformance to federal and state laws, or adherence to approved specifications.
  • Perform energy modeling, measurement, verification, commissioning, or retro-commissioning.
  • Review architectural, mechanical, or electrical plans or specifications to evaluate energy efficiency.
  • Prepare energy-related project reports or related documentation.
  • Review or negotiate energy purchase agreements.
  • Train personnel or clients on topics such as energy management.
  • Direct the implementation of energy management projects.
  • Research renewable or alternative energy systems or technologies, such as solar thermal or photovoltaic energy.
  • Promote awareness or use of alternative or renewable energy sources.
  • Write or install energy management routines for building automation systems.
  • Recommend best fuel for specific sites or circumstances.
  • Consult with construction or renovation clients or other engineers on topics such as Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) or Green Buildings.
17-2199.05Mechatronics Engineers
Research, design, develop, or test automation, intelligent systems, smart devices, or industrial systems control.
  • Design engineering systems for the automation of industrial tasks.
  • Create mechanical design documents for parts, assemblies, or finished products.
  • Maintain technical project files.
  • Implement or test design solutions.
  • Create mechanical models and tolerance analyses to simulate mechatronic design concepts.
  • Conduct studies to determine the feasibility, costs, or performance benefits of new mechatronic equipment.
  • Publish engineering reports documenting design details or qualification test results.
  • Research, select, or apply sensors, communication technologies, or control devices for motion control, position sensing, pressure sensing, or electronic communication.
  • Identify and select materials appropriate for mechatronic system designs.
  • Apply mechatronic or automated solutions to the transfer of materials, components, or finished goods.
  • Design advanced precision equipment for accurate or controlled applications.
  • Upgrade the design of existing devices by adding mechatronic elements.
  • Analyze existing development or manufacturing procedures and suggest improvements.
  • Provide consultation or training on topics such as mechatronics or automated control.
  • Oversee the work of contractors in accordance with project requirements.
  • Design, develop, or implement control circuits or algorithms for electromechanical or pneumatic devices or systems.
  • Design advanced electronic control systems for mechanical systems.
  • Develop electronic, mechanical, or computerized processes to perform tasks in dangerous situations, such as underwater exploration or extraterrestrial mining.
  • Design mechatronics components for computer-controlled products, such as cameras, video recorders, automobiles, or airplanes.
  • Create embedded software design programs.
  • Design or develop automated control systems for environmental applications, such as waste processing, air quality, or water quality systems.
  • Design self-monitoring mechanical systems, such as gear systems that monitor loading or condition of systems to detect and prevent failures.
  • Monitor or calibrate automated systems, industrial control systems, or system components to maximize efficiency of production.
17-2199.06Microsystems Engineers
Research, design, develop, or test microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices.
  • Create schematics and physical layouts of integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) components or packaged assemblies consistent with process, functional, or package constraints.
  • Investigate characteristics such as cost, performance, or process capability of potential microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device designs, using simulation or modeling software.
  • Create or maintain formal engineering documents, such as schematics, bills of materials, components or materials specifications, or packaging requirements.
  • Conduct analyses addressing issues such as failure, reliability, or yield improvement.
  • Plan or schedule engineering research or development projects involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.
  • Propose product designs involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, considering market data or customer requirements.
  • Develop formal documentation for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, including quality assurance guidance, quality control protocols, process control checklists, data collection, or reporting.
  • Communicate operating characteristics or performance experience to other engineers or designers for training or new product development purposes.
  • Evaluate materials, fabrication methods, joining methods, surface treatments, or packaging to ensure acceptable processing, performance, cost, sustainability, or availability.
  • Refine final microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) design to optimize design for target dimensions, physical tolerances, or processing constraints.
  • Conduct harsh environmental testing, accelerated aging, device characterization, or field trials to validate devices, using inspection tools, testing protocols, peripheral instrumentation, or modeling and simulation software.
  • Develop or file intellectual property and patent disclosure or application documents related to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, products, or systems.
  • Conduct or oversee the conduct of prototype development or microfabrication activities to ensure compliance to specifications and promote effective production processes.
  • Conduct experimental or virtual studies to investigate characteristics and processing principles of potential microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.
  • Devise microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) production methods, such as integrated circuit fabrication, lithographic electroform modeling, or micromachining.
  • Develop or validate specialized materials characterization procedures, such as thermal withstand, fatigue, notch sensitivity, abrasion, or hardness tests.
  • Validate fabrication processes for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), using statistical process control implementation, virtual process simulations, data mining, or life testing.
  • Demonstrate miniaturized systems that contain components, such as microsensors, microactuators, or integrated electronic circuits, fabricated on silicon or silicon carbide wafers.
  • Manage new product introduction projects to ensure effective deployment of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices or applications.
  • Conduct acceptance tests, vendor-qualification protocols, surveys, audits, corrective-action reviews, or performance monitoring of incoming materials or components to ensure conformance to specifications.
  • Develop or implement microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processing tools, fixtures, gages, dies, molds, or trays.
  • Develop customer documentation, such as performance specifications, training manuals, or operating instructions.
  • Identify, procure, or develop test equipment, instrumentation, or facilities for characterization of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications.
  • Develop or validate product-specific test protocols, acceptance thresholds, or inspection tools for quality control testing or performance measurement.
  • Oversee operation of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication or assembly equipment, such as handling, singulation, assembly, wire-bonding, soldering, or package sealing.
  • Consider environmental issues when proposing product designs involving microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.
  • Design or develop energy products using nanomaterials or nanoprocesses, such as micro-nano machining.
  • Design or develop industrial air quality microsystems, such as carbon dioxide fixing devices.
  • Design or develop sensors to reduce the energy or resource requirements to operate appliances, such as washing machines or dishwashing machines.
  • Design sensors or switches that require little or no power to operate for environmental monitoring or industrial metering applications.
  • Research or develop emerging microelectromechanical (MEMS) systems to convert nontraditional energy sources into power, such as ambient energy harvesters that convert environmental vibrations into usable energy.
17-2199.07Photonics Engineers
Design technologies specializing in light information or light energy, such as laser or fiber optics technology.
  • Analyze system performance or operational requirements.
  • Develop optical or imaging systems, such as optical imaging products, optical components, image processes, signal process technologies, or optical systems.
  • Develop or test photonic prototypes or models.
  • Design, integrate, or test photonics systems or components.
  • Assist in the transition of photonic prototypes to production.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, continue education, or participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in the field.
  • Write reports or proposals related to photonics research or development projects.
  • Conduct testing to determine functionality or optimization or to establish limits of photonics systems or components.
  • Determine applications of photonics appropriate to meet product objectives or features.
  • Conduct research on new photonics technologies.
  • Design electro-optical sensing or imaging systems.
  • Document photonics system or component design processes, including objectives, issues, or outcomes.
  • Design photonics products, such as light sources, displays, or photovoltaics, to achieve increased energy efficiency.
  • Train operators, engineers, or other personnel.
  • Analyze, fabricate, or test fiber-optic links.
  • Design gas lasers, solid state lasers, infrared, or other light emitting or light sensitive devices.
  • Create or maintain photonic design histories.
  • Oversee or provide expertise on manufacturing, assembly, or fabrication processes.
  • Determine commercial, industrial, scientific, or other uses for electro-optical applications or devices.
  • Design solar energy photonics or other materials or devices to generate energy.
  • Design or redesign optical fibers to minimize energy loss.
  • Develop photonics sensing or manufacturing technologies to improve the efficiency of manufacturing or related processes.
  • Develop laser-processed designs, such as laser-cut medical devices.
  • Design or develop new crystals for photonics applications.
  • Design laser machining equipment for purposes such as high-speed ablation.
  • Select, purchase, set up, operate, or troubleshoot state-of-the-art laser cutting equipment.
17-2199.08Robotics Engineers
Research, design, develop, or test robotic applications.
  • Review or approve designs, calculations, or cost estimates.
  • Process or interpret signals or sensor data.
  • Debug robotics programs.
  • Build, configure, or test robots or robotic applications.
  • Create back-ups of robot programs or parameters.
  • Provide technical support for robotic systems.
  • Design end-of-arm tooling.
  • Design robotic systems, such as automatic vehicle control, autonomous vehicles, advanced displays, advanced sensing, robotic platforms, computer vision, or telematics systems.
  • Supervise technologists, technicians, or other engineers.
  • Design software to control robotic systems for applications, such as military defense or manufacturing.
  • Conduct research on robotic technology to create new robotic systems or system capabilities.
  • Investigate mechanical failures or unexpected maintenance problems.
  • Integrate robotics with peripherals, such as welders, controllers, or other equipment.
  • Evaluate robotic systems or prototypes.
  • Install, calibrate, operate, or maintain robots.
  • Conduct research into the feasibility, design, operation, or performance of robotic mechanisms, components, or systems, such as planetary rovers, multiple mobile robots, reconfigurable robots, or man-machine interactions.
  • Document robotic application development, maintenance, or changes.
  • Design automated robotic systems to increase production volume or precision in high-throughput operations, such as automated ribonucleic acid (RNA) analysis or sorting, moving, or stacking production materials.
  • Write algorithms or programming code for ad hoc robotic applications.
  • Make system device lists or event timing charts.
  • Design or program robotics systems for environmental clean-up applications to minimize human exposure to toxic or hazardous materials or to improve the quality or speed of clean-up operations.
  • Plan mobile robot paths and teach path plans to robots.
  • Design robotics applications for manufacturers of green products, such as wind turbines or solar panels, to increase production time, eliminate waste, or reduce costs.
  • Automate assays on laboratory robotics.
17-2199.09Nanosystems Engineers
Design, develop, or supervise the production of materials, devices, or systems of unique molecular or macromolecular composition, applying principles of nanoscale physics and electrical, chemical, or biological engineering.
  • Write proposals to secure external funding or to partner with other companies.
  • Synthesize, process, or characterize nanomaterials, using advanced tools or techniques.
  • Supervise technologists or technicians engaged in nanotechnology research or production.
  • Prepare reports, deliver presentations, or participate in program review activities to communicate engineering results or recommendations.
  • Provide scientific or technical guidance or expertise to scientists, engineers, technologists, technicians, or others, using knowledge of chemical, analytical, or biological processes as applied to micro and nanoscale systems.
  • Conduct research related to a range of nanotechnology topics, such as packaging, heat transfer, fluorescence detection, nanoparticle dispersion, hybrid systems, liquid systems, nanocomposites, nanofabrication, optoelectronics, or nanolithography.
  • Identify new applications for existing nanotechnologies.
  • Design or conduct tests of new nanotechnology products, processes, or systems.
  • Develop processes or identify equipment needed for pilot or commercial nanoscale scale production.
  • Generate high-resolution images or measure force-distance curves, using techniques such as atomic force microscopy.
  • Design nano-enabled products with reduced toxicity, increased durability, or improved energy efficiency.
  • Provide technical guidance or support to customers on topics such as nanosystem start-up, maintenance, or use.
  • Prepare nanotechnology-related invention disclosures or patent applications.
  • Engineer production processes for specific nanotechnology applications, such as electroplating, nanofabrication, or epoxy.
  • Design or engineer nanomaterials, nanodevices, nano-enabled products, or nanosystems, using three-dimensional computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Develop catalysis or other green chemistry methods to synthesize nanomaterials, such as nanotubes, nanocrystals, nanorods, or nanowires.
  • Apply nanotechnology to improve the performance or reduce the environmental impact of energy products, such as fuel cells or solar cells.
  • Create designs or prototypes for nanosystem applications, such as biomedical delivery systems or atomic force microscopes.
  • Design nanosystems with components such as nanocatalysts or nanofiltration devices to clean specific pollutants from hazardous waste sites.
  • Coordinate or supervise the work of suppliers or vendors in the designing, building, or testing of nanosystem devices, such as lenses or probes.
  • Design nano-based manufacturing processes to minimize water, chemical, or energy use, as well as to reduce waste production.
  • Design nanoparticle catalysts to detect or remove chemical or other pollutants from water, soil, or air.
  • Reengineer nanomaterials to improve biodegradability.
  • Integrate nanotechnology with antimicrobial properties into products, such as household or medical appliances, to reduce the development of bacteria or other microbes.
  • Develop green building nanocoatings, such as self-cleaning, anti-stain, depolluting, anti-fogging, anti-icing, antimicrobial, moisture-resistant, or ultraviolet protectant coatings.
17-2199.10Wind Energy Engineers
Design underground or overhead wind farm collector systems and prepare and develop site specifications.
  • Create or maintain wind farm layouts, schematics, or other visual documentation for wind farms.
  • Recommend process or infrastructure changes to improve wind turbine performance, reduce operational costs, or comply with regulations.
  • Create models to optimize the layout of wind farm access roads, crane pads, crane paths, collection systems, substations, switchyards, or transmission lines.
  • Provide engineering technical support to designers of prototype wind turbines.
  • Investigate experimental wind turbines or wind turbine technologies for properties such as aerodynamics, production, noise, and load.
  • Develop active control algorithms, electronics, software, electromechanical, or electrohydraulic systems for wind turbines.
  • Develop specifications for wind technology components, such as gearboxes, blades, generators, frequency converters, or pad transformers.
  • Test wind turbine components, using mechanical or electronic testing equipment.
  • Oversee the work activities of wind farm consultants or subcontractors.
  • Test wind turbine equipment to determine effects of stress or fatigue.
  • Monitor wind farm construction to ensure compliance with regulatory standards or environmental requirements.
  • Direct balance of plant (BOP) construction, generator installation, testing, commissioning, or supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) to ensure compliance with specifications.
  • Analyze operation of wind farms or wind farm components to determine reliability, performance, and compliance with specifications.
  • Perform root cause analysis on wind turbine tower component failures.
  • Design underground or overhead wind farm collector systems.
  • Write reports to document wind farm collector system test results.
17-2199.11Solar Energy Systems Engineers
Perform site-specific engineering analysis or evaluation of energy efficiency and solar projects involving residential, commercial, or industrial customers. Design solar domestic hot water and space heating systems for new and existing structures, applying knowledge of structural energy requirements, local climates, solar technology, and thermodynamics.
  • Create plans for solar energy system development, monitoring, and evaluation activities.
  • Conduct engineering site audits to collect structural, electrical, and related site information for use in the design of residential or commercial solar power systems.
  • Design or coordinate design of photovoltaic (PV) or solar thermal systems, including system components, for residential and commercial buildings.
  • Create electrical single-line diagrams, panel schedules, or connection diagrams for solar electric systems, using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Review specifications and recommend engineering or manufacturing changes to achieve solar design objectives.
  • Develop design specifications and functional requirements for residential, commercial, or industrial solar energy systems or components.
  • Provide technical direction or support to installation teams during installation, start-up, testing, system commissioning, or performance monitoring.
  • Perform computer simulation of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation system performance or energy production to optimize efficiency.
  • Develop standard operation procedures and quality or safety standards for solar installation work.
  • Create checklists for review or inspection of completed solar installation projects.
  • Test or evaluate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules.
  • Perform thermal, stress, or cost reduction analyses for solar systems.
  • Design or develop vacuum tube collector systems for solar applications.
17-3011.00Architectural and Civil Drafters
Prepare detailed drawings of architectural and structural features of buildings or drawings and topographical relief maps used in civil engineering projects, such as highways, bridges, and public works. Use knowledge of building materials, engineering practices, and mathematics to complete drawings.
  • Produce drawings, using computer-assisted drafting systems (CAD) or drafting machines, or by hand, using compasses, dividers, protractors, triangles, and other drafting devices.
  • Draft plans and detailed drawings for structures, installations, and construction projects, such as highways, sewage disposal systems, and dikes, working from sketches or notes.
  • Coordinate structural, electrical, and mechanical designs and determine a method of presentation to graphically represent building plans.
  • Analyze building codes, by-laws, space and site requirements, and other technical documents and reports to determine their effect on architectural designs.
  • Draw maps, diagrams, and profiles, using cross-sections and surveys, to represent elevations, topographical contours, subsurface formations, and structures.
  • Lay out and plan interior room arrangements for commercial buildings, using computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment and software.
  • Supervise and train other technologists, technicians, and drafters.
  • Determine the order of work and method of presentation, such as orthographic or isometric drawing.
  • Draw rough and detailed scale plans for foundations, buildings, and structures, based on preliminary concepts, sketches, engineering calculations, specification sheets, and other data.
  • Finish and duplicate drawings and documentation packages according to required mediums and specifications for reproduction, using blueprinting, photography, or other duplicating methods.
  • Correlate, interpret, and modify data obtained from topographical surveys, well logs, and geophysical prospecting reports.
  • Check dimensions of materials to be used and assign numbers to lists of materials.
  • Determine procedures and instructions to be followed, according to design specifications and quantity of required materials.
  • Supervise or conduct field surveys, inspections, or technical investigations to obtain data required to revise construction drawings.
  • Explain drawings to production or construction teams and provide adjustments as necessary.
  • Obtain and assemble data to complete architectural designs, visiting job sites to compile measurements as necessary.
  • Determine quality, cost, strength, and quantity of required materials, and enter figures on materials lists.
  • Locate and identify symbols on topographical surveys to denote geological and geophysical formations or oil field installations.
  • Create freehand drawings and lettering to accompany drawings.
  • Calculate excavation tonnage and prepare graphs and fill-hauling diagrams for use in earth-moving operations.
  • Prepare colored drawings of landscape and interior designs for presentation to client.
  • Calculate weights, volumes, and stress factors and their implications for technical aspects of designs.
  • Plot characteristics of boreholes for oil and gas wells from photographic subsurface survey recordings and other data, representing depth, degree, and direction of inclination.
  • Reproduce drawings on copy machines or trace copies of plans and drawings, using transparent paper or cloth, ink, pencil, and standard drafting instruments.
  • Calculate heat loss and gain of buildings and structures to determine required equipment specifications, following standard procedures.
  • Prepare cost estimates, contracts, bidding documents, and technical reports for specific projects under an architect's or engineer's supervision.
  • Represent architect or engineer on construction site, ensuring builder compliance with design specifications and advising on design corrections, under supervision.
  • Review rough sketches, drawings, specifications, and other engineering data to ensure that they conform to design concepts.
17-3012.00Electrical and Electronics Drafters
Prepare wiring diagrams, circuit board assembly diagrams, and layout drawings used for the manufacture, installation, or repair of electrical equipment.
  • Draft working drawings, wiring diagrams, wiring connection specifications, or cross-sections of underground cables, as required for instructions to installation crew.
  • Assemble documentation packages and produce drawing sets to be checked by an engineer or an architect.
  • Consult with engineers to discuss or interpret design concepts, or determine requirements of detailed working drawings.
  • Review completed construction drawings and cost estimates for accuracy and conformity to standards and regulations.
  • Examine electronic schematics and supporting documents to develop, compute, and verify specifications for drafting data, such as configuration of parts, dimensions, or tolerances.
  • Confer with engineering staff and other personnel to resolve problems.
  • Draft detail and assembly drawings of design components, circuitry or printed circuit boards, using computer-assisted equipment or standard drafting techniques and devices.
  • Measure factors that affect installation and arrangement of equipment, such as distances to be spanned by wire and cable.
  • Locate files relating to specified design project in database library, load program into computer, and record completed job data.
  • Design electrical systems, such as lighting systems.
  • Draw master sketches to scale showing relation of proposed installations to existing facilities and exact specifications and dimensions.
  • Study work order requests to determine type of service, such as lighting or power, demanded by installation.
  • Explain drawings to production or construction teams and provide adjustments, as necessary.
  • Review work orders or procedural manuals and confer with vendors or design staff to resolve problems or modify design.
  • Reproduce working drawings on copy machines or trace drawings in ink.
  • Generate computer tapes of final layout design to produce layered photo masks or photo plotting design onto film.
  • Key and program specified commands and engineering specifications into computer system to change functions and test final layout.
  • Supervise and coordinate work activities of workers engaged in drafting, designing layouts, assembling, or testing printed circuit boards.
  • Compare logic element configuration on display screen with engineering schematics and calculate figures to convert, redesign, or modify element.
  • Determine the order of work and the method of presentation, such as orthographic or isometric drawing.
  • Review blueprints to determine customer requirements and consult with assembler regarding schematics, wiring procedures, or conductor paths.
  • Visit proposed installation sites and draw rough sketches of location.
  • Select drill size to drill test head, according to test design and specifications, and submit guide layout to designated department.
  • Plot electrical test points on layout sheets and draw schematics for wiring test fixture heads to frames.
  • Copy drawings of printed circuit board fabrication using print machine or blueprinting procedure.
  • Write technical reports and draw charts that display statistics and data.
  • Train students to use drafting machines and to prepare schematic diagrams, block diagrams, control drawings, logic diagrams, integrated circuit drawings, or interconnection diagrams.
  • Prepare and interpret specifications, calculating weights, volumes, or stress factors.
  • Supervise or train other technologists, technicians, or drafters.
  • Use computer-aided drafting equipment or conventional drafting stations, technical handbooks, tables, calculators, or traditional drafting tools, such as boards, pencils, protractors, or T-squares.
17-3013.00Mechanical Drafters
Prepare detailed working diagrams of machinery and mechanical devices, including dimensions, fastening methods, and other engineering information.
  • Develop detailed design drawings and specifications for mechanical equipment, dies, tools, and controls, using computer-assisted drafting (CAD) equipment.
  • Produce three-dimensional models, using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Lay out and draw schematic, orthographic, or angle views to depict functional relationships of components, assemblies, systems, and machines.
  • Modify and revise designs to correct operating deficiencies or to reduce production problems.
  • Review and analyze specifications, sketches, drawings, ideas, and related data to assess factors affecting component designs and the procedures and instructions to be followed.
  • Check dimensions of materials to be used and assign numbers to the materials.
  • Design scale or full-size blueprints of specialty items such as furniture and automobile body or chassis components.
  • Compute mathematical formulas to develop and design detailed specifications for components or machinery, using computer-assisted equipment.
  • Coordinate with and consult other workers to design, lay out, or detail components and systems and to resolve design or other problems.
  • Confer with customer representatives to review schematics and answer questions pertaining to installation of systems.
  • Position instructions and comments onto drawings.
  • Supervise and train other drafters, technologists, and technicians.
  • Lay out, draw, and reproduce illustrations for reference manuals and technical publications to describe operation and maintenance of mechanical systems.
  • Draw freehand sketches of designs, trace finished drawings onto designated paper for the reproduction of blueprints, and reproduce working drawings on copy machines.
  • Shade or color drawings to clarify and emphasize details and dimensions or eliminate background using ink, crayon, airbrush, and overlays.
17-3021.00Aerospace Engineering and Operations Technologists and Technicians
Operate, install, adjust, and maintain integrated computer/communications systems, consoles, simulators, and other data acquisition, test, and measurement instruments and equipment, which are used to launch, track, position, and evaluate air and space vehicles. May record and interpret test data.
  • Test aircraft systems under simulated operational conditions, performing systems readiness tests and pre- and post-operational checkouts, to establish design or fabrication parameters.
  • Identify required data, data acquisition plans, and test parameters, setting up equipment to conform to these specifications.
  • Inspect, diagnose, maintain, and operate test setups and equipment to detect malfunctions.
  • Confer with engineering personnel regarding details and implications of test procedures and results.
  • Operate and calibrate computer systems and devices to comply with test requirements and to perform data acquisition and analysis.
  • Record and interpret test data on parts, assemblies, and mechanisms.
  • Adjust, repair, or replace faulty components of test setups and equipment.
  • Fabricate and install parts and systems to be tested in test equipment, using hand tools, power tools, and test instruments.
  • Finish vehicle instrumentation and deinstrumentation.
  • Construct and maintain test facilities for aircraft parts and systems, according to specifications.
  • Design electrical and mechanical systems for avionic instrumentation applications.
  • Exchange cooling system components in various vehicles.
17-3022.00Civil Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply theory and principles of civil engineering in planning, designing, and overseeing construction and maintenance of structures and facilities under the direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
  • Calculate dimensions, square footage, profile and component specifications, and material quantities using calculator or computer.
  • Read and review project blueprints and structural specifications to determine dimensions of structure or system and material requirements.
  • Draft detailed dimensional drawings and design layouts for projects and to ensure conformance to specifications.
  • Confer with supervisor to determine project details such as plan preparation, acceptance testing, and evaluation of field conditions.
  • Analyze proposed site factors and design maps, graphs, tracings, and diagrams to illustrate findings.
  • Prepare reports and document project activities and data.
  • Report maintenance problems occurring at project site to supervisor and negotiate changes to resolve system conflicts.
  • Inspect project site and evaluate contractor work to detect design malfunctions and ensure conformance to design specifications and applicable codes.
  • Conduct materials test and analysis using tools and equipment and applying engineering knowledge.
  • Develop plans and estimate costs for installation of systems, utilization of facilities, or construction of structures.
  • Develop project budgets by estimating the cost of project activities.
  • Evaluate facility to determine suitability for occupancy and square footage availability.
  • Plan and conduct field surveys to locate new sites and analyze details of project sites.
  • Respond to public suggestions and complaints.
  • Negotiate prices for new contracts or for modifications to existing contracts with contractors.
17-3023.00Electrical and Electronic Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply electrical and electronic theory and related knowledge, usually under the direction of engineering staff, to design, build, repair, adjust, and modify electrical components, circuitry, controls, and machinery for subsequent evaluation and use by engineering staff in making engineering design decisions.
  • Modify, maintain, or repair electronics equipment or systems to ensure proper functioning.
  • Replace defective components or parts, using hand tools and precision instruments.
  • Read blueprints, wiring diagrams, schematic drawings, or engineering instructions for assembling electronics units, applying knowledge of electronic theory and components.
  • Set up and operate specialized or standard test equipment to diagnose, test, or analyze the performance of electronic components, assemblies, or systems.
  • Identify and resolve equipment malfunctions, working with manufacturers or field representatives as necessary to procure replacement parts.
  • Assemble electrical systems or prototypes, using hand tools or measuring instruments.
  • Review electrical engineering plans to ensure adherence to design specifications and compliance with applicable electrical codes and standards.
  • Assemble, test, or maintain circuitry or electronic components, according to engineering instructions, technical manuals, or knowledge of electronics, using hand or power tools.
  • Review existing electrical engineering criteria to identify necessary revisions, deletions, or amendments to outdated material.
  • Maintain system logs or manuals to document testing or operation of equipment.
  • Select electronics equipment, components, or systems to meet functional specifications.
  • Calculate design specifications or cost, material, and resource estimates, and prepare project schedules and budgets.
  • Compile and maintain records documenting engineering schematics, installed equipment, installation or operational problems, resources used, repairs, or corrective action performed.
  • Educate equipment operators on the proper use of equipment.
  • Supervise the installation or operation of electronic equipment or systems.
  • Integrate software or hardware components, using computer, microprocessor, or control architecture.
  • Modify electrical prototypes, parts, assemblies, or systems to correct functional deviations.
  • Procure parts and maintain inventory and related documentation.
  • Participate in training or continuing education activities to stay abreast of engineering or industry advances.
  • Research equipment or component needs, sources, competitive prices, delivery times, or ongoing operational costs.
  • Provide user applications or engineering support or recommendations for new or existing equipment with regard to installation, upgrades, or enhancements.
  • Specify, coordinate, or conduct quality control or quality assurance programs or procedures.
  • Produce electronics drawings or other graphics representing industrial control, instrumentation, sensors, or analog or digital telecommunications networks, using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Install or maintain electrical control systems, industrial automation systems, or electrical equipment, including control circuits, variable speed drives, or programmable logic controllers.
  • Design or modify engineering schematics for electrical transmission and distribution systems or for electrical installation in residential, commercial, or industrial buildings, using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Interpret test information to resolve design-related problems.
  • Conduct statistical studies to analyze or compare production costs for sustainable or nonsustainable designs.
  • Construct and evaluate electrical components for consumer electronics applications such as fuel cells for consumer electronic devices, power saving devices for computers or televisions, or energy efficient power chargers.
  • Participate in the development or testing of electrical aspects of new green technologies, such as lighting, optical data storage devices, and energy efficient televisions.
  • Review, develop, or prepare maintenance standards.
17-3024.00Electro-Mechanical and Mechatronics Technologists and Technicians
Operate, test, maintain, or adjust unmanned, automated, servomechanical, or electromechanical equipment. May operate unmanned submarines, aircraft, or other equipment to observe or record visual information at sites such as oil rigs, crop fields, buildings, or for similar infrastructure, deep ocean exploration, or hazardous waste removal. May assist engineers in testing and designing robotics equipment.
  • Test performance of electromechanical assemblies, using test instruments such as oscilloscopes, electronic voltmeters, or bridges.
  • Read blueprints, schematics, diagrams, or technical orders to determine methods and sequences of assembly.
  • Inspect parts for surface defects.
  • Install electrical or electronic parts and hardware in housings or assemblies, using soldering equipment and hand tools.
  • Verify part dimensions or clearances to ensure conformance to specifications, using precision measuring instruments.
  • Align, fit, or assemble component parts, using hand or power tools, fixtures, templates, or microscopes.
  • Develop, test, or program new robots.
  • Prepare written documentation of electromechanical test results.
  • Repair, rework, or calibrate hydraulic or pneumatic assemblies or systems to meet operational specifications or tolerances.
  • Operate, test, or maintain robotic equipment used for green production applications, such as waste-to-energy conversion systems, minimization of material waste, or replacement of human operators in dangerous work environments.
  • Train others to install, use, or maintain robots.
  • Operate metalworking machines to fabricate housings, jigs, fittings, or fixtures.
  • Analyze engineering designs of logic or digital circuitry, motor controls, instrumentation, or data acquisition for implementation into new or existing automated, servomechanical, or other electromechanical systems.
  • Collaborate with engineers to implement electromechanical designs in industrial or other settings.
  • Conduct statistical studies to analyze or compare production costs for sustainable and nonsustainable designs.
  • Consult with machinists to ensure that electromechanical equipment or systems meet design specifications.
  • Determine whether selected electromechanical components comply with environmental standards and regulations.
  • Develop or implement programs related to the environmental impact of engineering activities.
  • Establish and maintain inventory, records, or documentation systems.
  • Fabricate or assemble mechanical, electrical, or electronic components or assemblies.
  • Identify energy-conserving production or fabrication methods, such as by bending metal rather than cutting and welding or casting metal.
  • Install or program computer hardware or machine or instrumentation software in microprocessor-based systems.
  • Modify, maintain, or repair electrical, electronic, or mechanical components, equipment, or systems to ensure proper functioning.
  • Produce electrical, electronic, or mechanical drawings or other related documents or graphics necessary for electromechanical design, using computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Select and use laboratory, operational, or diagnostic techniques or test equipment to assess electromechanical circuits, equipment, processes, systems, or subsystems.
  • Select electromechanical equipment, materials, components, or systems to meet functional specifications.
  • Specify, coordinate, or conduct quality-control or quality-assurance programs and procedures.
  • Test and analyze thermodynamic systems for renewable energy applications, such as solar or wind, to maximize energy production.
  • Translate electromechanical drawings into design specifications, applying principles of engineering, thermal or fluid sciences, mathematics, or statistics.
17-3024.01Robotics Technicians
Build, install, test, or maintain robotic equipment or related automated production systems.
  • Make repairs to robots or peripheral equipment, such as replacement of defective circuit boards, sensors, controllers, encoders, or servomotors.
  • Troubleshoot robotic systems, using knowledge of microprocessors, programmable controllers, electronics, circuit analysis, mechanics, sensor or feedback systems, hydraulics, or pneumatics.
  • Install, program, or repair programmable controllers, robot controllers, end-of-arm tools, or conveyors.
  • Maintain service records of robotic equipment or automated production systems.
  • Modify computer-controlled robot movements.
  • Perform preventive or corrective maintenance on robotic systems or components.
  • Align, fit, or assemble components, using hand tools, power tools, fixtures, templates, or microscopes.
  • Attach wires between controllers.
  • Evaluate the efficiency and reliability of industrial robotic systems, reprogramming or calibrating to achieve maximum quantity and quality.
  • Test performance of robotic assemblies, using instruments such as oscilloscopes, electronic voltmeters, or bridges.
  • Train customers or other personnel to install, use, or maintain robots.
  • Build or assemble robotic devices or systems.
  • Document robotics test procedures and results.
  • Assist engineers in the design, configuration, or application of robotic systems.
  • Install new robotic systems in stationary positions or on tracks.
  • Program complex robotic systems, such as vision systems.
  • Develop robotic path motions to maximize efficiency, safety, and quality.
  • Fabricate housings, jigs, fittings, or fixtures, using metalworking machines.
  • Train robots, using artificial intelligence software or interactive training techniques, to perform simple or complex tasks, such as designing and carrying out a series of iterative tests of chemical samples.
  • Inspect installation sites.
  • Maintain inventories of robotic production supplies, such as sensors or cables.
  • Develop three-dimensional simulations of automation systems.
  • Operate robots to perform customized tasks, such as environmental cleanup or explosive detection operations.
17-3025.00Environmental Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply theory and principles of environmental engineering to modify, test, and operate equipment and devices used in the prevention, control, and remediation of environmental problems, including waste treatment and site remediation, under the direction of engineering staff or scientists. May assist in the development of environmental remediation devices.
  • Maintain project logbook records or computer program files.
  • Record laboratory or field data, including numerical data, test results, photographs, or summaries of visual observations.
  • Perform environmental quality work in field or office settings.
  • Produce environmental assessment reports, tabulating data and preparing charts, graphs, or sketches.
  • Collect and analyze pollution samples, such as air or ground water.
  • Decontaminate or test field equipment used to clean or test pollutants from soil, air, or water.
  • Prepare and package environmental samples for shipping or testing.
  • Maintain process parameters and evaluate process anomalies.
  • Review technical documents to ensure completeness and conformance to requirements.
  • Receive, set up, test, or decontaminate equipment.
  • Prepare permit applications or review compliance with environmental permits.
  • Review work plans to schedule activities.
  • Assist in the cleanup of hazardous material spills.
  • Inspect facilities to monitor compliance with regulations governing substances, such as asbestos, lead, or wastewater.
  • Develop work plans, including writing specifications or establishing material, manpower, or facilities needs.
  • Perform statistical analysis and correction of air or water pollution data submitted by industry or other agencies.
  • Arrange for the disposal of lead, asbestos, or other hazardous materials.
  • Evaluate and select technologies to clean up polluted sites, restore polluted air, water, or soil, or rehabilitate degraded ecosystems.
  • Assess the ability of environments to naturally remove or reduce conventional or emerging contaminants from air, water, or soil.
  • Work with customers to assess the environmental impact of proposed construction or to develop pollution prevention programs.
  • Provide technical engineering support in the planning of projects, such as wastewater treatment plants, to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and policies.
  • Model biological, chemical, or physical treatment processes to remove or degrade pollutants.
  • Oversee support staff.
  • Create models to demonstrate or predict the process by which pollutants move through or impact an environment.
  • Improve chemical processes to reduce toxic emissions.
  • Obtain product information, identify vendors or suppliers, or order materials or equipment to maintain inventory.
17-3026.00Industrial Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply engineering theory and principles to problems of industrial layout or manufacturing production, usually under the direction of engineering staff. May perform time and motion studies on worker operations in a variety of industries for purposes such as establishing standard production rates or improving efficiency.
  • Compile and evaluate statistical data to determine and maintain quality and reliability of products.
  • Test selected products at specified stages in the production process for performance characteristics or adherence to specifications.
  • Study time, motion, methods, or speed involved in maintenance, production, or other operations to establish standard production rate or improve efficiency.
  • Read worker logs, product processing sheets, or specification sheets to verify that records adhere to quality assurance specifications.
  • Verify that equipment is being operated and maintained according to quality assurance standards by observing worker performance.
  • Aid in planning work assignments in accordance with worker performance, machine capacity, production schedules, or anticipated delays.
  • Evaluate industrial operations for compliance with permits or regulations related to the generation, storage, treatment, transportation, or disposal of hazardous materials or waste.
  • Adhere to all applicable regulations, policies, and procedures for health, safety, and environmental compliance.
  • Analyze, estimate, or report production costs.
  • Assist engineers in developing, building, or testing prototypes or new products, processes, or procedures.
  • Calibrate or adjust equipment to ensure quality production, using tools such as calipers, micrometers, height gauges, protractors, or ring gauges.
  • Conduct statistical studies to analyze or compare production costs for sustainable and nonsustainable designs.
  • Coordinate equipment purchases, installations, or transfers.
  • Create or interpret engineering drawings, schematic diagrams, formulas, or blueprints for management or engineering staff.
  • Design plant layouts or production facilities.
  • Develop manufacturing infrastructure to integrate or deploy new manufacturing processes.
  • Develop or implement programs to address problems related to production, materials, safety, or quality.
  • Develop production, inventory, or quality assurance programs.
  • Develop sustainable manufacturing technologies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize raw material use, replace toxic materials with non-toxic materials, replace non-renewable materials with renewable materials, or reduce waste.
  • Identify opportunities for improvements in quality, cost, or efficiency of automation equipment.
  • Monitor and adjust production processes or equipment for quality and productivity.
  • Oversee equipment start-up, characterization, qualification, or release.
  • Oversee or inspect production processes.
  • Prepare layouts, drawings, or sketches of machinery or equipment, such as shop tooling, scale layouts, or new equipment design, using drafting equipment or computer-aided design (CAD) software.
  • Prepare production documents, such as standard operating procedures, manufacturing batch records, inventory reports, or productivity reports.
  • Provide advice or training to other technicians.
  • Recommend corrective or preventive actions to assure or improve product quality or reliability.
  • Select cleaning materials, tools, or equipment.
  • Select material quantities or processing methods needed to achieve efficient production.
  • Set up and operate production equipment in accordance with current good manufacturing practices and standard operating procedures.
17-3026.01Nanotechnology Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Implement production processes and operate commercial-scale production equipment to produce, test, or modify materials, devices, or systems of unique molecular or macromolecular composition. Operate advanced microscopy equipment to manipulate nanoscale objects. Work under the supervision of nanoengineering staff.
  • Maintain work area according to cleanroom or other processing standards.
  • Operate nanotechnology compounding, testing, processing, or production equipment in accordance with appropriate standard operating procedures, good manufacturing practices, hazardous material restrictions, or health and safety requirements.
  • Produce images or measurements, using tools or techniques such as atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, particle size analysis, or zeta potential analysis.
  • Collaborate with scientists or engineers to design or conduct experiments for the development of nanotechnology materials, components, devices, or systems.
  • Measure or mix chemicals or compounds in accordance with detailed instructions or formulas.
  • Repair nanotechnology processing or testing equipment or submit work orders for equipment repair.
  • Monitor equipment during operation to ensure adherence to specifications for characteristics such as pressure, temperature, or flow.
  • Collect or compile nanotechnology research or engineering data.
  • Calibrate nanotechnology equipment, such as weighing, testing, or production equipment.
  • Monitor hazardous waste cleanup procedures to ensure proper application of nanocomposites or accomplishment of objectives.
  • Contribute written material or data for grant or patent applications.
  • Inspect or measure thin films of carbon nanotubes, polymers, or inorganic coatings, using a variety of techniques or analytical tools.
  • Compare the performance or environmental impact of nanomaterials by nanoparticle size, shape, or organization.
  • Develop or modify wet chemical or industrial laboratory experimental techniques for nanoscale use.
  • Process nanoparticles or nanostructures, using technologies such as ultraviolet radiation, microwave energy, or catalysis.
  • Implement new or enhanced methods or processes for the processing, testing, or manufacture of nanotechnology materials or products.
  • Prepare detailed verbal or written presentations for scientists, engineers, project managers, or upper management.
  • Maintain accurate record or batch-record documentation of nanoproduction.
  • Perform functional tests of nano-enhanced assemblies, components, or systems, using equipment such as torque gauges or conductivity meters.
  • Assemble components, using techniques such as interference fitting, solvent bonding, adhesive bonding, heat sealing, or ultrasonic welding.
  • Prepare capability data, training materials, or other documentation for transfer of processes to production.
  • Analyze the life cycle of nanomaterials or nano-enabled products to determine environmental impact.
  • Measure emission of nanodust or nanoparticles during nanocomposite or other nano-scale production processes, using systems such as aerosol detection systems.
  • Assist nanoscientists or engineers in processing or characterizing materials according to physical or chemical properties.
  • Assist nanoscientists or engineers in writing process specifications or documentation.
17-3027.00Mechanical Engineering Technologists and Technicians
Apply theory and principles of mechanical engineering to modify, develop, test, or adjust machinery and equipment under direction of engineering staff or physical scientists.
  • Calculate required capacities for equipment of proposed system to obtain specified performance and submit data to engineering personnel for approval.
  • Review project instructions and blueprints to ascertain test specifications, procedures, and objectives, and test nature of technical problems such as redesign.
  • Draft detail drawing or sketch for drafting room completion or to request parts fabrication by machine, sheet or wood shops.
  • Analyze test results in relation to design or rated specifications and test objectives, and modify or adjust equipment to meet specifications.
  • Record test procedures and results, numerical and graphical data, and recommendations for changes in product or test methods.
  • Read dials and meters to determine amperage, voltage, electrical output and input at specific operating temperature to analyze parts performance.
  • Review project instructions and specifications to identify, modify and plan requirements fabrication, assembly and testing.
  • Set up and conduct tests of complete units and components under operational conditions to investigate proposals for improving equipment performance.
  • Set up prototype and test apparatus and operate test controlling equipment to observe and record prototype test results.
  • Evaluate tool drawing designs by measuring drawing dimensions and comparing with original specifications for form and function using engineering skills.
  • Prepare parts sketches and write work orders and purchase requests to be furnished by outside contractors.
  • Estimate cost factors including labor and material for purchased and fabricated parts and costs for assembly, testing, or installing.
  • Analyze energy requirements and distribution systems to maximize the use of intermittent or inflexible renewable energy sources, such as wind or nuclear.
  • Analyze or estimate production costs, such as labor, equipment, and plant space.
  • Assemble or disassemble complex mechanical systems.
  • Assist engineers to design, develop, test, or manufacture industrial machinery, consumer products, or other equipment.
  • Assist mechanical engineers in product testing through activities such as setting up instrumentation for automobile crash tests.
  • Conduct failure analyses, document results, and recommend corrective actions.
  • Conduct statistical studies to analyze or compare production costs for sustainable and nonsustainable designs.
  • Design molds, tools, dies, jigs, or fixtures for use in manufacturing processes.
  • Design specialized or customized equipment, machines, or structures.
  • Devise, fabricate, or assemble new or modified mechanical components for products such as industrial machinery or equipment, and measuring instruments.
  • Discuss changes in design, method of manufacture and assembly, or drafting techniques and procedures with staff and coordinate corrections.
  • Inspect and test mechanical equipment.
  • Interpret engineering sketches, specifications, or drawings.
  • Prepare equipment inspection schedules, reliability schedules, work plans, or other records.
  • Prepare layouts of machinery, tools, plants, or equipment.
  • Prepare specifications, designs, or sketches for machines, components, or systems related to the generation, transmission, or use of mechanical or fluid energy.
  • Provide technical support to other employees regarding mechanical design, fabrication, testing, or documentation.
  • Test machines, components, materials, or products to determine characteristics such as performance, strength, or response to stress.
17-3027.01Automotive Engineering Technicians
Assist engineers in determining the practicality of proposed product design changes and plan and carry out tests on experimental test devices or equipment for performance, durability, or efficiency.
  • Document test results, using cameras, spreadsheets, documents, or other tools.
  • Set up mechanical, hydraulic, or electric test equipment in accordance with engineering specifications, standards, or test procedures.
  • Read and interpret blueprints, schematics, work specifications, drawings, or charts.
  • Inspect or test parts to determine nature or cause of defects or malfunctions.
  • Monitor computer-controlled test equipment, according to written or verbal instructions.
  • Analyze test data for automotive systems, subsystems, or component parts.
  • Install equipment, such as instrumentation, test equipment, engines, or aftermarket products, to ensure proper interfaces.
  • Perform or execute manual or automated tests of automotive system or component performance, efficiency, or durability.
  • Maintain test equipment in operational condition by performing routine maintenance or making minor repairs or adjustments as needed.
  • Analyze performance of vehicles or components that have been redesigned to increase fuel efficiency, such as camless or dual-clutch engines or alternative types of air-conditioning systems.
  • Improve fuel efficiency by testing vehicles or components that use lighter materials, such as aluminum, magnesium alloy, or plastic.
  • Fabricate new or modify existing prototype components or fixtures.
  • Order new test equipment, supplies, or replacement parts.
  • Recommend product or component design improvements, based on test data or observations.
  • Recommend tests or testing conditions in accordance with designs, customer requirements, or industry standards to ensure test validity.
  • Test performance of vehicles that use alternative fuels, such as alcohol blends, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, biodiesel, nano diesel, or alternative power methods, such as solar energy or hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Participate in research or testing of computerized automotive applications, such as telemetrics, intelligent transportation systems, artificial intelligence, or automatic control.
  • Build instrumentation or laboratory test equipment for special purposes.
17-3028.00Calibration Technologists and Technicians
Execute or adapt procedures and techniques for calibrating measurement devices, by applying knowledge of measurement science, mathematics, physics, chemistry, and electronics, sometimes under the direction of engineering staff. Determine measurement standard suitability for calibrating measurement devices. May perform preventive maintenance on equipment. May perform corrective actions to address identified calibration problems.
  • Analyze test data to identify defects or determine calibration requirements.
  • Attend conferences, workshops, or other training sessions to learn about new tools or methods.
  • Calibrate devices by comparing measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, or other environmental conditions to known standards.
  • Conduct calibration tests to determine performance or reliability of mechanical, structural, or electromechanical equipment.
  • Develop new calibration methods or techniques based on measurement science, analyses, or calibration requirements.
  • Disassemble and reassemble equipment for inspection.
  • Draw plans for developing jigs, fixtures, instruments, or other devices.
  • Maintain or repair measurement devices or equipment used for calibration testing.
  • Operate metalworking machines to fabricate housings, jigs, fittings, or fixtures.
  • Order replacement parts for malfunctioning equipment.
  • Plan sequences of calibration tests according to equipment specifications and scientific principles.
  • Read blueprints, schematics, diagrams, or technical orders.
  • Verify part dimensions or clearances using precision measuring instruments to ensure conformance to specifications.
  • Visually inspect equipment to detect surface defects.
  • Write and submit reports about the results of calibration tests.
17-3029.01Non-Destructive Testing Specialists
Test the safety of structures, vehicles, or vessels using x-ray, ultrasound, fiber optic or related equipment.
  • Interpret or evaluate test results in accordance with applicable codes, standards, specifications, or procedures.
  • Interpret the results of all methods of non-destructive testing (NDT), such as acoustic emission, electromagnetic, leak, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, neutron radiographic, radiographic, thermal or infrared, ultrasonic, vibration analysis, and visual testing.
  • Examine structures or vehicles such as aircraft, trains, nuclear reactors, bridges, dams, and pipelines, using non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques.
  • Select, calibrate, or operate equipment used in the non-destructive testing (NDT) of products or materials.
  • Identify defects in solid materials using ultrasonic testing techniques.
  • Prepare reports on non-destructive testing (NDT) results.
  • Document non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, processes, or results.
  • Supervise or direct the work of non-destructive testing (NDT) trainees or staff.
  • Produce images of objects on film, using radiographic techniques.
  • Make radiographic images to detect flaws in objects while leaving objects intact.
  • Map the presence of imperfections within objects, using sonic measurements.
  • Conduct liquid penetrant tests to locate surface cracks by coating objects with fluorescent dyes, cleaning excess penetrant, and applying developer.
  • Visually examine materials, structures, or components for signs of corrosion, metal fatigue, cracks, or other flaws, using tools and equipment such as endoscopes, closed circuit television systems, and fiber optics.
  • Identify defects in concrete or other building materials, using thermal or infrared testing.
  • Develop or use new non-destructive testing (NDT) methods, such as acoustic emission testing, leak testing, and thermal or infrared testing.
  • Evaluate material properties, using radio astronomy, voltage and amperage measurement, or rheometric flow measurement.
17-3029.08Photonics Technicians
Build, install, test, or maintain optical or fiber optic equipment, such as lasers, lenses, or mirrors, using spectrometers, interferometers, or related equipment.
  • Maintain clean working environments, according to clean room standards.
  • Compute or record photonic test data.
  • Adjust or maintain equipment, such as lasers, laser systems, microscopes, oscilloscopes, pulse generators, power meters, beam analyzers, or energy measurement devices.
  • Set up or operate assembly or processing equipment, such as lasers, cameras, die bonders, wire bonders, dispensers, reflow ovens, soldering irons, die shears, wire pull testers, temperature or humidity chambers, or optical spectrum analyzers.
  • Document procedures, such as calibration of optical or fiber optic equipment.
  • Perform diagnostic analyses of processing steps, using analytical or metrological tools, such as microscopy, profilometry, or ellipsometry devices.
  • Assist engineers in the development of new products, fixtures, tools, or processes.
  • Mix, pour, or use processing chemicals or gases according to safety standards or established operating procedures.
  • Assist scientists or engineers in the conduct of photonic experiments.
  • Assemble fiber optical, optoelectronic, or free-space optics components, subcomponents, assemblies, or subassemblies.
  • Set up or operate prototype or test apparatus, such as control consoles, collimators, recording equipment, or cables.
  • Test or perform failure analysis for optomechanical or optoelectrical products, according to test plans.
  • Assemble or adjust parts or related electrical units of prototypes to prepare for testing.
  • Recommend optical or optic equipment design or material changes to reduce costs or processing times.
  • Monitor inventory levels and order supplies as necessary.
  • Repair or calibrate products, such as surgical lasers.
  • Monitor mechanical factors, such as turbine load or strain information.
  • Terminate, cure, polish, or test fiber cables with mechanical connectors.
  • Design, build, or modify fixtures used to assemble parts.
  • Splice fibers, using fusion splicing or other techniques.
  • Optimize photonic process parameters by making prototype or production devices.
  • Build prototype optomechanical devices for use in equipment such as aerial cameras, gun sights, or telescopes.
  • Assemble components of energy-efficient optical communications systems involving photonic switches, optical backplanes, or optoelectronic interfaces.
  • Lay out cutting lines for machining, using drafting tools.
  • Perform laser seam welding, heat treatment, or hard facing operations.
  • Fabricate devices, such as optoelectronic or semiconductor devices.
  • Build photonics tools to be applied to electrical grids to detect hot spots, such as failing insulators or conductors.
  • Assemble devices or equipment to be used in green technology applications, including solar energy, high efficiency solid state lighting, energy management, smart buildings, or green processes.
  • Develop solar power sources for lasers used in fiber optics.
  • Fabricate sensors to be used to control wind turbines.
17-3031.00Surveying and Mapping Technicians
Perform surveying and mapping duties, usually under the direction of an engineer, surveyor, cartographer, or photogrammetrist, to obtain data used for construction, mapmaking, boundary location, mining, or other purposes. May calculate mapmaking information and create maps from source data, such as surveying notes, aerial photography, satellite data, or other maps to show topographical features, political boundaries, and other features. May verify accuracy and completeness of maps.
  • Check all layers of maps to ensure accuracy, identifying and marking errors and making corrections.
  • Position and hold the vertical rods, or targets, that theodolite operators use for sighting to measure angles, distances, and elevations.
  • Design or develop information databases that include geographic or topographic data.
  • Monitor mapping work or the updating of maps to ensure accuracy, inclusion of new or changed information, or compliance with rules and regulations.
  • Produce or update overlay maps to show information boundaries, water locations, or topographic features on various base maps or at different scales.
  • Determine scales, line sizes, or colors to be used for hard copies of computerized maps, using plotters.
  • Compile information necessary to stake projects for construction, using engineering plans.
  • Identify and compile database information to create requested maps.
  • Operate and manage land-information computer systems, performing tasks such as storing data, making inquiries, and producing plots and reports.
  • Compare survey computations with applicable standards to determine adequacy of data.
  • Analyze aerial photographs to detect and interpret significant military, industrial, resource, or topographical data.
  • Research and combine existing property information to describe property boundaries in relation to adjacent properties, taking into account parcel splits, combinations, or land boundary adjustments.
  • Calculate latitudes, longitudes, angles, areas, or other information for mapmaking, using survey field notes or reference tables.
  • Compare topographical features or contour lines with images from aerial photographs, old maps, or other reference materials to verify the accuracy of their identification.
  • Trace contours or topographic details to generate maps that denote specific land or property locations or geographic attributes.
  • Provide assistance in the development of methods and procedures for conducting field surveys.
  • Trim, align, and join prints to form photographic mosaics, maintaining scaled distances between reference points.
  • Answer questions and provide information to the public or to staff members regarding assessment maps, surveys, boundaries, easements, property ownership, roads, zoning, or similar matters.
  • Complete detailed source and method notes describing the location of routine or complex land parcels.
  • Adjust and operate surveying instruments such as prisms, theodolites, electronic distance measuring equipment, or electronic data collectors.
  • Collect information needed to carry out new surveys, using source maps, previous survey data, photographs, computer records, or other relevant information.
  • Conduct surveys to ascertain the locations of natural features and man-made structures on the Earth's surface, underground, and underwater, using electronic distance-measuring equipment, such as GPS, and other surveying instruments.
  • Enter Global Positioning System (GPS) data, legal deeds, field notes, or land survey reports into geographic information system (GIS) workstations so that information can be transformed into graphic land descriptions, such as maps and drawings.
  • Perform calculations to determine earth curvature corrections, atmospheric impacts on measurements, traverse closures or adjustments, azimuths, level runs, or placement of markers.
  • Prepare cost estimates for mapping projects.
  • Prepare topographic or contour maps of land surveyed, including site features and other relevant information, such as charts, drawings, and survey notes.
  • Record survey measurements or descriptive data, using notes, drawings, sketches, or inked tracings.
  • Search for section corners, property irons, or survey points.
  • Set out and recover stakes, marks, or other monumentation.
  • Supervise or coordinate activities of workers engaged in surveying, plotting data, drafting maps, or producing blueprints, photostats, or photographs.
19-1011.00Animal Scientists
Conduct research in the genetics, nutrition, reproduction, growth, and development of domestic farm animals.
  • Study nutritional requirements of animals and nutritive values of animal feed materials.
  • Advise producers about improved products and techniques that could enhance their animal production efforts.
  • Develop improved practices in feeding, housing, sanitation, or parasite and disease control of animals.
  • Write up or orally communicate research findings to the scientific community, producers, and the public.
  • Study effects of management practices, processing methods, feed, or environmental conditions on quality and quantity of animal products, such as eggs and milk.
  • Conduct research concerning animal nutrition, breeding, or management to improve products or processes.
  • Research and control animal selection and breeding practices to increase production efficiency and improve animal quality.
  • Determine genetic composition of animal populations and heritability of traits, using principles of genetics.
  • Crossbreed animals with existing strains or cross strains to obtain new combinations of desirable characteristics.
19-1012.00Food Scientists and Technologists
Use chemistry, microbiology, engineering, and other sciences to study the principles underlying the processing and deterioration of foods; analyze food content to determine levels of vitamins, fat, sugar, and protein; discover new food sources; research ways to make processed foods safe, palatable, and healthful; and apply food science knowledge to determine best ways to process, package, preserve, store, and distribute food.
  • Check raw ingredients for maturity or stability for processing, and finished products for safety, quality, and nutritional value.
  • Inspect food processing areas to ensure compliance with government regulations and standards for sanitation, safety, quality, and waste management.
  • Evaluate food processing and storage operations and assist in the development of quality assurance programs for such operations.
  • Study methods to improve aspects of foods, such as chemical composition, flavor, color, texture, nutritional value, and convenience.
  • Stay up to date on new regulations and current events regarding food science by reviewing scientific literature.
  • Test new products for flavor, texture, color, nutritional content, and adherence to government and industry standards.
  • Develop food standards and production specifications, safety and sanitary regulations, and waste management and water supply specifications.
  • Develop new or improved ways of preserving, processing, packaging, storing, and delivering foods, using knowledge of chemistry, microbiology, and other sciences.
  • Confer with process engineers, plant operators, flavor experts, and packaging and marketing specialists to resolve problems in product development.
  • Study the structure and composition of food or the changes foods undergo in storage and processing.
  • Demonstrate products to clients.
  • Develop new food items for production, based on consumer feedback.
  • Seek substitutes for harmful or undesirable additives, such as nitrites.
19-1013.00Soil and Plant Scientists
Conduct research in breeding, physiology, production, yield, and management of crops and agricultural plants or trees, shrubs, and nursery stock, their growth in soils, and control of pests; or study the chemical, physical, biological, and mineralogical composition of soils as they relate to plant or crop growth. May classify and map soils and investigate effects of alternative practices on soil and crop productivity.
  • Communicate research or project results to other professionals or the public or teach related courses, seminars, or workshops.
  • Conduct experiments to develop new or improved varieties of field crops, focusing on characteristics such as yield, quality, disease resistance, nutritional value, or adaptation to specific soils or climates.
  • Develop new or improved methods or products for controlling or eliminating weeds, crop diseases, or insect pests.
  • Provide information or recommendations to farmers or other landowners regarding ways in which they can best use land, promote plant growth, or avoid or correct problems such as erosion.
  • Develop environmentally safe methods or products for controlling or eliminating weeds, crop diseases, or pests.
  • Investigate soil problems or poor water quality to determine sources and effects.
  • Conduct experiments investigating how soil forms, changes, or interacts with land-based ecosystems or living organisms.
  • Conduct research to determine best methods of planting, spraying, cultivating, harvesting, storing, processing, or transporting horticultural products.
  • Investigate responses of soils to specific management practices to determine the effects of alternative practices on the environment.
  • Develop methods of conserving or managing soil that can be applied by farmers or forestry companies.
  • Study ways to improve agricultural sustainability, such as the use of new methods of composting.
  • Investigate responses of soils to specific management practices to determine the use capabilities of soils and the effects of alternative practices on soil productivity.
  • Identify degraded or contaminated soils and develop plans to improve their chemical, biological, or physical characteristics.
  • Develop ways of altering soils to suit different types of plants.
  • Identify or classify species of insects or allied forms, such as mites or spiders.
  • Provide advice regarding the development of regulatory standards for land reclamation or soil conservation.
  • Study insect distribution or habitat and recommend methods to prevent importation or spread of injurious species.
  • Consult with engineers or other technical personnel working on construction projects about the effects of soil problems and possible solutions to these problems.
  • Perform chemical analyses of the microorganism content of soils to determine microbial reactions or chemical mineralogical relationships to plant growth.
  • Conduct experiments regarding causes of bee diseases or factors affecting yields of nectar or pollen.
  • Develop improved measurement techniques, soil conservation methods, soil sampling devices, or related technology.
  • Study soil characteristics to classify soils on the basis of factors such as geographic location, landscape position, or soil properties.
  • Research technical requirements or environmental impacts of urban green spaces, such as green roof installations.
  • Survey undisturbed or disturbed lands for classification, inventory, mapping, environmental impact assessments, environmental protection planning, conservation planning, or reclamation planning.
  • Conduct research into the use of plant species as green fuels or in the production of green fuels.
  • Plan or supervise land conservation or reclamation programs for industrial development projects.
  • Plan or supervise waste management programs for composting or farming.
19-1021.00Biochemists and Biophysicists
Study the chemical composition or physical principles of living cells and organisms, their electrical and mechanical energy, and related phenomena. May conduct research to further understanding of the complex chemical combinations and reactions involved in metabolism, reproduction, growth, and heredity. May determine the effects of foods, drugs, serums, hormones, and other substances on tissues and vital processes of living organisms.
  • Study physical principles of living cells or organisms and their electrical or mechanical energy, applying methods and knowledge of mathematics, physics, chemistry, or biology.
  • Share research findings by writing scientific articles or by making presentations at scientific conferences.
  • Prepare reports or recommendations, based upon research outcomes.
  • Teach or advise undergraduate or graduate students or supervise their research.
  • Manage laboratory teams or monitor the quality of a team's work.
  • Isolate, analyze, or synthesize vitamins, hormones, allergens, minerals, or enzymes and determine their effects on body functions.
  • Determine the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules.
  • Develop new methods to study the mechanisms of biological processes.
  • Study the mutations in organisms that lead to cancer or other diseases.
  • Study the chemistry of living processes, such as cell development, breathing and digestion, or living energy changes, such as growth, aging, or death.
  • Investigate the nature, composition, or expression of genes or research how genetic engineering can impact these processes.
  • Design or perform experiments with equipment such as lasers, accelerators, or mass spectrometers.
  • Study spatial configurations of submicroscopic molecules, such as proteins, using x-rays or electron microscopes.
  • Develop or execute tests to detect diseases, genetic disorders, or other abnormalities.
  • Produce pharmaceutically or industrially useful proteins, using recombinant DNA technology.
  • Research the chemical effects of substances, such as drugs, serums, hormones, or food, on tissues or vital processes.
  • Examine the molecular or chemical aspects of immune system functioning.
  • Research transformations of substances in cells, using atomic isotopes.
  • Develop or test new drugs or medications intended for commercial distribution.
  • Design or build laboratory equipment needed for special research projects.
  • Develop methods to process, store, or use foods, drugs, or chemical compounds.
  • Research how characteristics of plants or animals are carried through successive generations.
  • Prepare pharmaceutical compounds for commercial distribution.
19-1022.00Microbiologists
Investigate the growth, structure, development, and other characteristics of microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, algae, or fungi. Includes medical microbiologists who study the relationship between organisms and disease or the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.
  • Isolate and maintain cultures of bacteria or other microorganisms in prescribed or developed media, controlling moisture, aeration, temperature, and nutrition.
  • Study growth, structure, development, and general characteristics of bacteria and other microorganisms to understand their relationship to human, plant, and animal health.
  • Examine physiological, morphological, and cultural characteristics, using microscope, to identify and classify microorganisms in human, water, and food specimens.
  • Provide laboratory services for health departments, for community environmental health programs, and for physicians needing information for diagnosis and treatment.
  • Investigate the relationship between organisms and disease, including the control of epidemics and the effects of antibiotics on microorganisms.
  • Prepare technical reports and recommendations based upon research outcomes.
  • Supervise biological technologists and technicians and other scientists.
  • Monitor and perform tests on water, food, and the environment to detect harmful microorganisms or to obtain information about sources of pollution, contamination, or infection.
  • Use a variety of specialized equipment such as electron microscopes, gas chromatographs and high pressure liquid chromatographs, electrophoresis units, thermocyclers, fluorescence activated cell sorters and phosphorimagers.
  • Observe action of microorganisms upon living tissues of plants, higher animals, and other microorganisms, and on dead organic matter.
  • Study the structure and function of human, animal, and plant tissues, cells, pathogens and toxins.
  • Research use of bacteria and microorganisms to develop vitamins, antibiotics, amino acids, grain alcohol, sugars, and polymers.
  • Develop new products and procedures for sterilization, food and pharmaceutical supply preservation, or microbial contamination detection.
  • Conduct chemical analyses of substances such as acids, alcohols, and enzymes.
19-1023.00Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists
Study the origins, behavior, diseases, genetics, and life processes of animals and wildlife. May specialize in wildlife research and management. May collect and analyze biological data to determine the environmental effects of present and potential use of land and water habitats.
  • Make recommendations on management systems and planning for wildlife populations and habitat, consulting with stakeholders and the public at large to explore options.
  • Inventory or estimate plant and wildlife populations.
  • Disseminate information by writing reports and scientific papers or journal articles, and by making presentations and giving talks for schools, clubs, interest groups and park interpretive programs.
  • Check for, and ensure compliance with, environmental laws, and notify law enforcement when violations are identified.
  • Study animals in their natural habitats, assessing effects of environment and industry on animals, interpreting findings and recommending alternative operating conditions for industry.
  • Inform and respond to public regarding wildlife and conservation issues, such as plant identification, hunting ordinances, and nuisance wildlife.
  • Study characteristics of animals, such as origin, interrelationships, classification, life histories and diseases, development, genetics, and distribution.
  • Organize and conduct experimental studies with live animals in controlled or natural surroundings.
  • Analyze characteristics of animals to identify and classify them.
  • Coordinate preventive programs to control the outbreak of wildlife diseases.
  • Prepare collections of preserved specimens or microscopic slides for species identification and study of development or disease.
  • Raise specimens for study and observation or for use in experiments.
  • Collect and dissect animal specimens and examine specimens under microscope.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as fundraising, public relations, budgeting, and supervision of zoo staff.
19-1029.01Bioinformatics Scientists
Conduct research using bioinformatics theory and methods in areas such as pharmaceuticals, medical technology, biotechnology, computational biology, proteomics, computer information science, biology and medical informatics. May design databases and develop algorithms for processing and analyzing genomic information, or other biological information.
  • Develop new software applications or customize existing applications to meet specific scientific project needs.
  • Communicate research results through conference presentations, scientific publications, or project reports.
  • Create novel computational approaches and analytical tools as required by research goals.
  • Consult with researchers to analyze problems, recommend technology-based solutions, or determine computational strategies.
  • Analyze large molecular datasets, such as raw microarray data, genomic sequence data, or proteomics data, for clinical or basic research purposes.
  • Keep abreast of new biochemistries, instrumentation, or software by reading scientific literature and attending professional conferences.
  • Develop data models and databases.
  • Compile data for use in activities, such as gene expression profiling, genome annotation, or structural bioinformatics.
  • Design and apply bioinformatics algorithms including unsupervised and supervised machine learning, dynamic programming, or graphic algorithms.
  • Manipulate publicly accessible, commercial, or proprietary genomic, proteomic, or post-genomic databases.
  • Direct the work of technicians and information technology staff applying bioinformatics tools or applications in areas such as proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, or clinical bioinformatics.
  • Provide statistical and computational tools for biologically based activities, such as genetic analysis, measurement of gene expression, or gene function determination.
  • Create or modify web-based bioinformatics tools.
  • Improve user interfaces to bioinformatics software and databases.
  • Confer with departments, such as marketing, business development, or operations, to coordinate product development or improvement.
  • Recommend new systems and processes to improve operations.
  • Instruct others in the selection and use of bioinformatics tools.
  • Collaborate with software developers in the development and modification of commercial bioinformatics software.
  • Test new and updated bioinformatics tools and software.
  • Prepare summary statistics of information regarding human genomes.
19-1029.02Molecular and Cellular Biologists
Research and study cellular molecules and organelles to understand cell function and organization.
  • Maintain accurate laboratory records and data.
  • Design molecular or cellular laboratory experiments, oversee their execution, and interpret results.
  • Compile and analyze molecular or cellular experimental data and adjust experimental designs as necessary.
  • Conduct research on cell organization and function, including mechanisms of gene expression, cellular bioinformatics, cell signaling, or cell differentiation.
  • Supervise technical personnel and postdoctoral research fellows.
  • Perform laboratory procedures following protocols including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing, cloning and extraction, ribonucleic acid (RNA) purification, or gel electrophoresis.
  • Direct, coordinate, organize, or prioritize biological laboratory activities.
  • Prepare reports, manuscripts, and meeting presentations.
  • Instruct undergraduate and graduate students within the areas of cellular or molecular biology.
  • Monitor or operate specialized equipment such as gas chromatographs and high pressure liquid chromatographs, electrophoresis units, thermocyclers, fluorescence activated cell sorters, and phosphorimagers.
  • Develop assays that monitor cell characteristics.
  • Coordinate molecular or cellular research activities with scientists specializing in other fields.
  • Evaluate new technologies to enhance or complement current research.
  • Provide scientific direction for project teams regarding the evaluation or handling of devices, drugs, or cells for in vitro and in vivo disease models.
  • Develop guidelines for procedures such as the management of viruses.
  • Evaluate new supplies and equipment to ensure operability in specific laboratory settings.
  • Verify all financial, physical, and human resources assigned to research or development projects are used as planned.
  • Conduct applied research aimed at improvements in areas such as disease testing, crop quality, pharmaceuticals, and the harnessing of microbes to recycle waste.
  • Participate in all levels of bioproduct development, including proposing new products, performing market analyses, designing and performing experiments, and collaborating with operations and quality control teams during product launches.
  • Design databases such as mutagenesis libraries.
  • Confer with vendors to evaluate new equipment or reagents or to discuss the customization of product lines to meet user requirements.
19-1029.03Geneticists
Research and study the inheritance of traits at the molecular, organism or population level. May evaluate or treat patients with genetic disorders.
  • Review, approve, or interpret genetic laboratory results.
  • Evaluate, diagnose, or treat genetic diseases.
  • Maintain laboratory notebooks that record research methods, procedures, and results.
  • Write grants and papers or attend fundraising events to seek research funds.
  • Attend clinical and research conferences and read scientific literature to keep abreast of technological advances and current genetic research findings.
  • Supervise or direct the work of other geneticists, biologists, technicians, or biometricians working on genetics research projects.
  • Collaborate with biologists and other professionals to conduct appropriate genetic and biochemical analyses.
  • Search scientific literature to select and modify methods and procedures most appropriate for genetic research goals.
  • Prepare results of experimental findings for presentation at professional conferences or in scientific journals.
  • Instruct medical students, graduate students, or others in methods or procedures for diagnosis and management of genetic disorders.
  • Evaluate genetic data by performing appropriate mathematical or statistical calculations and analyses.
  • Extract deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or perform diagnostic tests involving processes such as gel electrophoresis, Southern blot analysis, and polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • Plan or conduct basic genomic and biological research related to areas such as regulation of gene expression, protein interactions, metabolic networks, and nucleic acid or protein complexes.
  • Create or use statistical models for the analysis of genetic data.
  • Maintain laboratory safety programs and train personnel in laboratory safety techniques.
  • Conduct family medical studies to evaluate the genetic basis for traits or diseases.
  • Verify that cytogenetic, molecular genetic, and related equipment and instrumentation is maintained in working condition to ensure accuracy and quality of experimental results.
  • Design and maintain genetics computer databases.
  • Confer with information technology specialists to develop computer applications for genetic data analysis.
  • Develop protocols to improve existing genetic techniques or to incorporate new diagnostic procedures.
  • Design sampling plans or coordinate the field collection of samples such as tissue specimens.
  • Analyze determinants responsible for specific inherited traits, and devise methods for altering traits or producing new traits.
  • Plan curatorial programs for species collections that include acquisition, distribution, maintenance, or regeneration.
  • Participate in the development of endangered species breeding programs or species survival plans.
19-1029.04Biologists
Research or study basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and functions.
  • Prepare technical and research reports, such as environmental impact reports, and communicate the results to individuals in industry, government, or the general public.
  • Develop and maintain liaisons and effective working relations with groups and individuals, agencies, and the public to encourage cooperative management strategies or to develop information and interpret findings.
  • Collect and analyze biological data about relationships among and between organisms and their environment.
  • Program and use computers to store, process, and analyze data.
  • Supervise biological technicians and technologists and other scientists.
  • Identify, classify, and study structure, behavior, ecology, physiology, nutrition, culture, and distribution of plant and animal species.
  • Communicate test results to state and federal representatives and general public.
  • Prepare requests for proposals or statements of work.
  • Represent employer in a technical capacity at conferences.
  • Study basic principles of plant and animal life, such as origin, relationship, development, anatomy, and function.
  • Review reports and proposals, such as those relating to land use classifications and recreational development, for accuracy, adequacy, or adherence to policies, regulations, or scientific standards.
  • Develop methods and apparatus for securing representative plant, animal, aquatic, or soil samples.
  • Plan and administer biological research programs for government, research firms, medical industries, or manufacturing firms.
  • Study aquatic plants and animals and environmental conditions affecting them, such as radioactivity or pollution.
  • Write grant proposals to obtain funding for biological research.
  • Research environmental effects of present and potential uses of land and water areas, determining methods of improving environmental conditions or such outputs as crop yields.
  • Study and manage wild animal populations.
  • Measure salinity, acidity, light, oxygen content, and other physical conditions of water to determine their relationship to aquatic life.
  • Prepare plans for management of renewable resources.
  • Teach or supervise students and perform research at universities and colleges.
  • Study reactions of plants, animals, and marine species to parasites.
  • Develop pest management and control measures, and conduct risk assessments related to pest exclusion, using scientific methods.
19-1031.00Conservation Scientists
Manage, improve, and protect natural resources to maximize their use without damaging the environment. May conduct soil surveys and develop plans to eliminate soil erosion or to protect rangelands. May instruct farmers, agricultural production managers, or ranchers in best ways to use crop rotation, contour plowing, or terracing to conserve soil and water; in the number and kind of livestock and forage plants best suited to particular ranges; and in range and farm improvements, such as fencing and reservoirs for stock watering.
  • Implement soil or water management techniques, such as nutrient management, erosion control, buffers, or filter strips, in accordance with conservation plans.
  • Advise land users, such as farmers or ranchers, on plans, problems, or alternative conservation solutions.
  • Monitor projects during or after construction to ensure projects conform to design specifications.
  • Visit areas affected by erosion problems to identify causes or determine solutions.
  • Develop or maintain working relationships with local government staff or board members.
  • Apply principles of specialized fields of science, such as agronomy, soil science, forestry, or agriculture, to achieve conservation objectives.
  • Gather information from geographic information systems (GIS) databases or applications to formulate land use recommendations.
  • Compute design specifications for implementation of conservation practices, using survey or field information, technical guides or engineering manuals.
  • Participate on work teams to plan, develop, or implement programs or policies for improving environmental habitats, wetlands, or groundwater or soil resources.
  • Conduct fact-finding or mediation sessions among government units, landowners, or other agencies to resolve disputes.
  • Revisit land users to view implemented land use practices or plans.
  • Respond to complaints or questions on wetland jurisdiction, providing information or clarification.
  • Compute cost estimates of different conservation practices, based on needs of land users, maintenance requirements, or life expectancy of practices.
  • Provide information, knowledge, expertise, or training to government agencies at all levels to solve water or soil management problems or to assure coordination of resource protection activities.
  • Analyze results of investigations to determine measures needed to maintain or restore proper soil management.
  • Coordinate or implement technical, financial, or administrative assistance programs for local government units to ensure efficient program implementation or timely responses to requests for assistance.
  • Identify or recommend integrated weed and pest management (IPM) strategies, such as resistant plants, cultural or behavioral controls, soil amendments, insects, natural enemies, barriers, or pesticides.
  • Review proposed wetland restoration easements or provide technical recommendations.
  • Develop, conduct, or participate in surveys, studies, or investigations of various land uses to inform corrective action plans.
  • Manage field offices or involve staff in cooperative ventures.
  • Plan soil management or conservation practices, such as crop rotation, reforestation, permanent vegetation, contour plowing, or terracing, to maintain soil or conserve water.
  • Initiate, schedule, or conduct annual audits or compliance checks of program implementation by local government.
  • Develop water conservation or harvest plans, using weather information systems, irrigation information management systems, or other sources of daily evapotranspiration (ET) data.
  • Review or approve amendments to comprehensive local water plans or conservation district plans.
  • Develop or conduct environmental studies, such as plant material field trials or wildlife habitat impact studies.
  • Enter local soil, water, or other environmental data into adaptive or Web-based decision tools to identify appropriate analyses or techniques.
  • Compile or interpret biodata to determine extent or type of wetlands or to aid in program formulation.
  • Review annual reports of counties, conservation districts, or watershed management organizations, certifying compliance with mandated reporting requirements.
  • Review grant applications or make funding recommendations.
  • Develop soil maps.
19-1031.02Range Managers
Research or study range land management practices to provide sustained production of forage, livestock, and wildlife.
  • Regulate grazing, and help ranchers plan and organize grazing systems in order to manage, improve and protect rangelands and maximize their use.
  • Measure and assess vegetation resources for biological assessment companies, environmental impact statements, and rangeland monitoring programs.
  • Maintain soil stability and vegetation for non-grazing uses, such as wildlife habitats and outdoor recreation.
  • Mediate agreements among rangeland users and preservationists as to appropriate land use and management.
  • Manage forage resources through fire, herbicide use, or revegetation to maintain a sustainable yield from the land.
  • Study rangeland management practices and research range problems to provide sustained production of forage, livestock, and wildlife.
  • Offer advice to rangeland users on water management, forage production methods, and control of brush.
  • Plan and direct construction and maintenance of range improvements such as fencing, corrals, stock-watering reservoirs and soil-erosion control structures.
  • Tailor conservation plans to landowners' goals, such as livestock support, wildlife, or recreation.
  • Develop technical standards and specifications used to manage, protect and improve the natural resources of range lands and related grazing lands.
  • Study grazing patterns to determine number and kind of livestock that can be most profitably grazed and to determine the best grazing seasons.
  • Plan and implement revegetation of disturbed sites.
  • Study forage plants and their growth requirements to determine varieties best suited to particular range.
  • Develop methods for protecting range from fire and rodent damage and for controlling poisonous plants.
  • Manage private livestock operations.
  • Develop new and improved instruments and techniques for activities such as range reseeding.
19-1031.03Park Naturalists
Plan, develop, and conduct programs to inform public of historical, natural, and scientific features of national, state, or local park.
  • Conduct field trips to point out scientific, historic, and natural features of parks, forests, historic sites, or other attractions.
  • Prepare and present illustrated lectures and interpretive talks about park features.
  • Plan and organize public events at the park.
  • Provide visitor services, such as explaining regulations, answering visitor requests, needs and complaints, and providing information about the park and surrounding areas.
  • Develop environmental educational programs and curricula for schools.
  • Research stories regarding the area's natural history or environment.
  • Perform emergency duties to protect human life, government property, and natural features of park.
  • Confer with park staff to determine subjects and schedules for park programs.
  • Assist with operations of general facilities, such as visitor centers.
  • Plan and develop audio-visual devices for public programs.
  • Construct historical, scientific, and nature visitor-center displays.
  • Prepare brochures and write newspaper articles.
  • Compile and maintain official park photographic and information files.
  • Take photographs and motion pictures for use in lectures and publications and to develop displays.
  • Interview specialists in desired fields to obtain and develop data for park information programs.
  • Plan, organize and direct activities of seasonal staff members.
  • Survey park to determine forest conditions and distribution and abundance of fauna and flora.
  • Perform routine maintenance on park structures.
19-1032.00Foresters
Manage public and private forested lands for economic, recreational, and conservation purposes. May inventory the type, amount, and location of standing timber, appraise the timber's worth, negotiate the purchase, and draw up contracts for procurement. May determine how to conserve wildlife habitats, creek beds, water quality, and soil stability, and how best to comply with environmental regulations. May devise plans for planting and growing new trees, monitor trees for healthy growth, and determine optimal harvesting schedules.
  • Monitor contract compliance and results of forestry activities to assure adherence to government regulations.
  • Plan and supervise forestry projects, such as determining the type, number and placement of trees to be planted, managing tree nurseries, thinning forest and monitoring growth of new seedlings.
  • Establish short- and long-term plans for management of forest lands and forest resources.
  • Determine methods of cutting and removing timber with minimum waste and environmental damage.
  • Supervise activities of other forestry workers.
  • Perform inspections of forests or forest nurseries.
  • Plan and direct forest surveys and related studies and prepare reports and recommendations.
  • Direct, and participate in, forest fire suppression.
  • Choose and prepare sites for new trees, using controlled burning, bulldozers, or herbicides to clear weeds, brush, and logging debris.
  • Negotiate terms and conditions of agreements and contracts for forest harvesting, forest management and leasing of forest lands.
  • Plan cutting programs and manage timber sales from harvested areas, assisting companies to achieve production goals.
  • Contact local forest owners and gain permission to take inventory of the type, amount, and location of all standing timber on the property.
  • Map forest area soils and vegetation to estimate the amount of standing timber and future value and growth.
  • Monitor forest-cleared lands to ensure that they are reclaimed to their most suitable end use.
  • Plan and implement projects for conservation of wildlife habitats and soil and water quality.
  • Subcontract with loggers or pulpwood cutters for tree removal and to aid in road layout.
  • Provide advice and recommendations, as a consultant on forestry issues, to private woodlot owners, firefighters, government agencies or to companies.
  • Analyze effect of forest conditions on tree growth rates and tree species prevalence and the yield, duration, seed production, growth viability, and germination of different species.
  • Monitor wildlife populations and assess the impacts of forest operations on population and habitats.
  • Develop techniques for measuring and identifying trees.
  • Study different tree species' classification, life history, light and soil requirements, adaptation to new environmental conditions and resistance to disease and insects.
  • Plan and direct construction and maintenance of recreation facilities, fire towers, trails, roads and bridges, ensuring that they comply with guidelines and regulations set for forested public lands.
  • Conduct public educational programs on forest care and conservation.
  • Develop new techniques for wood or residue use.
  • Procure timber from private landowners.
19-1041.00Epidemiologists
Investigate and describe the determinants and distribution of disease, disability, or health outcomes. May develop the means for prevention and control.
  • Oversee public health programs, including statistical analysis, health care planning, surveillance systems, and public health improvement.
  • Plan and direct studies to investigate human or animal disease, preventive methods, and treatments for disease.
  • Provide expertise in the design, management and evaluation of study protocols and health status questionnaires, sample selection, and analysis.
  • Monitor and report incidents of infectious diseases to local and state health agencies.
  • Investigate diseases or parasites to determine cause and risk factors, progress, life cycle, or mode of transmission.
  • Communicate research findings on various types of diseases to health practitioners, policy makers, and the public.
  • Plan, administer and evaluate health safety standards and programs to improve public health, conferring with health department, industry personnel, physicians, and others.
  • Educate healthcare workers, patients, and the public about infectious and communicable diseases, including disease transmission and prevention.
  • Conduct research to develop methodologies, instrumentation, and procedures for medical application, analyzing data and presenting findings.
  • Identify and analyze public health issues related to foodborne parasitic diseases and their impact on public policies, scientific studies, or surveys.
  • Supervise professional, technical, and clerical personnel.
  • Standardize drug dosages, methods of immunization, and procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.
  • Teach principles of medicine and medical and laboratory procedures to physicians, residents, students, and technicians.
  • Consult with and advise physicians, educators, researchers, government health officials and others regarding medical applications of sciences, such as physics, biology, and chemistry.
  • Prepare and analyze samples to study effects of drugs, gases, pesticides, or microorganisms on cell structure and tissue.
19-1042.00Medical Scientists, Except Epidemiologists
Conduct research dealing with the understanding of human diseases and the improvement of human health. Engage in clinical investigation, research and development, or other related activities.
  • Plan and direct studies to investigate human or animal disease, preventive methods, and treatments for disease.
  • Conduct research to develop methodologies, instrumentation, and procedures for medical application, analyzing data and presenting findings to the scientific audience and general public.
  • Study animal and human health and physiological processes.
  • Follow strict safety procedures when handling toxic materials to avoid contamination.
  • Write and publish articles in scientific journals.
  • Evaluate effects of drugs, gases, pesticides, parasites, and microorganisms at various levels.
  • Use equipment such as atomic absorption spectrometers, electron microscopes, flow cytometers, or chromatography systems.
  • Prepare and analyze organ, tissue, and cell samples to identify toxicity, bacteria, or microorganisms or to study cell structure.
  • Standardize drug dosages, methods of immunization, and procedures for manufacture of drugs and medicinal compounds.
  • Investigate cause, progress, life cycle, or mode of transmission of diseases or parasites.
  • Consult with and advise physicians, educators, researchers, and others regarding medical applications of physics, biology, and chemistry.
  • Teach principles of medicine and medical and laboratory procedures to physicians, residents, students, and technicians.
  • Confer with health departments, industry personnel, physicians, and others to develop health safety standards and public health improvement programs.
19-2011.00Astronomers
Observe, research, and interpret astronomical phenomena to increase basic knowledge or apply such information to practical problems.
  • Study celestial phenomena, using a variety of ground-based and space-borne telescopes and scientific instruments.
  • Analyze research data to determine its significance, using computers.
  • Develop theories based on personal observations or on observations and theories of other astronomers.
  • Collaborate with other astronomers to carry out research projects.
  • Present research findings at scientific conferences and in papers written for scientific journals.
  • Raise funds for scientific research.
  • Measure radio, infrared, gamma, and x-ray emissions from extraterrestrial sources.
  • Teach astronomy or astrophysics.
  • Develop instrumentation and software for astronomical observation and analysis.
  • Review scientific proposals and research papers.
  • Serve on professional panels and committees.
  • Develop and modify astronomy-related programs for public presentation.
  • Calculate orbits and determine sizes, shapes, brightness, and motions of different celestial bodies.
  • Direct the operations of a planetarium.
19-2012.00Physicists
Conduct research into physical phenomena, develop theories on the basis of observation and experiments, and devise methods to apply physical laws and theories.
  • Perform complex calculations as part of the analysis and evaluation of data, using computers.
  • Describe and express observations and conclusions in mathematical terms.
  • Analyze data from research conducted to detect and measure physical phenomena.
  • Report experimental results by writing papers for scientific journals or by presenting information at scientific conferences.
  • Design computer simulations to model physical data so that it can be better understood.
  • Collaborate with other scientists in the design, development, and testing of experimental, industrial, or medical equipment, instrumentation, and procedures.
  • Direct testing and monitoring of contamination of radioactive equipment, and recording of personnel and plant area radiation exposure data.
  • Observe the structure and properties of matter, and the transformation and propagation of energy, using equipment such as masers, lasers, and telescopes to explore and identify the basic principles governing these phenomena.
  • Develop theories and laws on the basis of observation and experiments, and apply these theories and laws to problems in areas such as nuclear energy, optics, and aerospace technology.
  • Teach physics to students.
  • Develop manufacturing, assembly, and fabrication processes of lasers, masers, infrared, and other light-emitting and light-sensitive devices.
  • Conduct application evaluations and analyze results to determine commercial, industrial, scientific, medical, military, or other uses for electro-optical devices.
  • Develop standards of permissible concentrations of radioisotopes in liquids and gases.
  • Conduct research pertaining to potential environmental impacts of atomic energy-related industrial development to determine licensing qualifications.
  • Advise authorities of procedures to be followed in radiation incidents or hazards, and assist in civil defense planning.
19-2021.00Atmospheric and Space Scientists
Investigate atmospheric phenomena and interpret meteorological data, gathered by surface and air stations, satellites, and radar to prepare reports and forecasts for public and other uses. Includes weather analysts and forecasters whose functions require the detailed knowledge of meteorology.
  • Broadcast weather conditions, forecasts, or severe weather warnings to the public via television, radio, or the Internet or provide this information to the news media.
  • Gather data from sources such as surface or upper air stations, satellites, weather bureaus, or radar for use in meteorological reports or forecasts.
  • Develop or use mathematical or computer models for weather forecasting.
  • Prepare weather reports or maps for analysis, distribution, or use in weather broadcasts, using computer graphics.
  • Interpret data, reports, maps, photographs, or charts to predict long- or short-range weather conditions, using computer models and knowledge of climate theory, physics, and mathematics.
  • Formulate predictions by interpreting environmental data, such as meteorological, atmospheric, oceanic, paleoclimate, climate, or related information.
  • Prepare forecasts or briefings to meet the needs of industry, business, government, or other groups.
  • Analyze historical climate information, such as precipitation or temperature records, to help predict future weather or climate trends.
  • Analyze climate data sets, using techniques such as geophysical fluid dynamics, data assimilation, or numerical modeling.
  • Conduct numerical simulations of climate conditions to understand and predict global or regional weather patterns.
  • Conduct meteorological research into the processes or determinants of atmospheric phenomena, weather, or climate.
  • Consult with other offices, agencies, professionals, or researchers regarding the use and interpretation of climatological information for weather predictions and warnings.
  • Prepare scientific atmospheric or climate reports, articles, or texts.
  • Speak to the public to discuss weather topics or answer questions.
  • Develop computer programs to collect meteorological data or to present meteorological information.
  • Develop and deliver training on weather topics.
  • Apply meteorological knowledge to issues such as global warming, pollution control, or ozone depletion.
  • Perform managerial duties, such as creating work schedules, creating or implementing staff training, matching staff expertise to situations, or analyzing performance of offices.
  • Design or develop new equipment or methods for meteorological data collection, remote sensing, or related applications.
  • Measure wind, temperature, and humidity in the upper atmosphere, using weather balloons.
  • Direct forecasting services at weather stations or at radio or television broadcasting facilities.
  • Research the impact of industrial projects or pollution on climate, air quality, or weather phenomena.
  • Collect air samples from planes or ships over land or sea to study atmospheric composition.
  • Conduct wind assessment, integration, or validation studies.
  • Teach college-level courses on topics such as atmospheric and space science, meteorology, or global climate change.
  • Create visualizations to illustrate historical or future changes in the Earth's climate, using paleoclimate or climate geographic information systems (GIS) databases.
  • Estimate or predict the effects of global warming over time for specific geographic regions.
19-2031.00Chemists
Conduct qualitative and quantitative chemical analyses or experiments in laboratories for quality or process control or to develop new products or knowledge.
  • Analyze organic or inorganic compounds to determine chemical or physical properties, composition, structure, relationships, or reactions, using chromatography, spectroscopy, or spectrophotometry techniques.
  • Conduct quality control tests.
  • Maintain laboratory instruments to ensure proper working order and troubleshoot malfunctions when needed.
  • Prepare test solutions, compounds, or reagents for laboratory personnel to conduct tests.
  • Induce changes in composition of substances by introducing heat, light, energy, or chemical catalysts for quantitative or qualitative analysis.
  • Evaluate laboratory safety procedures to ensure compliance with standards or to make improvements as needed.
  • Compile and analyze test information to determine process or equipment operating efficiency or to diagnose malfunctions.
  • Write technical papers or reports or prepare standards and specifications for processes, facilities, products, or tests.
  • Confer with scientists or engineers to conduct analyses of research projects, interpret test results, or develop nonstandard tests.
  • Develop, improve, or customize products, equipment, formulas, processes, or analytical methods.
  • Direct, coordinate, or advise personnel in test procedures for analyzing components or physical properties of materials.
  • Purchase laboratory supplies, such as chemicals, when supplies are low or near their expiration date.
  • Study effects of various methods of processing, preserving, or packaging on composition or properties of foods.
19-2032.00Materials Scientists
Research and study the structures and chemical properties of various natural and synthetic or composite materials, including metals, alloys, rubber, ceramics, semiconductors, polymers, and glass. Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications. Includes glass scientists, ceramic scientists, metallurgical scientists, and polymer scientists.
  • Conduct research on the structures and properties of materials, such as metals, alloys, polymers, and ceramics, to obtain information that could be used to develop new products or enhance existing ones.
  • Prepare reports, manuscripts, proposals, and technical manuals for use by other scientists and requestors, such as sponsors and customers.
  • Perform experiments and computer modeling to study the nature, structure, and physical and chemical properties of metals and their alloys, and their responses to applied forces.
  • Plan laboratory experiments to confirm feasibility of processes and techniques used in the production of materials with special characteristics.
  • Determine ways to strengthen or combine materials or develop new materials with new or specific properties for use in a variety of products and applications.
  • Teach in colleges and universities.
  • Devise testing methods to evaluate the effects of various conditions on particular materials.
  • Research methods of processing, forming, and firing materials to develop such products as ceramic dental fillings, unbreakable dinner plates, and telescope lenses.
  • Confer with customers to determine how to tailor materials to their needs.
  • Recommend materials for reliable performance in various environments.
  • Test individual parts and products to ensure that manufacturer and governmental quality and safety standards are met.
  • Supervise and monitor production processes to ensure efficient use of equipment, timely changes to specifications, and project completion within time frame and budget.
  • Test metals to determine conformance to specifications of mechanical strength, strength-weight ratio, ductility, magnetic and electrical properties, and resistance to abrasion, corrosion, heat, and cold.
  • Test material samples for tolerance under tension, compression, and shear to determine the cause of metal failures.
  • Visit suppliers of materials or users of products to gather specific information.
19-2041.00Environmental Scientists and Specialists, Including Health
Conduct research or perform investigation for the purpose of identifying, abating, or eliminating sources of pollutants or hazards that affect either the environment or public health. Using knowledge of various scientific disciplines, may collect, synthesize, study, report, and recommend action based on data derived from measurements or observations of air, food, soil, water, and other sources.
  • Provide scientific or technical guidance, support, coordination, or oversight to governmental agencies, environmental programs, industry, or the public.
  • Review and implement environmental technical standards, guidelines, policies, and formal regulations that meet all appropriate requirements.
  • Collect, synthesize, analyze, manage, and report environmental data, such as pollution emission measurements, atmospheric monitoring measurements, meteorological or mineralogical information, or soil or water samples.
  • Communicate scientific or technical information to the public, organizations, or internal audiences through oral briefings, written documents, workshops, conferences, training sessions, or public hearings.
  • Provide advice on proper standards and regulations or the development of policies, strategies, or codes of practice for environmental management.
  • Prepare charts or graphs from data samples, providing summary information on the environmental relevance of the data.
  • Conduct environmental audits or inspections or investigations of violations.
  • Monitor effects of pollution or land degradation and recommend means of prevention or control.
  • Design or direct studies to obtain technical environmental information about planned projects.
  • Analyze data to determine validity, quality, and scientific significance and to interpret correlations between human activities and environmental effects.
  • Develop the technical portions of legal documents, administrative orders, or consent decrees.
  • Evaluate violations or problems discovered during inspections to determine appropriate regulatory actions or to provide advice on the development and prosecution of regulatory cases.
  • Develop methods to minimize the impact of production processes on the environment, based on the study and assessment of industrial production, environmental legislation, and physical, biological, and social environments.
  • Determine data collection methods to be employed in research projects or surveys.
  • Process and review environmental permits, licenses, or related materials.
  • Supervise or train students, environmental technologists, technicians, or other related staff.
  • Plan or develop research models, using knowledge of mathematical and statistical concepts.
  • Investigate and report on accidents affecting the environment.
  • Conduct applied research on environmental topics, such as waste control or treatment or pollution abatement methods.
  • Monitor environmental impacts of development activities.
  • Research sources of pollution to determine their effects on the environment and to develop theories or methods of pollution abatement or control.
  • Develop programs designed to obtain the most productive, non-damaging use of land.
19-2041.01Climate Change Policy Analysts
Research and analyze policy developments related to climate change. Make climate-related recommendations for actions such as legislation, awareness campaigns, or fundraising approaches.
  • Provide analytical support for policy briefs related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or climate change.
  • Analyze and distill climate-related research findings to inform legislators, regulatory agencies, or other stakeholders.
  • Prepare study reports, memoranda, briefs, testimonies, or other written materials to inform government or environmental groups on environmental issues, such as climate change.
  • Make legislative recommendations related to climate change or environmental management, based on climate change policies, principles, programs, practices, and processes.
  • Promote initiatives to mitigate climate change with government or environmental groups.
  • Research policies, practices, or procedures for climate or environmental management.
  • Review existing policies or legislation to identify environmental impacts.
  • Write reports or academic papers to communicate findings of climate-related studies.
  • Present climate-related information at public interest, governmental, or other meetings.
  • Gather and review climate-related studies from government agencies, research laboratories, and other organizations.
  • Prepare grant applications to obtain funding for programs related to climate change, environmental management, or sustainability.
  • Propose new or modified policies involving use of traditional and alternative fuels, transportation of goods, and other factors relating to climate and climate change.
  • Develop, or contribute to the development of, educational or outreach programs on the environment or climate change.
  • Present and defend proposals for climate change research projects.
19-2041.02Environmental Restoration Planners
Collaborate with field and biology staff to oversee the implementation of restoration projects and to develop new products. Process and synthesize complex scientific data into practical strategies for restoration, monitoring or management.
  • Collect and analyze data to determine environmental conditions and restoration needs.
  • Develop and communicate recommendations for landowners to maintain or restore environmental conditions.
  • Plan environmental restoration projects, using biological databases, environmental strategies, and planning software.
  • Communicate findings of environmental studies or proposals for environmental remediation to other restoration professionals.
  • Conduct site assessments to certify a habitat or to ascertain environmental damage or restoration needs.
  • Develop environmental restoration project schedules and budgets.
  • Create habitat management or restoration plans, such as native tree restoration and weed control.
  • Supervise and provide technical guidance, training, or assistance to employees working in the field to restore habitats.
  • Apply for permits required for the implementation of environmental remediation projects.
  • Create diagrams to communicate environmental remediation planning, using geographic information systems (GIS), computer-aided design (CAD), or other mapping or diagramming software.
  • Identify short- and long-term impacts of environmental remediation activities.
  • Provide technical direction on environmental planning to energy engineers, biologists, geologists, or other professionals working to develop restoration plans or strategies.
  • Conduct environmental impact studies to examine the ecological effects of pollutants, disease, human activities, nature, and climate change.
  • Conduct feasibility and cost-benefit studies for environmental remediation projects.
  • Review existing environmental remediation designs.
  • Develop natural resource management plans, using knowledge of environmental planning or state and federal environmental regulatory requirements.
  • Identify environmental mitigation alternatives, ensuring compliance with applicable standards, laws, or regulations.
  • Inspect active remediation sites to ensure compliance with environmental or safety policies, standards, or regulations.
  • Create environmental models or simulations, using geographic information system (GIS) data and knowledge of particular ecosystems or ecological regions.
  • Notify regulatory or permitting agencies of deviations from implemented remediation plans.
  • Develop environmental management or restoration plans for sites with power transmission lines, natural gas pipelines, fuel refineries, geothermal plants, wind farms, or solar farms.
  • Plan or supervise environmental studies to achieve compliance with environmental regulations in construction, modification, operation, acquisition, or divestiture of facilities such as power plants.
19-2041.03Industrial Ecologists
Apply principles and processes of natural ecosystems to develop models for efficient industrial systems. Use knowledge from the physical and social sciences to maximize effective use of natural resources in the production and use of goods and services. Examine societal issues and their relationship with both technical systems and the environment.
  • Identify environmental impacts caused by products, systems, or projects.
  • Examine local, regional, or global use and flow of materials or energy in industrial production processes.
  • Identify or develop strategies or methods to minimize the environmental impact of industrial production processes.
  • Prepare technical and research reports, such as environmental impact reports, and communicate the results to individuals in industry, government, or the general public.
  • Analyze changes designed to improve the environmental performance of complex systems and avoid unintended negative consequences.
  • Review research literature to maintain knowledge on topics related to industrial ecology, such as physical science, technology, economy, and public policy.
  • Recommend methods to protect the environment or minimize environmental damage from industrial production practices.
  • Build and maintain databases of information about energy alternatives, pollutants, natural environments, industrial processes, and other information related to ecological change.
  • Identify or compare the component parts or relationships between the parts of industrial, social, and natural systems.
  • Redesign linear, or open-loop, systems into cyclical, or closed-loop, systems so that waste products become inputs for new processes, modeling natural ecosystems.
  • Conduct environmental sustainability assessments, using material flow analysis (MFA) or substance flow analysis (SFA) techniques.
  • Identify sustainable alternatives to industrial or waste-management practices.
  • Review industrial practices, such as the methods and materials used in construction or production, to identify potential liabilities and environmental hazards.
  • Translate the theories of industrial ecology into eco-industrial practices.
  • Prepare plans to manage renewable resources.
  • Examine societal issues and their relationship with both technical systems and the environment.
  • Plan or conduct studies of the ecological implications of historic or projected changes in industrial processes or development.
  • Provide industrial managers with technical materials on environmental issues, regulatory guidelines, or compliance actions.
  • Carry out environmental assessments in accordance with applicable standards, regulations, or laws.
  • Plan or conduct field research on topics such as industrial production, industrial ecology, population ecology, and environmental production or sustainability.
  • Research sources of pollution to determine environmental impact or to develop methods of pollution abatement or control.
  • Forecast future status or condition of ecosystems, based on changing industrial practices or environmental conditions.
  • Perform analyses to determine how human behavior can affect, and be affected by, changes in the environment.
  • Promote use of environmental management systems (EMS) to reduce waste or to improve environmentally sound use of natural resources.
  • Monitor the environmental impact of development activities, pollution, or land degradation.
  • Develop alternative energy investment scenarios to compare economic and environmental costs and benefits.
  • Investigate the impact of changed land management or land use practices on ecosystems.
  • Research environmental effects of land and water use to determine methods of improving environmental conditions or increasing outputs, such as crop yields.
  • Perform environmentally extended input-output (EE I-O) analyses.
  • Apply new or existing research about natural ecosystems to understand economic and industrial systems in the context of the environment.
  • Investigate accidents affecting the environment to assess ecological impact.
  • Create complex and dynamic mathematical models of population, community, or ecological systems.
  • Conduct applied research on the effects of industrial processes on the protection, restoration, inventory, monitoring, or reintroduction of species to the natural environment.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of industrial ecology programs, using statistical analysis and applications.
  • Conduct scientific protection, mitigation, or restoration projects to prevent resource damage, maintain the integrity of critical habitats, and minimize the impact of human activities.
  • Conduct analyses to determine the maximum amount of work that can be accomplished for a given amount of energy in a system, such as industrial production systems and waste treatment systems.
  • Develop or test protocols to monitor ecosystem components and ecological processes.
  • Investigate the adaptability of various animal and plant species to changed environmental conditions.
19-2042.00Geoscientists, Except Hydrologists and Geographers
Study the composition, structure, and other physical aspects of the Earth. May use geological, physics, and mathematics knowledge in exploration for oil, gas, minerals, or underground water; or in waste disposal, land reclamation, or other environmental problems. May study the Earth's internal composition, atmospheres, and oceans, and its magnetic, electrical, and gravitational forces. Includes mineralogists, paleontologists, stratigraphers, geodesists, and seismologists.
  • Analyze and interpret geological, geochemical, or geophysical information from sources such as survey data, well logs, bore holes, or aerial photos.
  • Plan or conduct geological, geochemical, or geophysical field studies or surveys, sample collection, or drilling and testing programs used to collect data for research or application.
  • Prepare geological maps, cross-sectional diagrams, charts, or reports concerning mineral extraction, land use, or resource management, using results of fieldwork or laboratory research.
  • Analyze and interpret geological data, using computer software.
  • Investigate the composition, structure, or history of the Earth's crust through the collection, examination, measurement, or classification of soils, minerals, rocks, or fossil remains.
  • Assess ground or surface water movement to provide advice on issues such as waste management, route and site selection, or the restoration of contaminated sites.
  • Locate and estimate probable natural gas, oil, or mineral ore deposits or underground water resources, using aerial photographs, charts, or research or survey results.
  • Locate and review research articles or environmental, historical, or technical reports.
  • Communicate geological findings by writing research papers, participating in conferences, or teaching geological science at universities.
  • Measure characteristics of the Earth, such as gravity or magnetic fields, using equipment such as seismographs, gravimeters, torsion balances, or magnetometers.
  • Conduct geological or geophysical studies to provide information for use in regional development, site selection, or development of public works projects.
  • Identify risks for natural disasters, such as mudslides, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions.
  • Design geological mine maps, monitor mine structural integrity, or advise and monitor mining crews.
  • Advise construction firms or government agencies on dam or road construction, foundation design, land use, or resource management.
  • Inspect construction projects to analyze engineering problems, using test equipment or drilling machinery.
  • Develop applied software for the analysis and interpretation of geological data.
  • Identify deposits of construction materials suitable for use as concrete aggregates, road fill, or other applications.
  • Test industrial diamonds or abrasives, soil, or rocks to determine their geological characteristics, using optical, x-ray, heat, acid, or precision instruments.
  • Collaborate with medical or health researchers to address health problems related to geological materials or processes.
  • Determine methods to incorporate geomethane or methane hydrates into global energy production or evaluate the potential environmental impacts of such incorporation.
  • Determine ways to mitigate the negative consequences of mineral dust dispersion.
  • Develop strategies for more environmentally friendly resource extraction and reclamation.
  • Develop ways to capture or use gases burned off as waste during oil production processes.
  • Identify new sources of platinum group elements for industrial applications, such as automotive fuel cells or pollution abatement systems.
  • Identify possible sites for carbon sequestration projects.
  • Locate potential sources of geothermal energy.
  • Provide advice on the safe siting of new nuclear reactor projects or methods of nuclear waste management.
  • Research geomechanical or geochemical processes to be used in carbon sequestration projects.
  • Research ways to reduce the ecological footprint of increasingly prevalent megacities.
  • Review work plans to determine the effectiveness of activities for mitigating soil or groundwater contamination.
  • Study historical climate change indicators found in locations such as ice sheets or rock formations to develop climate change models.
19-2043.00Hydrologists
Research the distribution, circulation, and physical properties of underground and surface waters; and study the form and intensity of precipitation and its rate of infiltration into the soil, movement through the earth, and return to the ocean and atmosphere.
  • Prepare written and oral reports describing research results, using illustrations, maps, appendices, and other information.
  • Design and conduct scientific hydrogeological investigations to ensure that accurate and appropriate information is available for use in water resource management decisions.
  • Measure and graph phenomena such as lake levels, stream flows, and changes in water volumes.
  • Conduct research and communicate information to promote the conservation and preservation of water resources.
  • Coordinate and supervise the work of professional and technical staff, including research assistants, technologists, and technicians.
  • Study public water supply issues, including flood and drought risks, water quality, wastewater, and impacts on wetland habitats.
  • Apply research findings to help minimize the environmental impacts of pollution, waterborne diseases, erosion, and sedimentation.
  • Study and document quantities, distribution, disposition, and development of underground and surface waters.
  • Install, maintain, and calibrate instruments such as those that monitor water levels, rainfall, and sediments.
  • Develop computer models for hydrologic predictions.
  • Study and analyze the physical aspects of the earth in terms of hydrological components, including atmosphere, hydrosphere, and interior structure.
  • Evaluate research data in terms of its impact on issues such as soil and water conservation, flood control planning, and water supply forecasting.
  • Collect and analyze water samples as part of field investigations or to validate data from automatic monitors.
  • Prepare hydrogeologic evaluations of known or suspected hazardous waste sites and land treatment and feedlot facilities.
  • Evaluate data and provide recommendations regarding the feasibility of municipal projects, such as hydroelectric power plants, irrigation systems, flood warning systems, and waste treatment facilities.
  • Develop or modify methods for conducting hydrologic studies.
  • Review applications for site plans and permits and recommend approval, denial, modification, or further investigative action.
  • Monitor the work of well contractors, exploratory borers, and engineers and enforce rules regarding their activities.
  • Answer questions and provide technical assistance and information to contractors or the public regarding issues such as well drilling, code requirements, hydrology, and geology.
  • Investigate properties, origins, and activities of glaciers, ice, snow, and permafrost.
  • Conduct short- and long-term climate assessments and study storm occurrences.
  • Administer programs designed to ensure the proper sealing of abandoned wells.
  • Investigate complaints or conflicts related to the alteration of public waters, gathering information, recommending alternatives, informing participants of progress, and preparing draft orders.
  • Design civil works associated with hydrographic activities and supervise their construction, installation, and maintenance.
  • Compile and evaluate hydrologic information to prepare navigational charts and maps and to predict atmospheric conditions.
19-2099.01Remote Sensing Scientists and Technologists
Apply remote sensing principles and methods to analyze data and solve problems in areas such as natural resource management, urban planning, or homeland security. May develop new sensor systems, analytical techniques, or new applications for existing systems.
  • Manage or analyze data obtained from remote sensing systems to obtain meaningful results.
  • Analyze data acquired from aircraft, satellites, or ground-based platforms, using statistical analysis software, image analysis software, or Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
  • Process aerial or satellite imagery to create products such as land cover maps.
  • Design or implement strategies for collection, analysis, or display of geographic data.
  • Integrate other geospatial data sources into projects.
  • Discuss project goals, equipment requirements, or methodologies with colleagues or team members.
  • Develop or build databases for remote sensing or related geospatial project information.
  • Collect supporting data, such as climatic or field survey data, to corroborate remote sensing data analyses.
  • Prepare or deliver reports or presentations of geospatial project information.
  • Participate in fieldwork.
  • Organize and maintain geospatial data and associated documentation.
  • Conduct research into the application or enhancement of remote sensing technology.
  • Train technicians in the use of remote sensing technology.
  • Attend meetings or seminars or read current literature to maintain knowledge of developments in the field of remote sensing.
  • Apply remote sensing data or techniques, such as surface water modeling or dust cloud detection, to address environmental issues.
  • Develop automated routines to correct for the presence of image distorting artifacts, such as ground vegetation.
  • Monitor quality of remote sensing data collection operations to determine if procedural or equipment changes are necessary.
  • Develop new analytical techniques or sensor systems.
  • Compile and format image data to increase its usefulness.
  • Set up or maintain remote sensing data collection systems.
  • Use remote sensing data for forest or carbon tracking activities to assess the impact of environmental change.
  • Direct all activity associated with implementation, operation, or enhancement of remote sensing hardware or software.
  • Direct installation or testing of new remote sensing hardware or software.
  • Recommend new remote sensing hardware or software acquisitions.
19-3011.00Economists
Conduct research, prepare reports, or formulate plans to address economic problems related to the production and distribution of goods and services or monetary and fiscal policy. May collect and process economic and statistical data using sampling techniques and econometric methods.
  • Study economic and statistical data in area of specialization, such as finance, labor, or agriculture.
  • Conduct research on economic issues and disseminate research findings through technical reports or scientific articles in journals.
  • Compile, analyze, and report data to explain economic phenomena and forecast market trends, applying mathematical models and statistical techniques.
  • Supervise research projects and students' study projects.
  • Teach theories, principles, and methods of economics.
  • Study the socioeconomic impacts of new public policies, such as proposed legislation, taxes, services, and regulations.
  • Formulate recommendations, policies, or plans to solve economic problems or to interpret markets.
  • Explain economic impact of policies to the public.
  • Provide advice and consultation on economic relationships to businesses, public and private agencies, and other employers.
  • Forecast production and consumption of renewable resources and supply, consumption, and depletion of non-renewable resources.
  • Develop economic guidelines and standards and prepare points of view used in forecasting trends and formulating economic policy.
  • Testify at regulatory or legislative hearings concerning the estimated effects of changes in legislation or public policy and present recommendations based on cost-benefit analyses.
  • Provide litigation support, such as writing reports for expert testimony or testifying as an expert witness.
19-3011.01Environmental Economists
Conduct economic analysis related to environmental protection and use of the natural environment, such as water, air, land, and renewable energy resources. Evaluate and quantify benefits, costs, incentives, and impacts of alternative options using economic principles and statistical techniques.
  • Write technical documents or academic articles to communicate study results or economic forecasts.
  • Conduct research on economic and environmental topics, such as alternative fuel use, public and private land use, soil conservation, air and water pollution control, and endangered species protection.
  • Assess the costs and benefits of various activities, policies, or regulations that affect the environment or natural resource stocks.
  • Collect and analyze data to compare the environmental implications of economic policy or practice alternatives.
  • Prepare and deliver presentations to communicate economic and environmental study results, to present policy recommendations, or to raise awareness of environmental consequences.
  • Develop programs or policy recommendations to achieve environmental goals in cost-effective ways.
  • Perform complex, dynamic, and integrated mathematical modeling of ecological, environmental, or economic systems.
  • Write research proposals and grant applications to obtain private or public funding for environmental and economic studies.
  • Conduct research to study the relationships among environmental problems and patterns of economic production and consumption.
  • Write social, legal, or economic impact statements to inform decision makers for natural resource policies, standards, or programs.
  • Develop environmental research project plans, including information on budgets, goals, deliverables, timelines, and resource requirements.
  • Develop economic models, forecasts, or scenarios to predict future economic and environmental outcomes.
  • Develop programs or policy recommendations to promote sustainability and sustainable development.
  • Demonstrate or promote the economic benefits of sound environmental regulations.
  • Develop systems for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting environmental and economic data.
  • Examine the exhaustibility of natural resources or the long-term costs of environmental rehabilitation.
  • Monitor or analyze market and environmental trends.
  • Interpret indicators to ascertain the overall health of an environment.
  • Identify and recommend environmentally friendly business practices.
19-3022.00Survey Researchers
Plan, develop, or conduct surveys. May analyze and interpret the meaning of survey data, determine survey objectives, or suggest or test question wording. Includes social scientists who primarily design questionnaires or supervise survey teams.
  • Review, classify, and record survey data in preparation for computer analysis.
  • Monitor and evaluate survey progress and performance, using sample disposition reports and response rate calculations.
  • Produce documentation of the questionnaire development process, data collection methods, sampling designs, and decisions related to sample statistical weighting.
  • Prepare and present summaries and analyses of survey data, including tables, graphs, and fact sheets that describe survey techniques and results.
  • Determine and specify details of survey projects, including sources of information, procedures to be used, and the design of survey instruments and materials.
  • Consult with clients to identify survey needs and specific requirements, such as special samples.
  • Conduct surveys and collect data, using methods such as interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, market analysis surveys, public opinion polls, literature reviews, and file reviews.
  • Support, plan, and coordinate operations for single or multiple surveys.
  • Conduct research to gather information about survey topics.
  • Direct and review the work of staff members, including survey support staff and interviewers who gather survey data.
  • Analyze data from surveys, old records, or case studies, using statistical software.
  • Direct updates and changes in survey implementation and methods.
  • Write training manuals to be used by survey interviewers.
  • Write proposals to win new projects.
  • Collaborate with other researchers in the planning, implementation, and evaluation of surveys.
  • Hire and train recruiters and data collectors.
19-3032.00Industrial-Organizational Psychologists
Apply principles of psychology to human resources, administration, management, sales, and marketing problems. Activities may include policy planning; employee testing and selection, training, and development; and organizational development and analysis. May work with management to organize the work setting to improve worker productivity.
  • Formulate and implement training programs, applying principles of learning and individual differences.
  • Conduct research studies of physical work environments, organizational structures, communication systems, group interactions, morale, or motivation to assess organizational functioning.
  • Conduct presentations on research findings for clients or at research meetings.
  • Provide expert testimony in employment lawsuits.
  • Study consumers' reactions to new products and package designs, and to advertising efforts, using surveys and tests.
  • Review research literature to remain current on psychological science issues.
  • Develop interview techniques, rating scales, and psychological tests used to assess skills, abilities, and interests for the purpose of employee selection, placement, or promotion.
  • Conduct individual assessments, including interpreting measures and providing feedback for selection, placement, or promotion.
  • Write articles, white papers, or reports to share research findings and educate others.
  • Develop new business by contacting potential clients, making sales presentations, and writing proposals.
  • Develop and implement employee selection or placement programs.
  • Identify training and development needs.
  • Train clients to administer human resources functions including testing, selection, and performance management.
  • Facilitate organizational development and change.
  • Analyze job requirements and content to establish criteria for classification, selection, training, and other related personnel functions.
  • Assess employee performance.
  • Observe and interview workers to obtain information about the physical, mental, and educational requirements of jobs as well as information about aspects such as job satisfaction.
  • Coach senior executives and managers on leadership and performance.
  • Study organizational effectiveness, productivity, and efficiency, including the nature of workplace supervision and leadership.
  • Write reports on research findings and implications to contribute to general knowledge or to suggest potential changes in organizational functioning.
  • Participate in mediation and dispute resolution.
  • Provide advice on best practices and implementation for selection.
  • Counsel workers about job and career-related issues.
  • Advise management concerning personnel, managerial, and marketing policies and practices and their potential effects on organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
  • Analyze data, using statistical methods and applications, to evaluate the outcomes and effectiveness of workplace programs.
19-3033.00Clinical and Counseling Psychologists
Assess, diagnose, and treat mental and emotional disorders of individuals through observation, interview, and psychological tests. Help individuals with distress or maladjustment understand their problems through their knowledge of case history, interviews with patients, and theory. Provide individual or group counseling services to assist individuals in achieving more effective personal, social, educational, and vocational development and adjustment. May design behavior modification programs and consult with medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients.
  • Collect information about individuals or clients, using interviews, case histories, observational techniques, and other assessment methods.
  • Counsel individuals, groups, or families to help them understand problems, deal with crisis situations, define goals, and develop realistic action plans.
  • Document patient information including session notes, progress notes, recommendations, and treatment plans.
  • Interact with clients to assist them in gaining insight, defining goals, and planning action to achieve effective personal, social, educational, or vocational development and adjustment.
  • Develop therapeutic and treatment plans based on clients' interests, abilities, or needs.
  • Identify psychological, emotional, or behavioral issues and diagnose disorders, using information obtained from interviews, tests, records, or reference materials.
  • Use a variety of treatment methods, such as psychotherapy, hypnosis, behavior modification, stress reduction therapy, psychodrama, or play therapy.
  • Write reports on clients and maintain required paperwork.
  • Consult with or provide consultation to other doctors, therapists, or clinicians regarding patient care.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of counseling or treatments and the accuracy and completeness of diagnoses, modifying plans or diagnoses as necessary.
  • Obtain and study medical, psychological, social, and family histories by interviewing individuals, couples, or families and by reviewing records.
  • Select, administer, score, and interpret psychological tests to obtain information on individuals' intelligence, achievements, interests, or personalities.
  • Advise clients on how they could be helped by counseling.
  • Develop and implement individual treatment plans, specifying type, frequency, intensity, and duration of therapy.
  • Consult with other professionals, agencies, or universities to discuss therapies, treatments, counseling resources or techniques, and to share occupational information.
  • Refer clients to other specialists, institutions, or support services as necessary.
  • Maintain current knowledge of relevant research.
  • Consult reference material, such as textbooks, manuals, or journals, to identify symptoms, make diagnoses, or develop approaches to treatment.
  • Observe individuals at play, in group interactions, or in other contexts to detect indications of mental deficiency, abnormal behavior, or maladjustment.
  • Provide consulting services, including educational programs, outreach programs, or prevention talks to schools, social service agencies, businesses, or the general public.
  • Provide occupational, educational, or other information to individuals so that they can make educational or vocational plans.
  • Plan and develop accredited psychological service programs in psychiatric centers or hospitals, in collaboration with psychiatrists and other professional staff.
  • Direct, coordinate, and evaluate activities of staff and interns engaged in patient assessment and treatment.
  • Develop, direct, and participate in training programs for staff and students.
  • Provide psychological or administrative services and advice to private firms or community agencies regarding mental health programs or individual cases.
  • Conduct research to develop or improve diagnostic or therapeutic counseling techniques.
  • Plan, supervise, and conduct psychological research and write papers describing research results.
  • Conduct assessments of patients' risk for harm to self or others.
  • Prepare written evaluations of individuals' psychological competence for court hearings.
  • Supervise and train interns, clinicians in training, and other counselors.
19-3034.00School Psychologists
Diagnose and implement individual or schoolwide interventions or strategies to address educational, behavioral, or developmental issues that adversely impact educational functioning in a school. May address student learning and behavioral problems and counsel students or families. May design and implement performance plans, and evaluate performance. May consult with other school-based personnel.
  • Compile and interpret students' test results, along with information from teachers and parents, to diagnose conditions and to help assess eligibility for special services.
  • Maintain student records, including special education reports, confidential records, records of services provided, and behavioral data.
  • Report any pertinent information to the proper authorities in cases of child endangerment, neglect, or abuse.
  • Select, administer, and score psychological tests.
  • Interpret test results and prepare psychological reports for teachers, administrators, and parents.
  • Assess an individual child's needs, limitations, and potential, using observation, review of school records, and consultation with parents and school personnel.
  • Develop individualized educational plans in collaboration with teachers and other staff members.
  • Counsel children and families to help solve conflicts and problems in learning and adjustment.
  • Collect and analyze data to evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs and other services, such as behavioral management systems.
  • Provide consultation to parents, teachers, administrators, and others on topics such as learning styles and behavior modification techniques.
  • Collaborate with other educational professionals to develop teaching strategies and school programs.
  • Design classes and programs to meet the needs of special students.
  • Promote an understanding of child development and its relationship to learning and behavior.
  • Attend workshops, seminars, or professional meetings to remain informed of new developments in school psychology.
  • Refer students and their families to appropriate community agencies for medical, vocational, or social services.
  • Serve as a resource to help families and schools deal with crises, such as separation and loss.
  • Initiate and direct efforts to foster tolerance, understanding, and appreciation of diversity in school communities.
  • Provide educational programs on topics such as classroom management, teaching strategies, or parenting skills.
  • Conduct research to generate new knowledge that can be used to address learning and behavior issues.
19-3039.02Neuropsychologists
Apply theories and principles of neuropsychology to evaluate and diagnose disorders of higher cerebral functioning, often in research and medical settings. Study the human brain and the effect of physiological states on human cognition and behavior. May formulate and administer programs of treatment.
  • Conduct neuropsychological evaluations such as assessments of intelligence, academic ability, attention, concentration, sensorimotor function, language, learning, and memory.
  • Conduct research on neuropsychological disorders.
  • Consult with other professionals about patients' neurological conditions.
  • Design or implement rehabilitation plans for patients with cognitive dysfunction.
  • Diagnose and treat conditions involving injury to the central nervous system, such as cerebrovascular accidents, neoplasms, infectious or inflammatory diseases, degenerative diseases, head traumas, demyelinating diseases, and various forms of dementing illnesses.
  • Diagnose and treat conditions such as chemical dependency, alcohol dependency, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) dementia, and environmental toxin exposure.
  • Diagnose and treat pediatric populations for conditions such as learning disabilities with developmental or organic bases.
  • Educate and supervise practicum students, psychology interns, or hospital staff.
  • Establish neurobehavioral baseline measures for monitoring progressive cerebral disease or recovery.
  • Interview patients to obtain comprehensive medical histories.
  • Participate in educational programs, in-service training, or workshops to remain current in methods and techniques.
  • Provide education or counseling to individuals and families.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, and participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in neuropsychology.
  • Write or prepare detailed clinical neuropsychological reports, using data from psychological or neuropsychological tests, self-report measures, rating scales, direct observations, or interviews.
19-3039.03Clinical Neuropsychologists
Assess and diagnose patients with neurobehavioral problems related to acquired or developmental disorders of the nervous system, such as neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury, seizure disorders, and learning disabilities. Recommend treatment after diagnosis, such as therapy, medication, or surgery. Assist with evaluation before and after neurosurgical procedures, such as deep brain stimulation.
  • Compare patients' progress before and after pharmacologic, surgical, or behavioral interventions.
  • Conduct neuropsychological evaluations such as assessments of intelligence, academic ability, attention, concentration, sensorimotor function, language, learning, and memory.
  • Consult with other professionals about patients' neurological conditions.
  • Design or implement rehabilitation plans for patients with cognitive dysfunction.
  • Diagnose and treat conditions involving injury to the central nervous system, such as cerebrovascular accidents, neoplasms, infectious or inflammatory diseases, degenerative diseases, head traumas, demyelinating diseases, and various forms of dementing illnesses.
  • Diagnose and treat neural and psychological conditions in medical and surgical populations, such as patients with early dementing illness or chronic pain with a neurological basis.
  • Diagnose and treat pediatric populations for conditions such as learning disabilities with developmental or organic bases.
  • Diagnose and treat psychiatric populations for conditions such as somatoform disorder, dementias, and psychoses.
  • Distinguish between psychogenic and neurogenic syndromes, two or more suspected etiologies of cerebral dysfunction, or between disorders involving complex seizures.
  • Educate and supervise practicum students, psychology interns, or hospital staff.
  • Establish neurobehavioral baseline measures for monitoring progressive cerebral disease or recovery.
  • Identify and communicate risks associated with specific neurological surgical procedures, such as epilepsy surgery.
  • Interview patients to obtain comprehensive medical histories.
  • Participate in educational programs, in-service training, or workshops to remain current in methods and techniques.
  • Provide education or counseling to individuals and families.
  • Provide psychotherapy, behavior therapy, or other counseling interventions to patients with neurological disorders.
  • Read current literature, talk with colleagues, and participate in professional organizations or conferences to keep abreast of developments in neuropsychology.
  • Write or prepare detailed clinical neuropsychological reports, using data from psychological or neuropsychological tests, self-report measures, rating scales, direct observations, or interviews.
19-3041.00Sociologists
Study human society and social behavior by examining the groups and social institutions that people form, as well as various social, religious, political, and business organizations. May study the behavior and interaction of groups, trace their origin and growth, and analyze the influence of group activities on individual members.
  • Analyze and interpret data to increase the understanding of human social behavior.
  • Collect data about the attitudes, values, and behaviors of people in groups, using observation, interviews, and review of documents.
  • Prepare publications and reports containing research findings.
  • Plan and conduct research to develop and test theories about societal issues such as crime, group relations, poverty, and aging.
  • Teach sociology.
  • Develop, implement, and evaluate methods of data collection, such as questionnaires or interviews.
  • Present research findings at professional meetings.
  • Develop approaches to the solution of groups' problems, based on research findings in sociology and related disciplines.
  • Direct work of statistical clerks, statisticians, and others who compile and evaluate research data.
  • Observe group interactions and role affiliations to collect data, identify problems, evaluate progress, and determine the need for additional change.
  • Consult with and advise individuals such as administrators, social workers, and legislators regarding social issues and policies, as well as the implications of research findings.
  • Develop problem intervention procedures, using techniques such as interviews, consultations, role playing, and participant observation of group interactions.
  • Collaborate with research workers in other disciplines.
19-3051.00Urban and Regional Planners
Develop comprehensive plans and programs for use of land and physical facilities of jurisdictions, such as towns, cities, counties, and metropolitan areas.
  • Hold public meetings with government officials, social scientists, lawyers, developers, the public, or special interest groups to formulate, develop, or address issues regarding land use or community plans.
  • Design, promote, or administer government plans or policies affecting land use, zoning, public utilities, community facilities, housing, or transportation.
  • Advise planning officials on project feasibility, cost-effectiveness, regulatory conformance, or possible alternatives.
  • Discuss with planning officials the purpose of land use projects, such as transportation, conservation, residential, commercial, industrial, or community use.
  • Recommend approval, denial, or conditional approval of proposals.
  • Conduct field investigations, surveys, impact studies, or other research to compile and analyze data on economic, social, regulatory, or physical factors affecting land use.
  • Determine the effects of regulatory limitations on land use projects.
  • Advocate sustainability to community groups, government agencies, the general public, or special interest groups.
  • Assess the feasibility of land use proposals and identify necessary changes.
  • Keep informed about economic or legal issues involved in zoning codes, building codes, or environmental regulations.
  • Mediate community disputes or assist in developing alternative plans or recommendations for programs or projects.
  • Identify opportunities or develop plans for sustainability projects or programs to improve energy efficiency, minimize pollution or waste, or restore natural systems.
  • Supervise or coordinate the work of urban planning technicians or technologists.
  • Create, prepare, or requisition graphic or narrative reports on land use data, including land area maps overlaid with geographic variables, such as population density.
  • Evaluate proposals for infrastructure projects or other development for environmental impact or sustainability.
  • Coordinate work with economic consultants or architects during the formulation of plans or the design of large pieces of infrastructure.
  • Develop plans for public or alternative transportation systems for urban or regional locations to reduce carbon output associated with transportation.
  • Review and evaluate environmental impact reports pertaining to private or public planning projects or programs.
  • Investigate property availability for purposes of development.
  • Conduct interviews, surveys and site inspections concerning factors that affect land usage, such as zoning, traffic flow and housing.
  • Prepare reports, using statistics, charts, and graphs, to illustrate planning studies in areas such as population, land use, or zoning.
  • Prepare, develop and maintain maps and databases.
  • Prepare, maintain and update files and records, including land use data and statistics.
  • Research, compile, analyze and organize information from maps, reports, investigations, and books for use in reports and special projects.
  • Respond to public inquiries and complaints.
19-3091.00Anthropologists and Archeologists
Study the origin, development, and behavior of human beings. May study the way of life, language, or physical characteristics of people in various parts of the world. May engage in systematic recovery and examination of material evidence, such as tools or pottery remaining from past human cultures, in order to determine the history, customs, and living habits of earlier civilizations.
  • Study objects and structures recovered by excavation to identify, date, and authenticate them and to interpret their significance.
  • Collect information and make judgments through observation, interviews, and review of documents.
  • Research, survey, or assess sites of past societies and cultures in search of answers to specific research questions.
  • Write about and present research findings for a variety of specialized and general audiences.
  • Describe artifacts' physical properties or attributes, such as the materials from which artifacts are made and their size, shape, function, and decoration.
  • Plan and direct research to characterize and compare the economic, demographic, health care, social, political, linguistic, and religious institutions of distinct cultural groups, communities, and organizations.
  • Assess archeological sites for resource management, development, or conservation purposes and recommend methods for site protection.
  • Compare findings from one site with archeological data from other sites to find similarities or differences.
  • Record the exact locations and conditions of artifacts uncovered in diggings or surveys, using drawings and photographs as necessary.
  • Gather and analyze artifacts and skeletal remains to increase knowledge of ancient cultures.
  • Collect artifacts made of stone, bone, metal, and other materials, placing them in bags and marking them to show where they were found.
  • Identify culturally specific beliefs and practices affecting health status and access to services for distinct populations and communities, in collaboration with medical and public health officials.
  • Consult site reports, existing artifacts, and topographic maps to identify archeological sites.
  • Train others in the application of ethnographic research methods to solve problems in organizational effectiveness, communications, technology development, policy making, and program planning.
  • Advise government agencies, private organizations, and communities regarding proposed programs, plans, and policies and their potential impacts on cultural institutions, organizations, and communities.
  • Create data records for use in describing and analyzing social patterns and processes, using photography, videography, and audio recordings.
  • Develop intervention procedures, using techniques such as individual and focus group interviews, consultations, and participant observation of social interaction.
  • Develop and test theories concerning the origin and development of past cultures.
  • Lead field training sites and train field staff, students, and volunteers in excavation methods.
  • Collaborate with economic development planners to decide on the implementation of proposed development policies, plans, and programs based on culturally institutionalized barriers and facilitating circumstances.
  • Clean, restore, and preserve artifacts.
  • Conduct participatory action research in communities and organizations to assess how work is done and to design work systems, technologies, and environments.
  • Organize public exhibits and displays to promote public awareness of diverse and distinctive cultural traditions.
  • Formulate general rules that describe and predict the development and behavior of cultures and social institutions.
  • Study archival collections of primary historical sources to help explain the origins and development of cultural patterns.
  • Apply traditional ecological knowledge and assessments of culturally distinctive land and resource management institutions to assist in the resolution of conflicts over habitat protection and resource enhancement.
  • Enhance the cultural sensitivity of elementary and secondary curricula and classroom interactions in collaboration with educators and teachers.
  • Participate in forensic activities, such as tooth and bone structure identification, in conjunction with police departments and pathologists.
  • Teach or mentor undergraduate and graduate students in athropology or archeology.
  • Write grant proposals to obtain funding for research.
19-3092.00Geographers
Study the nature and use of areas of the Earth's surface, relating and interpreting interactions of physical and cultural phenomena. Conduct research on physical aspects of a region, including land forms, climates, soils, plants, and animals, and conduct research on the spatial implications of human activities within a given area, including social characteristics, economic activities, and political organization, as well as researching interdependence between regions at scales ranging from local to global.
  • Create and modify maps, graphs, or diagrams, using geographical information software and related equipment, and principles of cartography, such as coordinate systems, longitude, latitude, elevation, topography, and map scales.
  • Analyze geographic distributions of physical and cultural phenomena on local, regional, continental, or global scales.
  • Write and present reports of research findings.
  • Gather and compile geographic data from sources including censuses, field observations, satellite imagery, aerial photographs, and existing maps.
  • Teach geography.
  • Study the economic, political, and cultural characteristics of a specific region's population.
  • Collect data on physical characteristics of specified areas, such as geological formations, climates, and vegetation, using surveying or meteorological equipment.
  • Locate and obtain existing geographic information databases.
  • Conduct field work at outdoor sites.
  • Provide geographical information systems support to the private and public sectors.
  • Develop, operate, and maintain geographical information computer systems, including hardware, software, plotters, digitizers, printers, and video cameras.
  • Provide consulting services in fields such as resource development and management, business location and market area analysis, environmental hazards, regional cultural history, and urban social planning.
19-3093.00Historians
Research, analyze, record, and interpret the past as recorded in sources, such as government and institutional records, newspapers and other periodicals, photographs, interviews, films, electronic media, and unpublished manuscripts, such as personal diaries and letters.
  • Conserve and preserve manuscripts, records, and other artifacts.
  • Gather historical data from sources such as archives, court records, diaries, news files, and photographs, as well as collect data sources such as books, pamphlets, and periodicals.
  • Conduct historical research as a basis for the identification, conservation, and reconstruction of historic places and materials.
  • Research and prepare manuscripts in support of public programming and the development of exhibits at historic sites, museums, libraries, and archives.
  • Present historical accounts in terms of individuals or social, ethnic, political, economic, or geographic groupings.
  • Organize data, and analyze and interpret its authenticity and relative significance.
  • Research the history of a particular country or region, or of a specific time period.
  • Conduct historical research, and publish or present findings and theories.
  • Recommend actions related to historical art, such as which items to add to a collection or which items to display in an exhibit.
  • Determine which topics to research, or pursue research topics specified by clients or employers.
  • Speak to various groups, organizations, and clubs to promote the aims and activities of historical societies.
  • Advise or consult with individuals and institutions regarding issues such as the historical authenticity of materials or the customs of a specific historical period.
  • Prepare publications and exhibits, or review those prepared by others, to ensure their historical accuracy.
  • Trace historical development in a particular field, such as social, cultural, political, or diplomatic history.
  • Organize information for publication and for other means of dissemination, such as use in CD-ROMs or Internet sites.
  • Interview people to gather information about historical events and to record oral histories.
  • Collect detailed information on individuals for use in biographies.
  • Edit historical society publications.
  • Coordinate activities of workers engaged in cataloging and filing materials.
  • Translate or request translation of reference materials.
  • Teach and conduct research in colleges, universities, museums, and other research agencies and schools.
19-3094.00Political Scientists
Study the origin, development, and operation of political systems. May study topics, such as public opinion, political decisionmaking, and ideology. May analyze the structure and operation of governments, as well as various political entities. May conduct public opinion surveys, analyze election results, or analyze public documents.
  • Disseminate research results through academic publications, written reports, or public presentations.
  • Teach political science.
  • Develop and test theories, using information from interviews, newspapers, periodicals, case law, historical papers, polls, or statistical sources.
  • Identify issues for research and analysis.
  • Interpret and analyze policies, public issues, legislation, or the operations of governments, businesses, and organizations.
  • Maintain current knowledge of government policy decisions.
  • Collect, analyze, and interpret data such as election results and public opinion surveys, reporting on findings, recommendations, and conclusions.
  • Provide media commentary or criticism related to public policy and political issues and events.
  • Evaluate programs and policies, and make related recommendations to institutions and organizations.
  • Forecast political, economic, and social trends.
  • Consult with and advise government officials, civic bodies, research agencies, the media, political parties, and others concerned with political issues.
  • Write drafts of legislative proposals, and prepare speeches, correspondence, and policy papers for governmental use.
19-3099.01Transportation Planners
Prepare studies for proposed transportation projects. Gather, compile, and analyze data. Study the use and operation of transportation systems. Develop transportation models or simulations.
  • Recommend transportation system improvements or projects, based on economic, population, land-use, or traffic projections.
  • Define regional or local transportation planning problems or priorities.
  • Participate in public meetings or hearings to explain planning proposals, to gather feedback from those affected by projects, or to achieve consensus on project designs.
  • Design transportation surveys to identify areas of public concern.
  • Interpret data from traffic modeling software, geographic information systems, or associated databases.
  • Prepare reports or recommendations on transportation planning.
  • Design new or improved transport infrastructure, such as junction improvements, pedestrian projects, bus facilities, or car parking areas.
  • Analyze information related to transportation, such as land use policies, environmental impact of projects, or long-range planning needs.
  • Collaborate with engineers to research, analyze, or resolve complex transportation design issues.
  • Evaluate transportation project needs or costs.
  • Collaborate with other professionals to develop sustainable transportation strategies at the local, regional, or national level.
  • Prepare necessary documents to obtain planned project approvals or permits.
  • Analyze information from traffic counting programs.
  • Develop computer models to address transportation planning issues.
  • Develop or test new methods or models of transportation analysis.
  • Prepare or review engineering studies or specifications.
  • Review development plans for transportation system effects, infrastructure requirements, or compliance with applicable transportation regulations.
  • Evaluate transportation-related consequences of federal or state legislative proposals.
  • Produce environmental documents, such as environmental assessments or environmental impact statements.
  • Direct urban traffic counting programs.
  • Represent jurisdictions in the legislative or administrative approval of land development projects.
  • Define or update information such as urban boundaries or classification of roadways.
19-4012.00Agricultural Technicians
Work with agricultural scientists in plant, fiber, and animal research, or assist with animal breeding and nutrition. Set up or maintain laboratory equipment and collect samples from crops or animals. Prepare specimens or record data to assist scientists in biology or related life science experiments. Conduct tests and experiments to improve yield and quality of crops or to increase the resistance of plants and animals to disease or insects.
  • Record data pertaining to experimentation, research, or animal care.
  • Measure or weigh ingredients used in laboratory testing.
  • Prepare data summaries, reports, or analyses that include results, charts, or graphs to document research findings and results.
  • Prepare laboratory samples for analysis, following proper protocols to ensure that they will be stored, prepared, and disposed of efficiently and effectively.
  • Set up laboratory or field equipment as required for site testing.
  • Examine animals or crop specimens to determine the presence of diseases or other problems.
  • Collect animal or crop samples.
  • Supervise pest or weed control operations, including locating and identifying pests or weeds, selecting chemicals and application methods, or scheduling application.
  • Supervise or train agricultural technicians or farm laborers.
  • Respond to general inquiries or requests from the public.
  • Perform crop production duties, such as tilling, hoeing, pruning, weeding, or harvesting crops.
  • Record environmental data from field samples of soil, air, water, or pests to monitor the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) practices.
  • Conduct studies of nitrogen or alternative fertilizer application methods, quantities, or timing to ensure satisfaction of crop needs and minimization of leaching, runoff, or denitrification.
  • Conduct insect or plant disease surveys.
  • Maintain or repair agricultural facilities, equipment, or tools to ensure operational readiness, safety, and cleanliness.
  • Prepare land for cultivated crops, orchards, or vineyards by plowing, discing, leveling, or contouring.
  • Operate farm machinery, including tractors, plows, mowers, combines, balers, sprayers, earthmoving equipment, or trucks.
  • Perform laboratory or field testing, using spectrometers, nitrogen determination apparatus, air samplers, centrifuges, or potential hydrogen (pH) meters to perform tests.
  • Perform tests on seeds to evaluate seed viability.
  • Perform general nursery duties, such as propagating standard varieties of plant materials, collecting and germinating seeds, maintaining cuttings of plants, or controlling environmental conditions.
  • Devise cultural methods or environmental controls for plants for which guidelines are sketchy or nonexistent.
  • Prepare culture media, following standard procedures.
  • Prepare or present agricultural demonstrations.
  • Transplant trees, vegetables, or horticultural plants.
  • Determine the germination rates of seeds planted in specified areas.
  • Assess comparative soil erosion from various planting or tillage systems, such as conservation tillage with mulch or ridge till systems, no-till systems, or conventional tillage systems with or without moldboard plows.
19-4012.01Precision Agriculture Technicians
Apply geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS), to agricultural production or management activities, such as pest scouting, site-specific pesticide application, yield mapping, or variable-rate irrigation. May use computers to develop or analyze maps or remote sensing images to compare physical topography with data on soils, fertilizer, pests, or weather.
  • Collect information about soil or field attributes, yield data, or field boundaries, using field data recorders and basic geographic information systems (GIS).
  • Use geospatial technology to develop soil sampling grids or identify sampling sites for testing characteristics such as nitrogen, phosphorus, or potassium content, pH, or micronutrients.
  • Demonstrate the applications of geospatial technology, such as Global Positioning System (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), automatic tractor guidance systems, variable rate chemical input applicators, surveying equipment, or computer mapping software.
  • Document and maintain records of precision agriculture information.
  • Identify spatial coordinates, using remote sensing and Global Positioning System (GPS) data.
  • Apply precision agriculture information to specifically reduce the negative environmental impacts of farming practices.
  • Create, layer, and analyze maps showing precision agricultural data, such as crop yields, soil characteristics, input applications, terrain, drainage patterns, or field management history.
  • Analyze data from harvester monitors to develop yield maps.
  • Install, calibrate, or maintain sensors, mechanical controls, GPS-based vehicle guidance systems, or computer settings.
  • Analyze geospatial data to determine agricultural implications of factors such as soil quality, terrain, field productivity, fertilizers, or weather conditions.
  • Contact equipment manufacturers for technical assistance, as needed.
  • Program farm equipment, such as variable-rate planting equipment or pesticide sprayers, based on input from crop scouting and analysis of field condition variability.
  • Draw or read maps, such as soil, contour, or plat maps.
  • Prepare reports in graphical or tabular form, summarizing field productivity or profitability.
  • Compare crop yield maps with maps of soil test data, chemical application patterns, or other information to develop site-specific crop management plans.
  • Recommend best crop varieties or seeding rates for specific field areas, based on analysis of geospatial data.
  • Divide agricultural fields into georeferenced zones, based on soil characteristics and production potentials.
  • Analyze remote sensing imagery to identify relationships between soil quality, crop canopy densities, light reflectance, and weather history.
  • Provide advice on the development or application of better boom-spray technology to limit the overapplication of chemicals and to reduce the migration of chemicals beyond the fields being treated.
  • Identify areas in need of pesticide treatment by analyzing geospatial data to determine insect movement and damage patterns.
  • Advise farmers on upgrading Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment to take advantage of newly installed advanced satellite technology.
  • Participate in efforts to advance precision agriculture technology, such as developing advanced weed identification or automated spot spraying systems.
19-4013.00Food Science Technicians
Work with food scientists or technologists to perform standardized qualitative and quantitative tests to determine physical or chemical properties of food or beverage products. Includes technicians who assist in research and development of production technology, quality control, packaging, processing, and use of foods.
  • Conduct standardized tests on food, beverages, additives, or preservatives to ensure compliance with standards and regulations regarding factors such as color, texture, or nutrients.
  • Record or compile test results or prepare graphs, charts, or reports.
  • Maintain records of testing results or other documents as required by state or other governing agencies.
  • Monitor and control temperature of products.
  • Taste or smell foods or beverages to ensure that flavors meet specifications or to select samples with specific characteristics.
  • Compute moisture or salt content, percentages of ingredients, formulas, or other product factors, using mathematical and chemical procedures.
  • Perform regular maintenance of laboratory equipment by inspecting, calibrating, cleaning, or sterilizing.
  • Analyze test results to classify products or compare results with standard tables.
  • Provide assistance to food scientists or technologists in research and development, production technology, or quality control.
  • Train newly hired laboratory personnel.
  • Measure, test, or weigh bottles, cans, or other containers to ensure that hardness, strength, or dimensions meet specifications.
  • Mix, blend, or cultivate ingredients to make reagents or to manufacture food or beverage products.
  • Prepare or incubate slides with cell cultures.
  • Examine chemical or biological samples to identify cell structures or to locate bacteria or extraneous material, using a microscope.
  • Order supplies needed to maintain inventories in laboratories or in storage facilities of food or beverage processing plants.
  • Supervise other food science technicians.
19-4021.00Biological Technicians
Assist biological and medical scientists. Set up, operate, and maintain laboratory instruments and equipment, monitor experiments, collect data and samples, make observations, and calculate and record results. May analyze organic substances, such as blood, food, and drugs.
  • Conduct research or assist in the conduct of research, including the collection of information and samples, such as blood, water, soil, plants and animals.
  • Use computers, computer-interfaced equipment, robotics or high-technology industrial applications to perform work duties.
  • Monitor and observe experiments, recording production and test data for evaluation by research personnel.
  • Analyze experimental data and interpret results to write reports and summaries of findings.
  • Provide technical support and services for scientists and engineers working in fields such as agriculture, environmental science, resource management, biology, and health sciences.
  • Keep detailed logs of all work-related activities.
  • Input data into databases.
  • Isolate, identify and prepare specimens for examination.
  • Set up, adjust, calibrate, clean, maintain, and troubleshoot laboratory and field equipment.
  • Clean, maintain and prepare supplies and work areas.
  • Monitor laboratory work to ensure compliance with set standards.
  • Place orders for laboratory equipment and supplies.
  • Participate in the research, development, or manufacturing of medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations.
  • Feed livestock or laboratory animals.
  • Conduct standardized biological, microbiological or biochemical tests and laboratory analyses to evaluate the quantity or quality of physical or chemical substances in food or other products.
  • Examine animals and specimens to detect the presence of disease or other problems.
  • Measure or weigh compounds and solutions for use in testing or animal feed.
  • Conduct or supervise operational programs such as fish hatcheries, greenhouses and livestock production programs.
19-4031.00Chemical Technicians
Conduct chemical and physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative and quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, and gaseous materials for research and development of new products or processes, quality control, maintenance of environmental standards, and other work involving experimental, theoretical, or practical application of chemistry and related sciences.
  • Conduct chemical or physical laboratory tests to assist scientists in making qualitative or quantitative analyses of solids, liquids, or gaseous materials.
  • Maintain, clean, or sterilize laboratory instruments or equipment.
  • Set up and conduct chemical experiments, tests, and analyses, using techniques such as chromatography, spectroscopy, physical or chemical separation techniques, or microscopy.
  • Monitor product quality to ensure compliance with standards and specifications.
  • Prepare chemical solutions for products or processes, following standardized formulas, or create experimental formulas.
  • Provide and maintain a safe work environment by participating in safety programs, committees, or teams and by conducting laboratory or plant safety audits.
  • Provide technical support or assistance to chemists or engineers.
  • Train new employees on topics such as the proper operation of laboratory equipment.
  • Order and inventory materials to maintain supplies.
  • Compile and interpret results of tests and analyses.
  • Develop or conduct programs of sampling and analysis to maintain quality standards of raw materials, chemical intermediates, or products.
  • Write technical reports or prepare graphs or charts to document experimental results.
  • Direct or monitor other workers producing chemical products.
  • Design or fabricate experimental apparatus to develop new products or processes.
  • Operate experimental pilot plants, assisting with experimental design.
  • Develop new chemical engineering processes or production techniques.
19-4042.00Environmental Science and Protection Technicians, Including Health
Perform laboratory and field tests to monitor the environment and investigate sources of pollution, including those that affect health, under the direction of an environmental scientist, engineer, or other specialist. May collect samples of gases, soil, water, and other materials for testing.
  • Discuss test results and analyses with customers.
  • Record test data and prepare reports, summaries, or charts that interpret test results.
  • Develop or implement programs for monitoring of environmental pollution or radiation.
  • Investigate hazardous conditions or spills or outbreaks of disease or food poisoning, collecting samples for analysis.
  • Calibrate microscopes or test instruments.
  • Provide information or technical or program assistance to government representatives, employers, or the general public on the issues of public health, environmental protection, or workplace safety.
  • Collect samples of gases, soils, water, industrial wastewater, or asbestos products to conduct tests on pollutant levels or identify sources of pollution.
  • Monitor emission control devices to ensure they are operating properly and comply with state and federal regulations.
  • Inspect sanitary conditions at public facilities.
  • Examine and analyze material for presence and concentration of contaminants, such as asbestos, using variety of microscopes.
  • Inspect workplaces to ensure the absence of health and safety hazards, such as high noise levels, radiation, or potential lighting hazards.
  • Develop or implement site recycling or hazardous waste stream programs.
  • Perform statistical analysis of environmental data.
  • Analyze potential environmental impacts of production process changes and recommend steps to mitigate negative impacts.
  • Set up equipment or stations to monitor and collect pollutants from sites, such as smoke stacks, manufacturing plants, or mechanical equipment.
  • Make recommendations to control or eliminate unsafe conditions at workplaces or public facilities.
  • Distribute permits, closure plans, or cleanup plans.
  • Maintain files, such as hazardous waste databases, chemical usage data, personnel exposure information, or diagrams showing equipment locations.
  • Calculate amount of pollutant in samples or compute air pollution or gas flow in industrial processes, using chemical and mathematical formulas.
  • Direct activities of workers in laboratory.
  • Weigh, analyze, or measure collected sample particles, such as lead, coal dust, or rock, to determine concentration of pollutants.
  • Initiate procedures to close down or fine establishments violating environmental or health regulations.
  • Prepare samples or photomicrographs for testing and analysis.
  • Determine amounts and kinds of chemicals to use in destroying harmful organisms or removing impurities from purification systems.
  • Develop testing procedures.
  • Conduct standardized tests to ensure materials or supplies used throughout power supply systems meet processing and safety specifications.
19-4043.00Geological Technicians, Except Hydrologic Technicians
Assist scientists or engineers in the use of electronic, sonic, or nuclear measuring instruments in laboratory, exploration, and production activities to obtain data indicating resources such as metallic ore, minerals, gas, coal, or petroleum. Analyze mud and drill cuttings. Chart pressure, temperature, and other characteristics of wells or bore holes.
  • Test and analyze samples to determine their content and characteristics, using laboratory apparatus or testing equipment.
  • Collect or prepare solid or fluid samples for analysis.
  • Compile, log, or record testing or operational data for review and further analysis.
  • Prepare notes, sketches, geological maps, or cross-sections.
  • Participate in geological, geophysical, geochemical, hydrographic, or oceanographic surveys, prospecting field trips, exploratory drilling, well logging, or underground mine survey programs.
  • Prepare or review professional, technical, or other reports regarding sampling, testing, or recommendations of data analysis.
  • Adjust or repair testing, electrical, or mechanical equipment or devices.
  • Read and study reports in order to compile information and data for geological and geophysical prospecting.
  • Interview individuals, and research public databases in order to obtain information.
  • Plot information from aerial photographs, well logs, section descriptions, or other databases.
  • Assemble, maintain, or distribute information for library or record systems.
  • Operate or adjust equipment or apparatus used to obtain geological data.
  • Plan and direct activities of workers who operate equipment to collect data.
  • Set up or direct set-up of instruments used to collect geological data.
  • Record readings in order to compile data used in prospecting for oil or gas.
  • Create photographic recordings of information, using equipment.
  • Measure geological characteristics used in prospecting for oil or gas, using measuring instruments.
  • Participate in the evaluation of possible mining locations.
  • Assess the environmental impacts of development projects on subsurface materials.
  • Evaluate and interpret core samples and cuttings, and other geological data used in prospecting for oil or gas.
  • Supervise well exploration, drilling activities, or well completions.
  • Inspect engines for wear or defective parts, using equipment or measuring devices.
  • Develop and design packing materials and handling procedures for shipping of objects.
  • Collaborate with hydrogeologists to evaluate groundwater or well circulation.
  • Apply new technologies, such as improved seismic imaging techniques, to locate untapped oil or natural gas deposits.
  • Collect data on underground areas, such as reservoirs, that could be used in carbon sequestration operations.
  • Collect geological data from potential geothermal energy plant sites.
  • Compile data used to address environmental issues, such as the suitability of potential landfill sites.
  • Conduct geophysical surveys of potential sites for wind farms or solar installations to determine their suitability.
  • Evaluate and interpret seismic data with the aid of computers.
19-4044.00Hydrologic Technicians
Collect and organize data concerning the distribution and circulation of ground and surface water, and data on its physical, chemical, and biological properties. Measure and report on flow rates and ground water levels, maintain field equipment, collect water samples, install and collect sampling equipment, and process samples for shipment to testing laboratories. May collect data on behalf of hydrologists, engineers, developers, government agencies, or agriculture.
  • Analyze ecological data about the impact of pollution, erosion, floods, and other environmental problems on bodies of water.
  • Answer technical questions from hydrologists, policymakers, or other customers developing water conservation plans.
  • Apply research findings to minimize the environmental impacts of pollution, waterborne diseases, erosion, or sedimentation.
  • Assist in designing programs to ensure the proper sealing of abandoned wells.
  • Collect water and soil samples to test for physical, chemical, or biological properties, such as pH, oxygen level, temperature, and pollution.
  • Develop computer models for hydrologic predictions.
  • Estimate the costs and benefits of municipal projects, such as hydroelectric power plants, irrigation systems, and wastewater treatment facilities.
  • Investigate complaints or conflicts related to the alteration of public waters by gathering information, recommending alternatives, or preparing legal documents.
  • Investigate the properties, origins, or activities of glaciers, ice, snow, or permafrost.
  • Locate and deliver information or data as requested by customers, such as contractors, government entities, and members of the public.
  • Measure the properties of bodies of water, such as water levels, volume, and flow.
  • Perform quality control checks on data to be used by hydrologists.
  • Prepare, install, maintain, or repair equipment used for hydrologic study, such as water level recorders, stream flow gauges, and water analyzers.
  • Provide real time data to emergency management and weather service personnel during flood events.
  • Write groundwater contamination reports on known, suspected, or potential hazardous waste sites.
  • Write materials for research publications, such as maps, tables, and reports, to disseminate findings.
19-4051.00Nuclear Technicians
Assist nuclear physicists, nuclear engineers, or other scientists in laboratory, power generation, or electricity production activities. May operate, maintain, or provide quality control for nuclear testing and research equipment. May monitor radiation.
  • Follow nuclear equipment operational policies and procedures that ensure environmental safety.
  • Conduct surveillance testing to determine safety of nuclear equipment.
  • Monitor nuclear reactor equipment performance to identify operational inefficiencies, hazards, or needs for maintenance or repair.
  • Apply safety tags to equipment needing maintenance.
  • Test plant equipment to ensure it is operating properly.
  • Follow policies and procedures for radiation workers to ensure personnel safety.
  • Modify, devise, or maintain nuclear equipment used in operations.
  • Monitor instruments, gauges, or recording devices under direction of nuclear experimenters.
  • Perform testing, maintenance, repair, or upgrading of accelerator systems.
  • Adjust controls of equipment to control particle beam movement, pulse rates, energy or intensity, or radiation, according to specifications.
  • Warn maintenance workers of radiation hazards and direct workers to vacate hazardous areas.
  • Calculate equipment operating factors, such as radiation times, dosages, temperatures, gamma intensities, or pressures, using standard formulas and conversion tables.
  • Measure the intensity and identify the types of radiation in work areas, equipment, or materials, using radiation detectors or other instruments.
  • Communicate with accelerator maintenance personnel to ensure readiness of support systems, such as vacuum, water cooling, or radio frequency power sources.
  • Set control panel switches to route electric power from sources and direct particle beams through injector units.
  • Identify and implement appropriate decontamination procedures, based on equipment and the size, nature, and type of contamination.
  • Decontaminate objects by cleaning them using soap or solvents or by abrading using brushes, buffing machines, or sandblasting machines.
  • Prepare reports to communicate information such as contamination test results, decontamination results, or decontamination procedures.
  • Collect air, water, gas or solid samples for testing to determine radioactivity levels or to ensure appropriate radioactive containment.
  • Determine or recommend radioactive decontamination procedures, according to the size and nature of equipment and the degree of contamination.
  • Set up equipment that automatically detects area radiation deviations and test detection equipment to ensure its accuracy.
19-4051.02Nuclear Monitoring Technicians
Collect and test samples to monitor results of nuclear experiments and contamination of humans, facilities, and environment.
  • Brief workers on radiation levels in work areas.
  • Calculate safe radiation exposure times for personnel using plant contamination readings and prescribed safe levels of radiation.
  • Monitor personnel to determine the amounts and intensities of radiation exposure.
  • Inform supervisors when individual exposures or area radiation levels approach maximum permissible limits.
  • Provide initial response to abnormal events or to alarms from radiation monitoring equipment.
  • Determine intensities and types of radiation in work areas, equipment, or materials, using radiation detectors or other instruments.
  • Instruct personnel in radiation safety procedures and demonstrate use of protective clothing and equipment.
  • Collect samples of air, water, gases, or solids to determine radioactivity levels of contamination.
  • Analyze samples, such as air or water samples, for contaminants or other elements.
  • Determine or recommend radioactive decontamination procedures, according to the size and nature of equipment and the degree of contamination.
  • Set up equipment that automatically detects area radiation deviations and test detection equipment to ensure its accuracy.
  • Prepare reports describing contamination tests, material or equipment decontaminated, or methods used in decontamination processes.
  • Place radioactive waste, such as sweepings or broken sample bottles, into containers for shipping or disposal.
  • Decontaminate objects by cleaning with soap or solvents or by abrading with wire brushes, buffing wheels, or sandblasting machines.
  • Enter data into computers to record characteristics of nuclear events or to locate coordinates of particles.
  • Calibrate and maintain chemical instrumentation sensing elements and sampling system equipment, using calibration instruments and hand tools.
  • Immerse samples in chemical compounds to prepare them for testing.
  • Confer with scientists directing projects to determine significant events to monitor during tests.
  • Operate manipulators from outside cells to move specimens into or out of shielded containers, to remove specimens from cells, or to place specimens on benches or equipment work stations.
19-4061.00Social Science Research Assistants
Assist social scientists in laboratory, survey, and other social science research. May help prepare findings for publication and assist in laboratory analysis, quality control, or data management.
  • Design and create special programs for tasks such as statistical analysis and data entry and cleaning.
  • Provide assistance with the preparation of project-related reports, manuscripts, and presentations.
  • Prepare tables, graphs, fact sheets, and written reports summarizing research results.
  • Perform descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses of data, using computer software.
  • Verify the accuracy and validity of data entered in databases, correcting any errors.
  • Develop and implement research quality control procedures.
  • Prepare, manipulate, and manage extensive databases.
  • Perform data entry and other clerical work as required for project completion.
  • Conduct internet-based and library research.
  • Present research findings to groups of people.
  • Obtain informed consent of research subjects or their guardians.
  • Administer standardized tests to research subjects, or interview them to collect research data.
  • Recruit and schedule research participants.
  • Screen potential subjects to determine their suitability as study participants.
  • Track research participants, and perform any necessary follow-up tasks.
  • Edit and submit protocols and other required research documentation.
  • Code data in preparation for computer entry.
  • Track laboratory supplies and expenses such as participant reimbursement.
  • Provide assistance in the design of survey instruments such as questionnaires.
  • Supervise the work of survey interviewers.
  • Perform needs assessments or consult with clients to determine the types of research and information required.
  • Collect specimens such as blood samples, as required by research projects.
  • Allocate and manage laboratory space and resources.
19-4071.00Forest and Conservation Technicians
Provide technical assistance regarding the conservation of soil, water, forests, or related natural resources. May compile data pertaining to size, content, condition, and other characteristics of forest tracts under the direction of foresters, or train and lead forest workers in forest propagation and fire prevention and suppression. May assist conservation scientists in managing, improving, and protecting rangelands and wildlife habitats.
  • Thin and space trees and control weeds and undergrowth, using manual tools and chemicals, or supervise workers performing these tasks.
  • Train and lead forest and conservation workers in seasonal activities, such as planting tree seedlings, putting out forest fires, and maintaining recreational facilities.
  • Provide information about, and enforce, regulations, such as those concerning environmental protection, resource utilization, fire safety, and accident prevention.
  • Patrol park or forest areas to protect resources and prevent damage.
  • Map forest tract data using digital mapping systems.
  • Keep records of the amount and condition of logs taken to mills.
  • Manage forest protection activities, including fire control, fire crew training, and coordination of fire detection and public education programs.
  • Monitor activities of logging companies and contractors.
  • Perform reforestation or forest renewal, including nursery and silviculture operations, site preparation, seeding and tree planting programs, cone collection, and tree improvement.
  • Plan and supervise construction of access routes and forest roads.
  • Select and mark trees for thinning or logging, drawing detailed plans that include access roads.
  • Supervise forest nursery operations, timber harvesting, land use activities such as livestock grazing, and disease or insect control programs.
  • Develop and maintain computer databases.
  • Inspect trees and collect samples of plants, seeds, foliage, bark, and roots to locate insect and disease damage.
  • Measure distances, clean sightlines, and record data to help survey crews.
  • Issue fire permits, timber permits, and other forest use licenses.
  • Survey, measure, and map access roads and forest areas such as burns, cut-over areas, experimental plots, and timber sales sections.
  • Provide forestry education and general information, advice, and recommendations to woodlot owners, community organizations, and the general public.
  • Provide technical support to forestry research programs in areas such as tree improvement, seed orchard operations, insect and disease surveys, or experimental forestry and forest engineering research.
  • Conduct laboratory or field experiments with plants, animals, insects, diseases, and soils.
  • Install gauges, stream flow recorders, and soil moisture measuring instruments, and collect and record data from them to assist with watershed analysis.
19-4092.00Forensic Science Technicians
Collect, identify, classify, and analyze physical evidence related to criminal investigations. Perform tests on weapons or substances, such as fiber, hair, and tissue to determine significance to investigation. May testify as expert witnesses on evidence or crime laboratory techniques. May serve as specialists in area of expertise, such as ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, or biochemistry.
  • Keep records and prepare reports detailing findings, investigative methods, and laboratory techniques.
  • Collect evidence from crime scenes, storing it in conditions that preserve its integrity.
  • Testify in court about investigative or analytical methods or findings.
  • Use photographic or video equipment to document evidence or crime scenes.
  • Visit morgues, examine scenes of crimes, or contact other sources to obtain evidence or information to be used in investigations.
  • Reconstruct crime scenes to determine relationships among pieces of evidence.
  • Operate and maintain laboratory equipment and apparatus.
  • Confer with ballistics, fingerprinting, handwriting, documents, electronics, medical, chemical, or metallurgical experts concerning evidence and its interpretation.
  • Prepare solutions, reagents, or sample formulations needed for laboratory work.
  • Train new technicians or other personnel on forensic science techniques.
  • Use chemicals or other substances to examine latent fingerprint evidence and compare developed prints to those of known persons in databases.
  • Interpret laboratory findings or test results to identify and classify substances, materials, or other evidence collected at crime scenes.
  • Collect impressions of dust from surfaces to obtain and identify fingerprints.
  • Review forensic analysts' reports for technical merit.
  • Examine and analyze blood stain patterns at crime scenes.
  • Examine physical evidence, such as hair, fiber, wood, or soil residues to obtain information about its source and composition.
  • Examine firearms to determine mechanical condition and legal status, performing restoration work on damaged firearms to obtain information, such as serial numbers.
  • Compare objects, such as tools, with impression marks to determine whether a specific object is responsible for a specific mark.
  • Analyze gunshot residue and bullet paths to determine how shootings occurred.
  • Identify and quantify drugs or poisons found in biological fluids or tissues, in foods, or at crime scenes.
  • Determine types of bullets and specific weapons used in shootings.
19-4099.01Quality Control Analysts
Conduct tests to determine quality of raw materials, bulk intermediate and finished products. May conduct stability sample tests.
  • Conduct routine and non-routine analyses of in-process materials, raw materials, environmental samples, finished goods, or stability samples.
  • Interpret test results, compare them to established specifications and control limits, and make recommendations on appropriateness of data for release.
  • Perform visual inspections of finished products.
  • Compile laboratory test data and perform appropriate analyses.
  • Complete documentation needed to support testing procedures, including data capture forms, equipment logbooks, or inventory forms.
  • Calibrate, validate, or maintain laboratory equipment.
  • Participate in out-of-specification and failure investigations and recommend corrective actions.
  • Supply quality control data necessary for regulatory submissions.
  • Receive and inspect raw materials.
  • Investigate or report questionable test results.
  • Perform validations or transfers of analytical methods in accordance with applicable policies or guidelines.
  • Ensure that lab cleanliness and safety standards are maintained.
  • Identify quality problems and recommend solutions.
  • Monitor testing procedures to ensure that all tests are performed according to established item specifications, standard test methods, or protocols.
  • Train other analysts to perform laboratory procedures and assays.
  • Identify and troubleshoot equipment problems.
  • Participate in internal assessments and audits as required.
  • Evaluate analytical methods and procedures to determine how they might be improved.
  • Write technical reports or documentation, such as deviation reports, testing protocols, and trend analyses.
  • Review data from contract laboratories to ensure accuracy and regulatory compliance.
  • Serve as a technical liaison between quality control and other departments, vendors, or contractors.
  • Coordinate testing with contract laboratories and vendors.
  • Write or revise standard quality control operating procedures.
  • Develop and qualify new testing methods.
  • Prepare or review required method transfer documentation including technical transfer protocols or reports.
  • Evaluate new technologies and methods to make recommendations regarding their use.
19-4099.03Remote Sensing Technicians
Apply remote sensing technologies to assist scientists in areas such as natural resources, urban planning, or homeland security. May prepare flight plans or sensor configurations for flight trips.
  • Collect geospatial data, using technologies such as aerial photography, light and radio wave detection systems, digital satellites, or thermal energy systems.
  • Verify integrity and accuracy of data contained in remote sensing image analysis systems.
  • Integrate remotely sensed data with other geospatial data.
  • Consult with remote sensing scientists, surveyors, cartographers, or engineers to determine project needs.
  • Adjust remotely sensed images for optimum presentation by using software to select image displays, define image set categories, or choose processing routines.
  • Manipulate raw data to enhance interpretation, either on the ground or during remote sensing flights.
  • Merge scanned images or build photo mosaics of large areas, using image processing software.
  • Participate in the planning or development of mapping projects.
  • Prepare documentation or presentations, including charts, photos, or graphs.
  • Correct raw data for errors due to factors such as skew or atmospheric variation.
  • Calibrate data collection equipment.
  • Develop or maintain geospatial information databases.
  • Monitor raw data quality during collection, and make equipment corrections as necessary.
  • Maintain records of survey data.
  • Operate airborne remote sensing equipment, such as survey cameras, sensors, or scanners.
  • Evaluate remote sensing project requirements to determine the types of equipment or computer software necessary to meet project requirements, such as specific image types or output resolutions.
  • Collect verification data on the ground, using equipment such as global positioning receivers, digital cameras, or notebook computers.
  • Document methods used and write technical reports containing information collected.
  • Develop specialized computer software routines to customize and integrate image analysis.
  • Collaborate with agricultural workers to apply remote sensing information to efforts to reduce negative environmental impacts of farming practices.
  • Collect remote sensing data for forest or carbon tracking activities involved in assessing the impact of environmental change.
  • Provide remote sensing data for use in addressing environmental issues, such as surface water modeling or dust cloud detection.
19-5011.00Occupational Health and Safety Specialists
Review, evaluate, and analyze work environments and design programs and procedures to control, eliminate, and prevent disease or injury caused by chemical, physical, and biological agents or ergonomic factors. May conduct inspections and enforce adherence to laws and regulations governing the health and safety of individuals. May be employed in the public or private sector.
  • Recommend measures to help protect workers from potentially hazardous work methods, processes, or materials.
  • Order suspension of activities that pose threats to workers' health or safety.
  • Investigate accidents to identify causes or to determine how such accidents might be prevented in the future.
  • Inspect or evaluate workplace environments, equipment, or practices to ensure compliance with safety standards and government regulations.
  • Collaborate with engineers or physicians to institute control or remedial measures for hazardous or potentially hazardous conditions or equipment.
  • Develop or maintain hygiene programs, such as noise surveys, continuous atmosphere monitoring, ventilation surveys, or asbestos management plans.
  • Coordinate "right-to-know" programs regarding hazardous chemicals or other substances.
  • Conduct safety training or education programs and demonstrate the use of safety equipment.
  • Collect samples of dust, gases, vapors, or other potentially toxic materials for analysis.
  • Investigate the adequacy of ventilation, exhaust equipment, lighting, or other conditions that could affect employee health, comfort, or performance.
  • Analyze incident data to identify trends in injuries, illnesses, accidents, or other hazards.
  • Investigate health-related complaints and inspect facilities to ensure that they comply with public health legislation and regulations.
  • Collect samples of hazardous materials or arrange for sample collection.
  • Maintain or update emergency response plans or procedures.
  • Provide new-employee health and safety orientations and develop materials for these presentations.
  • Inspect specified areas to ensure the presence of fire prevention equipment, safety equipment, or first-aid supplies.
  • Maintain inventories of hazardous materials or hazardous wastes, using waste tracking systems to ensure that materials are handled properly.
  • Develop or maintain medical monitoring programs for employees.
  • Conduct audits at hazardous waste sites or industrial sites or participate in hazardous waste site investigations.
  • Perform laboratory analyses or physical inspections of samples to detect disease or to assess purity or cleanliness.
  • Prepare hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste samples for transportation or storage by treating, compacting, packaging, and labeling them.
19-5012.00Occupational Health and Safety Technicians
Collect data on work environments for analysis by occupational health and safety specialists. Implement and conduct evaluation of programs designed to limit chemical, physical, biological, and ergonomic risks to workers.
  • Test workplaces for environmental hazards, such as exposure to radiation, chemical or biological hazards, or excessive noise.
  • Prepare or calibrate equipment used to collect or analyze samples.
  • Maintain all required environmental records and documentation.
  • Supply, operate, or maintain personal protective equipment.
  • Prepare or review specifications or orders for the purchase of safety equipment, ensuring that proper features are present and that items conform to health and safety standards.
  • Conduct worker studies to determine whether specific instances of disease or illness are job-related.
  • Recommend corrective measures to be applied based on results of environmental contaminant analyses.
  • Verify availability or monitor use of safety equipment, such as hearing protection or respirators.
  • Review records or reports concerning laboratory results, staffing, floor plans, fire inspections, or sanitation to gather information for the development or enforcement of safety activities.
  • Evaluate situations or make determinations when a worker has refused to work on the grounds that danger or potential harm exists.
  • Help direct rescue or firefighting operations in the event of a fire or an explosion.
  • Inspect fire suppression systems or portable fire systems to ensure proper working order.
  • Train workers in safety procedures related to green jobs, such as the use of fall protection devices or maintenance of proper ventilation during wind turbine construction.
  • Plan emergency response drills.
  • Prepare documents to be used in legal proceedings, testifying in such proceedings when necessary.
  • Provide consultation to organizations or agencies on the workplace application of safety principles, practices, or techniques.
  • Educate the public about health issues or enforce health legislation to prevent disease, to promote health, or to help people understand health protection procedures and regulations.
  • Test or balance newly installed HVAC systems to determine whether indoor air quality standards are met.
  • Examine credentials, licenses, or permits to ensure compliance with licensing requirements.
  • Maintain logbooks of daily activities, including areas visited or activities performed.
  • Collect data regarding potential hazards from new equipment or products linked to green practices.
  • Confer with schools, state authorities, or community groups to develop health standards or programs.
  • Conduct interviews to obtain information or evidence regarding communicable diseases or violations of health or sanitation regulations.
  • Collect data related to ecological or human health risks at brownfield sites.
  • Perform tests to identify any potential hazards related to recycled products used at green building sites.
  • Examine practices at green building sites to determine whether adherence to green building standards alters risks to workers.
21-1011.00Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors
Counsel and advise individuals with alcohol, tobacco, drug, or other problems, such as gambling and eating disorders. May counsel individuals, families, or groups or engage in prevention programs.
  • Complete and maintain accurate records or reports regarding the patients' histories and progress, services provided, or other required information.
  • Counsel clients or patients, individually or in group sessions, to assist in overcoming dependencies, adjusting to life, or making changes.
  • Interview clients, review records, and confer with other professionals to evaluate individuals' mental and physical condition and to determine their suitability for participation in a specific program.
  • Develop client treatment plans based on research, clinical experience, and client histories.
  • Review and evaluate clients' progress in relation to measurable goals described in treatment and care plans.
  • Intervene as an advocate for clients or patients to resolve emergency problems in crisis situations.
  • Coordinate counseling efforts with mental health professionals or other health professionals, such as doctors, nurses, or social workers.
  • Modify treatment plans to comply with changes in client status.
  • Attend training sessions to increase knowledge and skills.
  • Participate in case conferences or staff meetings.
  • Provide clients or family members with information about addiction issues and about available services or programs, making appropriate referrals when necessary.
  • Conduct chemical dependency program orientation sessions.
  • Coordinate activities with courts, probation officers, community services, or other post-treatment agencies.
  • Train or supervise student interns or new staff members.
  • Act as liaisons between clients and medical staff.
  • Plan or implement follow-up or aftercare programs for clients to be discharged from treatment programs.
  • Assess individuals' degree of drug dependency by collecting and analyzing urine samples.
  • Instruct others in program methods, procedures, or functions.
  • Counsel family members to assist them in understanding, dealing with, and supporting clients or patients.
  • Confer with family members or others close to clients to keep them informed of treatment planning and progress.
  • Supervise or direct other workers providing services to clients or patients.
  • Follow progress of discharged patients to determine effectiveness of treatments.
  • Develop, implement, or evaluate public education, prevention, or health promotion programs, working in collaboration with organizations, institutions, or communities.
21-1012.00Educational, Guidance, and Career Counselors and Advisors
Advise and assist students and provide educational and vocational guidance services.
  • Provide crisis intervention to students when difficult situations occur at schools.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, teachers, administrators, and other professionals to discuss children's progress, resolve behavioral, academic, and other problems, and to determine priorities for students and their resource needs.
  • Identify cases of domestic abuse or other family problems and encourage students or parents to seek additional assistance from mental health professionals.
  • Counsel individuals to help them understand and overcome personal, social, or behavioral problems affecting their educational or vocational situations.
  • Counsel students regarding educational issues, such as course and program selection, class scheduling and registration, school adjustment, truancy, study habits, and career planning.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Prepare students for later educational experiences by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Teach classes and present self-help or information sessions on subjects related to education and career planning.
  • Provide special services such as alcohol and drug prevention programs and classes that teach students to handle conflicts without resorting to violence.
  • Conduct follow-up interviews with counselees to determine if their needs have been met.
  • Instruct individuals in career development techniques, such as job search and application strategies, resume writing, and interview skills.
  • Plan and promote career and employment-related programs and events, such as career planning presentations, work experience programs, job fairs, and career workshops.
  • Plan and conduct orientation programs and group conferences to promote the adjustment of individuals to new life experiences, such as starting college.
  • Evaluate students' or individuals' abilities, interests, and personality characteristics, using tests, records, interviews, or professional sources.
  • Collaborate with teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of school programs and in the preparation of master schedules for curriculum offerings.
  • Observe students during classroom and play activities to evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Establish and enforce administration policies and rules governing student behavior.
  • Address community groups, faculty, and staff members to explain available counseling services.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Attend meetings, educational conferences, and training workshops and serve on committees.
  • Compile and study occupational, educational, and economic information to assist counselees in determining and carrying out vocational and educational objectives.
  • Plan, direct, and participate in recruitment and enrollment activities.
  • Supervise, train, and direct professional staff and interns.
  • Review transcripts to ensure that students meet graduation or college entrance requirements and write letters of recommendation.
  • Provide students with information on topics, such as college degree programs and admission requirements, financial aid opportunities, trade and technical schools, and apprenticeship programs.
  • Refer students to degree programs based on interests, aptitudes, or educational assessments.
  • Assess needs for assistance, such as rehabilitation, financial aid, or additional vocational training, and refer clients to the appropriate services.
  • Establish and supervise peer counseling and peer tutoring programs.
  • Provide information for teachers and staff members involved in helping students or graduates identify and pursue employment opportunities.
  • Establish contacts with employers to create internship and employment opportunities for students.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Refer qualified counselees to employers or employment services for job placement.
  • Interview clients to obtain information about employment history, educational background, and career goals, and to identify barriers to employment.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
21-1013.00Marriage and Family Therapists
Diagnose and treat mental and emotional disorders, whether cognitive, affective, or behavioral, within the context of marriage and family systems. Apply psychotherapeutic and family systems theories and techniques in the delivery of services to individuals, couples, and families for the purpose of treating such diagnosed nervous and mental disorders.
  • Ask questions that will help clients identify their feelings and behaviors.
  • Counsel clients on concerns, such as unsatisfactory relationships, divorce and separation, child rearing, home management, or financial difficulties.
  • Encourage individuals and family members to develop and use skills and strategies for confronting their problems in a constructive manner.
  • Maintain case files that include activities, progress notes, evaluations, and recommendations.
  • Develop and implement individualized treatment plans addressing family relationship problems, destructive patterns of behavior, and other personal issues.
  • Collect information about clients, using techniques such as testing, interviewing, discussion, or observation.
  • Confer with clients to develop plans for posttreatment activities.
  • Confer with other counselors, doctors, and professionals to analyze individual cases and to coordinate counseling services.
  • Determine whether clients should be counseled or referred to other specialists in such fields as medicine, psychiatry, or legal aid.
  • Follow up on results of counseling programs and clients' adjustments to determine effectiveness of programs.
  • Write evaluations of parents and children for use by courts deciding divorce and custody cases, testifying in court if necessary.
  • Provide instructions to clients on how to obtain help with legal, financial, and other personal issues.
  • Provide public education and consultation to other professionals or groups regarding counseling services, issues, and methods.
  • Gather information from doctors, schools, social workers, juvenile counselors, law enforcement personnel, and others to make recommendations to courts for resolution of child custody or visitation disputes.
  • Supervise other counselors, social service staff, and assistants.
  • Provide family counseling and treatment services to inmates participating in substance abuse programs.
21-1014.00Mental Health Counselors
Counsel and advise individuals and groups to promote optimum mental and emotional health, with an emphasis on prevention. May help individuals deal with a broad range of mental health issues, such as those associated with addictions and substance abuse; family, parenting, and marital problems; stress management; self-esteem; or aging.
  • Maintain confidentiality of records relating to clients' treatment.
  • Encourage clients to express their feelings and discuss what is happening in their lives, helping them to develop insight into themselves or their relationships.
  • Collect information about clients through interviews, observation, or tests.
  • Assess patients for risk of suicide attempts.
  • Fill out and maintain client-related paperwork, including federal- and state-mandated forms, client diagnostic records, and progress notes.
  • Prepare and maintain all required treatment records and reports.
  • Counsel clients or patients, individually or in group sessions, to assist in overcoming dependencies, adjusting to life, or making changes.
  • Guide clients in the development of skills or strategies for dealing with their problems.
  • Perform crisis interventions with clients.
  • Develop and implement treatment plans based on clinical experience and knowledge.
  • Evaluate clients' physical or mental condition, based on review of client information.
  • Act as client advocates to coordinate required services or to resolve emergency problems in crisis situations.
  • Modify treatment activities or approaches as needed to comply with changes in clients' status.
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of counseling programs on clients' progress in resolving identified problems and moving towards defined objectives.
  • Meet with families, probation officers, police, or other interested parties to exchange necessary information during the treatment process.
  • Discuss with individual patients their plans for life after leaving therapy.
  • Collaborate with other staff members to perform clinical assessments or develop treatment plans.
  • Counsel family members to assist them in understanding, dealing with, or supporting clients or patients.
  • Monitor clients' use of medications.
  • Plan, organize, or lead structured programs of counseling, work, study, recreation, or social activities for clients.
  • Learn about new developments in counseling by reading professional literature, attending courses and seminars, or establishing and maintaining contact with other social service agencies.
  • Refer patients, clients, or family members to community resources or to specialists as necessary.
  • Gather information about community mental health needs or resources that could be used in conjunction with therapy.
  • Supervise other counselors, social service staff, assistants, or graduate students.
  • Plan or conduct programs to prevent substance abuse or improve community health or counseling services.
  • Coordinate or direct employee workshops, courses, or training about mental health issues.
21-1015.00Rehabilitation Counselors
Counsel individuals to maximize the independence and employability of persons coping with personal, social, and vocational difficulties that result from birth defects, illness, disease, accidents, aging, or the stress of daily life. Coordinate activities for residents of care and treatment facilities. Assess client needs and design and implement rehabilitation programs that may include personal and vocational counseling, training, and job placement.
  • Prepare and maintain records and case files, including documentation such as clients' personal and eligibility information, services provided, narratives of client contacts, or relevant correspondence.
  • Develop rehabilitation plans that fit clients' aptitudes, education levels, physical abilities, and career goals.
  • Monitor and record clients' progress to ensure that goals and objectives are met.
  • Confer with clients to discuss their options and goals so that rehabilitation programs and plans for accessing needed services can be developed.
  • Maintain close contact with clients during job training and placements to resolve problems and evaluate placement adequacy.
  • Confer with physicians, psychologists, occupational therapists, and other professionals to develop and implement client rehabilitation programs.
  • Arrange for physical, mental, academic, vocational, and other evaluations to obtain information for assessing clients' needs and developing rehabilitation plans.
  • Analyze information from interviews, educational and medical records, consultation with other professionals, and diagnostic evaluations to assess clients' abilities, needs, and eligibility for services.
  • Develop and maintain relationships with community referral sources, such as schools or community groups.
  • Locate barriers to client employment, such as inaccessible work sites, inflexible schedules, or transportation problems, and work with clients to develop strategies for overcoming these barriers.
  • Develop diagnostic procedures to determine clients' needs.
  • Collaborate with clients' families to implement rehabilitation plans, such as behavioral, residential, social, or employment goals.
  • Participate in job development and placement programs, contacting prospective employers, placing clients in jobs, and evaluating the success of placements.
  • Arrange for on-site job coaching or assistive devices, such as specially equipped wheelchairs, to help clients adapt to work or school environments.
  • Manage budgets and direct case service allocations, authorizing expenditures and payments.
  • Collaborate with community agencies to establish facilities and programs for persons with disabilities.
21-1021.00Child, Family, and School Social Workers
Provide social services and assistance to improve the social and psychological functioning of children and their families and to maximize the family well-being and the academic functioning of children. May assist parents, arrange adoptions, and find foster homes for abandoned or abused children. In schools, they address such problems as teenage pregnancy, misbehavior, and truancy. May also advise teachers.
  • Maintain case history records and prepare reports.
  • Interview clients individually, in families, or in groups, assessing their situations, capabilities, and problems to determine what services are required to meet their needs.
  • Serve as liaisons between students, homes, schools, family services, child guidance clinics, courts, protective services, doctors, and other contacts to help children who face problems, such as disabilities, abuse, or poverty.
  • Develop and review service plans in consultation with clients and perform follow-ups assessing the quantity and quality of services provided.
  • Address legal issues, such as child abuse and discipline, assisting with hearings and providing testimony to inform custody arrangements.
  • Counsel parents with child rearing problems, interviewing the child and family to determine whether further action is required.
  • Consult with parents, teachers, and other school personnel to determine causes of problems, such as truancy and misbehavior, and to implement solutions.
  • Arrange for medical, psychiatric, and other tests that may disclose causes of difficulties and indicate remedial measures.
  • Refer clients to community resources for services, such as job placement, debt counseling, legal aid, housing, medical treatment, or financial assistance, and provide concrete information, such as where to go and how to apply.
  • Counsel individuals, groups, families, or communities regarding issues including mental health, poverty, unemployment, substance abuse, physical abuse, rehabilitation, social adjustment, child care, or medical care.
  • Provide, find, or arrange for support services, such as child care, homemaker service, prenatal care, substance abuse treatment, job training, counseling, or parenting classes to prevent more serious problems from developing.
  • Collect supplementary information needed to assist client, such as employment records, medical records, or school reports.
  • Place children in foster or adoptive homes, institutions, or medical treatment centers.
  • Recommend temporary foster care and advise foster or adoptive parents.
  • Counsel students whose behavior, school progress, or mental or physical impairment indicate a need for assistance, diagnosing students' problems and arranging for needed services.
  • Evaluate personal characteristics and home conditions of foster home or adoption applicants.
  • Conduct social research.
  • Supervise other social workers.
  • Lead group counseling sessions that provide support in such areas as grief, stress, or chemical dependency.
  • Serve on policy-making committees, assist in community development, and assist client groups by lobbying for solutions to problems.
  • Work in child and adolescent residential institutions.
  • Administer welfare programs.
  • Determine clients' eligibility for financial assistance.
21-1022.00Healthcare Social Workers
Provide individuals, families, and groups with the psychosocial support needed to cope with chronic, acute, or terminal illnesses. Services include advising family caregivers. Provide patients with information and counseling, and make referrals for other services. May also provide case and care management or interventions designed to promote health, prevent disease, and address barriers to access to healthcare.
  • Collaborate with other professionals to evaluate patients' medical or physical condition and to assess client needs.
  • Advocate for clients or patients to resolve crises.
  • Refer patient, client, or family to community resources to assist in recovery from mental or physical illness and to provide access to services such as financial assistance, legal aid, housing, job placement or education.
  • Investigate child abuse or neglect cases and take authorized protective action when necessary.
  • Counsel clients and patients in individual and group sessions to help them overcome dependencies, recover from illness, and adjust to life.
  • Plan discharge from care facility to home or other care facility.
  • Monitor, evaluate, and record client progress according to measurable goals described in treatment and care plan.
  • Modify treatment plans to comply with changes in clients' status.
  • Identify environmental impediments to client or patient progress through interviews and review of patient records.
  • Organize support groups or counsel family members to assist them in understanding, dealing with, and supporting the client or patient.
  • Utilize consultation data and social work experience to plan and coordinate client or patient care and rehabilitation, following through to ensure service efficacy.
  • Plan and conduct programs to combat social problems, prevent substance abuse, or improve community health and counseling services.
  • Supervise and direct other workers providing services to clients or patients.
  • Oversee Medicaid- and Medicare-related paperwork and recordkeeping in hospitals.
  • Develop or advise on social policy and assist in community development.
  • Conduct social research to advance knowledge in the social work field.
21-1023.00Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers
Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance abuse problems, including abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and/or other drugs. Activities may include individual and group therapy, crisis intervention, case management, client advocacy, prevention, and education.
  • Counsel clients in individual or group sessions to assist them in dealing with substance abuse, mental or physical illness, poverty, unemployment, or physical abuse.
  • Monitor, evaluate, and record client progress with respect to treatment goals.
  • Interview clients, review records, conduct assessments, or confer with other professionals to evaluate the mental or physical condition of clients or patients.
  • Collaborate with counselors, physicians, or nurses to plan or coordinate treatment, drawing on social work experience and patient needs.
  • Counsel or aid family members to assist them in understanding, dealing with, or supporting the client or patient.
  • Refer patient, client, or family to community resources for housing or treatment to assist in recovery from mental or physical illness, following through to ensure service efficacy.
  • Modify treatment plans according to changes in client status.
  • Educate clients or community members about mental or physical illness, abuse, medication, or available community resources.
  • Assist clients in adhering to treatment plans, such as setting up appointments, arranging for transportation to appointments, or providing support.
  • Increase social work knowledge by reviewing current literature, conducting social research, or attending seminars, training workshops, or classes.
  • Plan or conduct programs to prevent substance abuse, combat social problems, or improve health or counseling services in community.
  • Supervise or direct other workers who provide services to clients or patients.
  • Develop or advise on social policy or assist in community development.
21-1091.00Health Education Specialists
Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles. Use data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments. May link health systems, health providers, insurers, and patients to address individual and population health needs. May serve as resource to assist individuals, other health professionals, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs.
  • Prepare and distribute health education materials, such as reports, bulletins, and visual aids, to address smoking, vaccines, and other public health concerns.
  • Develop and maintain cooperative working relationships with agencies and organizations interested in public health care.
  • Maintain databases, mailing lists, telephone networks, and other information to facilitate the functioning of health education programs.
  • Document activities and record information, such as the numbers of applications completed, presentations conducted, and persons assisted.
  • Develop and present health education and promotion programs, such as training workshops, conferences, and school or community presentations.
  • Collaborate with health specialists and civic groups to determine community health needs and the availability of services and to develop goals for meeting needs.
  • Develop, conduct, or coordinate health needs assessments and other public health surveys.
  • Supervise professional and technical staff in implementing health programs, objectives, and goals.
  • Develop operational plans and policies necessary to achieve health education objectives and services.
  • Provide program information to the public by preparing and presenting press releases, conducting media campaigns, or maintaining program-related Web sites.
  • Develop and maintain health education libraries to provide resources for staff and community agencies.
  • Design and conduct evaluations and diagnostic studies to assess the quality and performance of health education programs.
  • Develop, prepare, and coordinate grant applications and grant-related activities to obtain funding for health education programs and related work.
  • Provide guidance to agencies and organizations on assessment of health education needs and on development and delivery of health education programs.
  • Design and administer training programs for new employees and continuing education for existing employees.
  • Develop educational materials and programs for community agencies, local government, and state government.
21-1092.00Probation Officers and Correctional Treatment Specialists
Provide social services to assist in rehabilitation of law offenders in custody or on probation or parole. Make recommendations for actions involving formulation of rehabilitation plan and treatment of offender, including conditional release and education and employment stipulations.
  • Interview probationers and parolees regularly to evaluate their progress in accomplishing goals and maintaining the terms specified in their probation contracts and rehabilitation plans.
  • Recommend remedial action or initiate court action in response to noncompliance with terms of probation or parole.
  • Administer drug and alcohol tests, including random drug screens of offenders, to verify compliance with substance abuse treatment programs.
  • Prepare and maintain case folder for each assigned inmate or offender.
  • Discuss with offenders how such issues as drug and alcohol abuse and anger management problems might have played roles in their criminal behavior.
  • Conduct prehearing and presentencing investigations and testify in court regarding offenders' backgrounds and recommended sentences and sentencing conditions.
  • Inform offenders or inmates of requirements of conditional release, such as office visits, restitution payments, or educational and employment stipulations.
  • Write reports describing offenders' progress.
  • Arrange for medical, mental health, or substance abuse treatment services according to individual needs or court orders.
  • Supervise people on community-based sentences, such as electronically monitored home detention, and provide field supervision of probationers by conducting curfew checks or visits to home, work, or school.
  • Develop liaisons and networks with other parole officers, community agencies, correctional institutions, psychiatric facilities, and aftercare agencies to plan for helping offenders with life adjustments.
  • Arrange for postrelease services, such as employment, housing, counseling, education, and social activities.
  • Gather information about offenders' backgrounds by talking to offenders, their families and friends, and other people who have relevant information.
  • Develop rehabilitation programs for assigned offenders or inmates, establishing rules of conduct, goals, and objectives.
  • Develop and prepare packets containing information about social service agencies, assistance organizations, and programs that might be useful for inmates or offenders.
  • Provide offenders or inmates with assistance in matters concerning detainers, sentences in other jurisdictions, writs, and applications for social assistance.
  • Investigate alleged parole violations, using interviews, surveillance, and search and seizure.
  • Recommend appropriate penitentiary for initial placement of an offender.
  • Assess the suitability of penitentiary inmates for release under parole and statutory release programs and submit recommendations to parole boards.
  • Participate in decisions about whether cases should go before courts and which court should hear them.
  • Identify and approve work placements for offenders with community service sentences.
21-1093.00Social and Human Service Assistants
Assist other social and human service providers in providing client services in a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, rehabilitation, or social work, including support for families. May assist clients in identifying and obtaining available benefits and social and community services. May assist social workers with developing, organizing, and conducting programs to prevent and resolve problems relevant to substance abuse, human relationships, rehabilitation, or dependent care.
  • Keep records or prepare reports for owner or management concerning visits with clients.
  • Provide information or refer individuals to public or private agencies or community services for assistance.
  • Visit individuals in homes or attend group meetings to provide information on agency services, requirements, or procedures.
  • Interview individuals or family members to compile information on social, educational, criminal, institutional, or drug history.
  • Submit reports and review reports or problems with superior.
  • Advise clients regarding food stamps, child care, food, money management, sanitation, or housekeeping.
  • Consult with supervisor concerning programs for individual families.
  • Oversee day-to-day group activities of residents in institution.
  • Assist in locating housing for displaced individuals.
  • Transport and accompany clients to shopping areas or to appointments, using automobile.
  • Demonstrate use and care of equipment for tenant use.
  • Explain rules established by owner or management, such as sanitation or maintenance requirements or parking regulations.
  • Assist clients with preparation of forms, such as tax or rent forms.
  • Observe and discuss meal preparation and suggest alternate methods of food preparation.
  • Meet with youth groups to acquaint them with consequences of delinquent acts.
  • Assist in planning food budgets, using charts or sample budgets.
  • Observe clients' food selections and recommend alternate economical and nutritional food choices.
  • Inform tenants of facilities, such as laundries or playgrounds.
21-1094.00Community Health Workers
Promote health within a community by assisting individuals to adopt healthy behaviors. Serve as an advocate for the health needs of individuals by assisting community residents in effectively communicating with healthcare providers or social service agencies. Act as liaison or advocate and implement programs that promote, maintain, and improve individual and overall community health. May deliver health-related preventive services such as blood pressure, glaucoma, and hearing screenings. May collect data to help identify community health needs.
  • Maintain updated client records with plans, notes, appropriate forms, or related information.
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to improving general health, such as diet or exercise.
  • Identify or contact members of high-risk or otherwise targeted groups, such as members of minority populations, low-income populations, or pregnant women.
  • Contact clients in person, by phone, or in writing to ensure they have completed required or recommended actions.
  • Distribute flyers, brochures, or other informational or educational documents to inform members of a targeted community.
  • Refer community members to needed health services.
  • Attend community meetings or health fairs to understand community issues or build relationships with community members.
  • Perform basic diagnostic procedures, such as blood pressure screening, breast cancer screening, or communicable disease screening.
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to diagnostic screenings, such as breast cancer screening, pap smears, glaucoma tests, or diabetes screenings.
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to risk or prevention of conditions, such as lead poisoning, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), prenatal substance abuse, or domestic violence.
  • Administer immunizations or other basic preventive treatments.
  • Identify the particular health care needs of individuals in a community or target area.
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to self-care, such as diabetes management.
  • Conduct home visits for pregnant women, newborn infants, or other high-risk individuals to monitor their progress or assess their needs.
  • Transport or accompany clients to scheduled health appointments or referral sites.
  • Advocate for individual or community health needs with government agencies or health service providers.
  • Teach appropriate parenting behaviors to individuals or families.
  • Report incidences of child or elder abuse, neglect, or threats of harm to authorities, as required.
  • Teach classes or otherwise disseminate medical or dental health information to school groups, community groups, or targeted families or individuals, in a manner consistent with cultural norms.
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to sanitation or hygiene, such as flossing or hand washing.
  • Collect information from individuals to compile vital statistics about the general health of community members.
  • Assist families to apply for social services, including Medicaid or Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).
  • Advise clients or community groups on issues related to social or intellectual development, such as education, childcare, or problem solving.
  • Provide basic health services, such as first aid.
  • Interpret, translate, or provide cultural mediation related to health services or information for community members.
  • Monitor nutrition of children, elderly, or other high-risk groups.
  • Advise clients or community groups to ensure parental understanding of the importance of childhood immunizations and how to access immunization services.
  • Develop plans or formal contracts for individuals, families, or community groups to improve overall health.
  • Provide feedback to health service providers regarding improving service accessibility or acceptability.
21-2011.00Clergy
Conduct religious worship and perform other spiritual functions associated with beliefs and practices of religious faith or denomination. Provide spiritual and moral guidance and assistance to members.
  • Pray and promote spirituality.
  • Read from sacred texts, such as the Bible, Torah, or Koran.
  • Prepare and deliver sermons or other talks.
  • Organize and lead regular religious services.
  • Plan or lead religious education programs.
  • Instruct people who seek conversion to a particular faith.
  • Counsel individuals or groups concerning their spiritual, emotional, or personal needs.
  • Administer religious rites or ordinances.
  • Devise ways in which congregational membership can be expanded.
  • Visit people in homes, hospitals, or prisons to provide them with comfort and support.
  • Study and interpret religious laws, doctrines, or traditions.
  • Conduct special ceremonies, such as weddings, funerals, or confirmations.
  • Train leaders of church, community, or youth groups.
  • Respond to requests for assistance during emergencies or crises.
  • Share information about religious issues by writing articles, giving speeches, or teaching.
  • Prepare people for participation in religious ceremonies.
  • Collaborate with committees or individuals to address financial or administrative issues pertaining to congregations.
  • Refer people to community support services, psychologists, or doctors.
  • Participate in fundraising activities to support congregational activities or facilities.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as overseeing building management, ordering supplies, contracting for services or repairs, or supervising the work of staff members or volunteers.
  • Organize or engage in interfaith, community, civic, educational, or recreational activities sponsored by or related to religious programs.
21-2021.00Directors, Religious Activities and Education
Coordinate or design programs and conduct outreach to promote the religious education or activities of a denominational group. May provide counseling, guidance, and leadership relative to marital, health, financial, and religious problems.
  • Identify and recruit potential volunteer workers.
  • Develop or direct study courses or religious education programs within congregations.
  • Publicize programs through sources, such as newsletters, bulletins, or mailings.
  • Train and supervise religious education instructional staff.
  • Select appropriate curricula or class structures for educational programs.
  • Collaborate with other ministry members to establish goals and objectives for religious education programs or to develop ways to encourage program participation.
  • Implement program plans by ordering needed materials, scheduling speakers, reserving space, or handling other administrative details.
  • Counsel individuals regarding interpersonal, health, financial, or religious problems.
  • Confer with clergy members, congregational officials, or congregational organizations to encourage support of or participation in religious education activities.
  • Schedule special events, such as camps, conferences, meetings, seminars, or retreats.
  • Analyze member participation or changes in congregational emphasis to determine needs for religious education.
  • Attend workshops, seminars, or conferences to obtain program ideas, information, or resources.
  • Locate and distribute resources, such as periodicals or curricula, to enhance the effectiveness of educational programs.
  • Analyze revenue and program cost data to determine budget priorities.
  • Plan or conduct conferences dealing with the interpretation of religious ideas or convictions.
  • Plan fundraising activities for the church.
  • Visit congregational members' homes or arrange for pastoral visits to provide information or resources regarding religious education programs.
  • Interpret religious education activities to the public through speaking, leading discussions, or writing articles for local or national publications.
  • Participate in denominational activities aimed at goals, such as promoting interfaith understanding or providing aid to new or small congregations.
23-1011.00Lawyers
Represent clients in criminal and civil litigation and other legal proceedings, draw up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on legal transactions. May specialize in a single area or may practice broadly in many areas of law.
  • Analyze the probable outcomes of cases, using knowledge of legal precedents.
  • Advise clients concerning business transactions, claim liability, advisability of prosecuting or defending lawsuits, or legal rights and obligations.
  • Select jurors, argue motions, meet with judges, and question witnesses during the course of a trial.
  • Interpret laws, rulings and regulations for individuals and businesses.
  • Present evidence to defend clients or prosecute defendants in criminal or civil litigation.
  • Represent clients in court or before government agencies.
  • Present and summarize cases to judges and juries.
  • Study Constitution, statutes, decisions, regulations, and ordinances of quasi-judicial bodies to determine ramifications for cases.
  • Prepare, draft, and review legal documents, such as wills, deeds, patent applications, mortgages, leases, and contracts.
  • Negotiate settlements of civil disputes.
  • Supervise legal assistants.
  • Examine legal data to determine advisability of defending or prosecuting lawsuit.
  • Evaluate findings and develop strategies and arguments in preparation for presentation of cases.
  • Gather evidence to formulate defense or to initiate legal actions, by such means as interviewing clients and witnesses to ascertain the facts of a case.
  • Prepare legal briefs and opinions, and file appeals in state and federal courts of appeal.
  • Search for and examine public and other legal records to write opinions or establish ownership.
  • Confer with colleagues with specialties in appropriate areas of legal issue to establish and verify bases for legal proceedings.
  • Perform administrative and management functions related to the practice of law.
  • Work in environmental law, representing public interest groups, waste disposal companies, or construction firms in their dealings with state and federal agencies.
  • Probate wills and represent and advise executors and administrators of estates.
  • Act as agent, trustee, guardian, or executor for businesses or individuals.
  • Help develop federal and state programs, draft and interpret laws and legislation, and establish enforcement procedures.
23-1012.00Judicial Law Clerks
Assist judges in court or by conducting research or preparing legal documents.
  • Research laws, court decisions, documents, opinions, briefs, or other information related to cases before the court.
  • Prepare briefs, legal memoranda, or statements of issues involved in cases, including appropriate suggestions or recommendations.
  • Confer with judges concerning legal questions, construction of documents, or granting of orders.
  • Draft or proofread judicial opinions, decisions, or citations.
  • Review complaints, petitions, motions, or pleadings that have been filed to determine issues involved or basis for relief.
  • Keep abreast of changes in the law and inform judges when cases are affected by such changes.
  • Attend court sessions to hear oral arguments or record necessary case information.
  • Verify that all files, complaints, or other papers are available and in the proper order.
  • Review dockets of pending litigation to ensure adequate progress.
  • Respond to questions from judicial officers or court staff on general legal issues.
  • Enter information into computerized court calendar, filing, or case management systems.
  • Communicate with counsel regarding case management or procedural requirements.
  • Participate in conferences or discussions between trial attorneys and judges.
  • Coordinate judges' meeting and appointment schedules.
  • Prepare periodic reports on court proceedings, as required.
  • Maintain judges' law libraries by assembling or updating appropriate documents.
  • Compile court-related statistics.
  • Supervise law students, volunteers, or other personnel assigned to the court.
  • Perform courtroom duties, including calling calendars, administering oaths, and swearing in jury panels and witnesses.
23-1021.00Administrative Law Judges, Adjudicators, and Hearing Officers
Conduct hearings to recommend or make decisions on claims concerning government programs or other government-related matters. Determine liability, sanctions, or penalties, or recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or settlements.
  • Prepare written opinions and decisions.
  • Monitor and direct the activities of trials and hearings to ensure that they are conducted fairly and that courts administer justice while safeguarding the legal rights of all involved parties.
  • Determine existence and amount of liability according to current laws, administrative and judicial precedents, and available evidence.
  • Research and analyze laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions to prepare for hearings and to determine conclusions.
  • Conduct hearings to review and decide claims regarding issues such as social program eligibility, environmental protection, or enforcement of health and safety regulations.
  • Review and evaluate data on documents, such as claim applications, birth or death certificates, or physician or employer records.
  • Recommend the acceptance or rejection of claims or compromise settlements according to laws, regulations, policies, and precedent decisions.
  • Rule on exceptions, motions, and admissibility of evidence.
  • Confer with individuals or organizations involved in cases to obtain relevant information.
  • Issue subpoenas and administer oaths in preparation for formal hearings.
  • Explain to claimants how they can appeal rulings that go against them.
  • Authorize payment of valid claims and determine method of payment.
  • Conduct studies of appeals procedures in field agencies to ensure adherence to legal requirements and to facilitate determination of cases.
23-1022.00Arbitrators, Mediators, and Conciliators
Facilitate negotiation and conflict resolution through dialogue. Resolve conflicts outside of the court system by mutual consent of parties involved.
  • Use mediation techniques to facilitate communication between disputants, to further parties' understanding of different perspectives, and to guide parties toward mutual agreement.
  • Confer with disputants to clarify issues, identify underlying concerns, and develop an understanding of their respective needs and interests.
  • Prepare settlement agreements for disputants to sign.
  • Set up appointments for parties to meet for mediation.
  • Interview claimants, agents, or witnesses to obtain information about disputed issues.
  • Apply relevant laws, regulations, policies, or precedents to reach conclusions.
  • Conduct initial meetings with disputants to outline the arbitration process, settle procedural matters such as fees, or determine details such as witness numbers or time requirements.
  • Evaluate information from documents such as claim applications, birth or death certificates, or physician or employer records.
  • Authorize payment of valid claims.
  • Conduct hearings to obtain information or evidence relative to disposition of claims.
  • Rule on exceptions, motions, or admissibility of evidence.
  • Prepare written opinions or decisions regarding cases.
  • Determine extent of liability according to evidence, laws, or administrative or judicial precedents.
  • Conduct studies of appeals procedures to ensure adherence to legal requirements or to facilitate disposition of cases.
  • Issue subpoenas or administer oaths to prepare for formal hearings.
  • Research laws, regulations, policies, or precedent decisions to prepare for hearings.
  • Recommend acceptance or rejection of compromise settlement offers.
  • Organize or deliver public presentations about mediation to organizations such as community agencies or schools.
  • Specialize in the negotiation and resolution of environmental conflicts involving issues such as natural resource allocation or regional development planning.
  • Participate in court proceedings.
23-1023.00Judges, Magistrate Judges, and Magistrates
Arbitrate, advise, adjudicate, or administer justice in a court of law. May sentence defendant in criminal cases according to government statutes or sentencing guidelines. May determine liability of defendant in civil cases. May perform wedding ceremonies.
  • Read documents on pleadings and motions to ascertain facts and issues.
  • Rule on admissibility of evidence and methods of conducting testimony.
  • Instruct juries on applicable laws, direct juries to deduce the facts from the evidence presented, and hear their verdicts.
  • Award compensation for damages to litigants in civil cases in relation to findings by juries or by the court.
  • Monitor proceedings to ensure that all applicable rules and procedures are followed.
  • Preside over hearings and listen to allegations made by plaintiffs to determine whether the evidence supports the charges.
  • Research legal issues and write opinions on the issues.
  • Write decisions on cases.
  • Advise attorneys, juries, litigants, and court personnel regarding conduct, issues, and proceedings.
  • Interpret and enforce rules of procedure or establish new rules in situations where there are no procedures already established by law.
  • Settle disputes between opposing attorneys.
  • Impose restrictions upon parties in civil cases until trials can be held.
  • Provide information regarding the judicial system or other legal issues through the media and public speeches.
  • Rule on custody and access disputes, and enforce court orders regarding custody and support of children.
  • Sentence defendants in criminal cases, on conviction by jury, according to applicable government statutes.
  • Grant divorces and divide assets between spouses.
  • Participate in judicial tribunals to help resolve disputes.
  • Conduct preliminary hearings to decide issues such as whether there is reasonable and probable cause to hold defendants in felony cases.
  • Supervise other judges, court officers, and the court's administrative staff.
  • Perform wedding ceremonies.
23-2011.00Paralegals and Legal Assistants
Assist lawyers by investigating facts, preparing legal documents, or researching legal precedent. Conduct research to support a legal proceeding, to formulate a defense, or to initiate legal action.
  • Prepare affidavits or other documents, such as legal correspondence, and organize and maintain documents in paper or electronic filing system.
  • Prepare legal documents, including briefs, pleadings, appeals, wills, contracts, and real estate closing statements.
  • Prepare for trial by performing tasks such as organizing exhibits.
  • Investigate facts and law of cases and search pertinent sources, such as public records and internet sources, to determine causes of action and to prepare cases.
  • Meet with clients and other professionals to discuss details of case.
  • File pleadings with court clerk.
  • Gather and analyze research data, such as statutes, decisions, and legal articles, codes, and documents.
  • Direct and coordinate law office activity, including delivery of subpoenas.
  • Call upon witnesses to testify at hearing.
  • Arbitrate disputes between parties and assist in the real estate closing process, such as by reviewing title searches.
  • Keep and monitor legal volumes to ensure that law library is up-to-date.
  • Appraise and inventory real and personal property for estate planning.
23-2093.00Title Examiners, Abstractors, and Searchers
Search real estate records, examine titles, or summarize pertinent legal or insurance documents or details for a variety of purposes. May compile lists of mortgages, contracts, and other instruments pertaining to titles by searching public and private records for law firms, real estate agencies, or title insurance companies.
  • Examine documentation such as mortgages, liens, judgments, easements, plat books, maps, contracts, and agreements to verify factors such as properties' legal descriptions, ownership, or restrictions.
  • Examine individual titles to determine if restrictions, such as delinquent taxes, will affect titles and limit property use.
  • Prepare reports describing any title encumbrances encountered during searching activities, and outlining actions needed to clear titles.
  • Copy or summarize recorded documents, such as mortgages, trust deeds, and contracts, that affect property titles.
  • Verify accuracy and completeness of land-related documents accepted for registration, preparing rejection notices when documents are not acceptable.
  • Prepare lists of all legal instruments applying to a specific piece of land and the buildings on it.
  • Read search requests to ascertain types of title evidence required and to obtain descriptions of properties and names of involved parties.
  • Obtain maps or drawings delineating properties from company title plants, county surveyors, or assessors' offices.
  • Confer with realtors, lending institution personnel, buyers, sellers, contractors, surveyors, and courthouse personnel to exchange title-related information or to resolve problems.
  • Enter into record-keeping systems appropriate data needed to create new title records or update existing ones.
  • Retrieve and examine real estate closing files for accuracy and to ensure that information included is recorded and executed according to regulations.
  • Prepare real estate closing statements, using knowledge and expertise in real estate procedures.
  • Prepare and issue title commitments and title insurance policies based on information compiled from title searches.
  • Direct activities of workers who search records and examine titles, assigning, scheduling, and evaluating work, and providing technical guidance as necessary.
  • Determine whether land-related documents can be registered under the relevant legislation such as the Land Titles Act.
  • Assess fees related to registration of property-related documents.
  • Summarize pertinent legal or insurance details, or sections of statutes or case law from reference books so that they can be used in examinations, or as proofs or ready reference.
25-1011.00Business Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in business administration and management, such as accounting, finance, human resources, labor and industrial relations, marketing, and operations research. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as financial accounting, principles of marketing, and operations management.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional organizations and conferences.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and career issues.
  • Develop and maintain course Web sites.
  • Collaborate with members of the business community to improve programs, to develop new programs, and to provide student access to learning opportunities, such as internships.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Mentor new faculty.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
25-1021.00Computer Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in computer science. May specialize in a field of computer science, such as the design and function of computers or operations and research analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as programming, data structures, and software design.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Develop and maintain Web sites for online courses.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Direct research of other teachers or of graduate students working for advanced academic degrees.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Maintain computer equipment used in instruction.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
25-1022.00Mathematical Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to mathematical concepts, statistics, and actuarial science and to the application of original and standardized mathematical techniques in solving specific problems and situations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as linear algebra, differential equations, and discrete mathematics.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Keep abreast of developments and technological advances in the mathematical field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in books, professional journals, or electronic media.
  • Develop department and course schedules.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Conduct faculty performance evaluations.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
25-1031.00Architecture Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in architecture and architectural design, such as architectural environmental design, interior architecture/design, and landscape architecture. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as architectural design methods, aesthetics and design, and structures and materials.
  • Evaluate and grade students' work, including work performed in design studios.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
25-1032.00Engineering Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to the application of physical laws and principles of engineering for the development of machines, materials, instruments, processes, and services. Includes teachers of subjects such as chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mineral, and petroleum engineering. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as mechanics, hydraulics, and robotics.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate class discussions.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Review manuscripts for professional journals.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
25-1041.00Agricultural Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in the agricultural sciences. Includes teachers of agronomy, dairy sciences, fisheries management, horticultural sciences, poultry sciences, range management, and agricultural soil conservation. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Supervise laboratory sessions and field work and coordinate laboratory operations.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as crop production, plant genetics, and soil chemistry.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
25-1042.00Biological Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in biological sciences. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as molecular biology, marine biology, and botany.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Prepare materials for laboratory activities and course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Assist students who need extra help with their coursework outside of class.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Provide students course-related experiences, such as field trips, outside the classroom.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Review papers for publication in journals.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Maintain or repair lab equipment.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events, such as giving presentations to the public.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1043.00Forestry and Conservation Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in forestry and conservation science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in books, professional journals, or electronic media.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as forest resource policy, forest pathology, and mapping.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Supervise students' laboratory or field work.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Review papers for colleagues and scientific journals.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Provide information to the public by leading workshops and training programs and by developing educational materials.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
25-1051.00Atmospheric, Earth, Marine, and Space Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in the physical sciences, except chemistry and physics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as structural geology, micrometeorology, and atmospheric thermodynamics.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Supervise laboratory work and field work.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Purchase and maintain equipment to support research projects.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Answer questions from the public and media.
  • Review papers or serve on editorial boards for scientific journals, and review grant proposals for federal agencies.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1052.00Chemistry Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to the chemical and physical properties and compositional changes of substances. Work may include providing instruction in the methods of qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching, and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as organic chemistry, analytical chemistry, and chemical separation.
  • Establish, teach, and monitor students' compliance with safety rules for handling chemicals, equipment, and other hazardous materials.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory performance, assignments, and papers.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Select, order, and maintain materials and supplies for teaching and research, such as textbooks, chemicals, and laboratory equipment.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Prepare and submit required reports related to instruction.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Clean laboratory facilities.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Serve on committees or in professional societies.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as a department head.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1053.00Environmental Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in environmental science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Supervise students' laboratory and field work.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as hazardous waste management, industrial safety, and environmental toxicology.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Review papers or serve on editorial boards for scientific journals, and review grant proposals for various agencies.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1054.00Physics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to the laws of matter and energy. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as quantum mechanics, particle physics, and optics.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Maintain and repair laboratory equipment.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1061.00Anthropology and Archeology Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in anthropology or archeology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and present findings in professional journals, books, electronic media, or at professional conferences.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as research methods, urban anthropology, and language and culture.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula, career issues, and laboratory and field research.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, and course materials and methods of instruction.
  • Supervise students' laboratory or field work.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding and review others' grant proposals.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Review manuscripts for publication in books and professional journals.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Conduct ethnographic field research.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
25-1062.00Area, Ethnic, and Cultural Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to the culture and development of an area, an ethnic group, or any other group, such as Latin American studies, women's studies, or urban affairs. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as race and ethnic relations, gender studies, and cross-cultural perspectives.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula, and on career issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Participate in campus and community events, such as giving public lectures about research.
  • Incorporate experiential or site visit components into courses.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1063.00Economics Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in economics. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as econometrics, price theory, and macroeconomics.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
25-1064.00Geography Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in geography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as urbanization, environmental systems, and cultural geography.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Supervise students' laboratory and field work.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Perform spatial analysis and modeling using geographic information system techniques.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Maintain geographic information systems laboratories, performing duties such as updating software.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
25-1065.00Political Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in political science, international affairs, and international relations. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as classical political thought, international relations, and democracy and citizenship.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1066.00Psychology Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in psychology, such as child, clinical, and developmental psychology, and psychological counseling. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as abnormal psychology, cognitive processes, and work motivation.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, assignments, and papers.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Recruit and hire new faculty.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Develop and use multimedia course materials and other current technology, such as online courses.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Supervise students' laboratory work.
  • Supervise the clinical work of practicum students.
  • Provide clinical services to clients, such as assessing psychological problems and conducting psychotherapy.
  • Review books and journal articles for potential publication.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1067.00Sociology Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in sociology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as race and ethnic relations, measurement and data collection, and workplace social relations.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Supervise students' laboratory and field work.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Mentor new faculty.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1071.00Health Specialties Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in health specialties, in fields such as dentistry, laboratory technology, medicine, pharmacy, public health, therapy, and veterinary medicine.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Supervise laboratory sessions.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as public health, stress management, and work site health promotion.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1072.00Nursing Instructors and Teachers, Postsecondary
Demonstrate and teach patient care in classroom and clinical units to nursing students. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory and clinic work, assignments, and papers.
  • Supervise students' laboratory and clinical work.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Assess clinical education needs and patient and client teaching needs using a variety of methods.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as pharmacology, mental health nursing, and community health care practices.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Demonstrate patient care in clinical units of hospitals.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Mentor junior and adjunct faculty members.
  • Coordinate training programs with area universities, clinics, hospitals, health agencies, or vocational schools.
  • Maintain a clinical practice.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Conduct faculty performance evaluations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1081.00Education Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to education, such as counseling, curriculum, guidance, instruction, teacher education, and teaching English as a second language. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Supervise students' fieldwork, internship, and research work.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as children's literature, learning and development, and reading instruction.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Serve as a liaison between the university and other governmental and educational agencies.
  • Advise and instruct teachers employed in school systems by providing activities, such as in-service seminars.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1082.00Library Science Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in library science. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and present findings in professional journals, books, electronic media, or at professional conferences.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, giving presentations at conferences, and serving on committees in professional associations.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as collection development, archival methods, and indexing and abstracting.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Develop and teach online courses.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Edit manuscripts for professional journals.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Select and invite guest speakers to speak to classes.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1111.00Criminal Justice and Law Enforcement Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in criminal justice, corrections, and law enforcement administration. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as criminal law, defensive policing, and investigation techniques.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1112.00Law Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in law. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, papers, and oral presentations.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as civil procedure, contracts, and torts.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Assign cases for students to hear and try.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1113.00Social Work Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in social work. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, or handouts.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as family behavior, child and adolescent mental health, or social intervention evaluation.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Collaborate with colleagues and community agencies to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks or laboratory equipment.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Supervise students' laboratory and field work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
25-1121.00Art, Drama, and Music Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in drama, music, and the arts including fine and applied art, such as painting and sculpture, or design and crafts. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Explain and demonstrate artistic techniques.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, performances, projects, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare students for performances, exams, or assessments.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as acting techniques, fundamentals of music, and art history.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks and performance pieces.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Display students' work in schools, galleries, and exhibitions.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Keep students informed of community events, such as plays and concerts.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Organize performance groups and direct their rehearsals.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Maintain or repair studio facilities.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1122.00Communications Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in communications, such as organizational communications, public relations, radio/television broadcasting, and journalism. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as public speaking, media criticism, and oral traditions.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Keep abreast of developments and technological advances in the communication field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Direct theatre productions and projects.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1123.00English Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in English language and literature, including linguistics and comparative literature. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Teach writing or communication classes.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as poetry, novel structure, and translation and adaptation.
  • Assist students who need extra help with their coursework outside of class.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Teach classes using online technology.
  • Schedule courses.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in cultural and literary activities, such as traveling abroad and attending performing arts events.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Recruit, train, and supervise department personnel, such as faculty and student writing instructors.
  • Provide assistance to students in college writing centers.
  • Conduct staff performance evaluations.
  • Write original literary pieces.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Review manuscripts for publication in professional journals.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1124.00Foreign Language and Literature Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach languages and literature courses in languages other than English. Includes teachers of American Sign Language (ASL). Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as how to speak and write a foreign language and the cultural aspects of areas where a particular language is used.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in scholarly journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Keep abreast of developments in their field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional organizations and activities.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Write letters of recommendation for students.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Organize and direct study abroad programs.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Develop and maintain Web pages for teaching-related purposes.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1125.00History Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in human history and historiography. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as ancient history, postwar civilizations, and the history of third-world countries.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Review books and journal articles for potential publication.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Develop, maintain, and teach online courses.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Teach community courses and speak to local groups and organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government, educational institutions, or industry.
25-1126.00Philosophy and Religion Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in philosophy, religion, and theology. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students and the community on topics such as ethics, logic, and contemporary religious thought.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Write articles and books.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1192.00Family and Consumer Sciences Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses in childcare, family relations, finance, nutrition, and related subjects pertaining to home management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, laboratory work, projects, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as food science, nutrition, and child care.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Conduct faculty performance evaluations.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department head.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
25-1193.00Recreation and Fitness Studies Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach courses pertaining to recreation, leisure, and fitness studies, including exercise physiology and facilities management. Includes both teachers primarily engaged in teaching and those who do a combination of teaching and research.
  • Initiate, facilitate, and moderate classroom discussions.
  • Prepare course materials, such as syllabi, homework assignments, and handouts.
  • Maintain student attendance records, grades, and other required records.
  • Evaluate and grade students' class work, assignments, and papers.
  • Prepare and deliver lectures to undergraduate or graduate students on topics such as anatomy, therapeutic recreation, and conditioning theory.
  • Plan, evaluate, and revise curricula, course content, course materials, and methods of instruction.
  • Keep abreast of developments in the field by reading current literature, talking with colleagues, and participating in professional conferences.
  • Compile, administer, and grade examinations, or assign this work to others.
  • Advise students on academic and vocational curricula and on career issues.
  • Supervise undergraduate or graduate teaching, internship, and research work.
  • Maintain regularly scheduled office hours to advise and assist students.
  • Conduct research in a particular field of knowledge and publish findings in professional journals, books, or electronic media.
  • Serve on academic or administrative committees that deal with institutional policies, departmental matters, and academic issues.
  • Participate in student recruitment, registration, and placement activities.
  • Collaborate with colleagues to address teaching and research issues.
  • Select and obtain materials and supplies, such as textbooks.
  • Write grant proposals to procure external research funding.
  • Compile bibliographies of specialized materials for outside reading assignments.
  • Participate in campus and community events.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as serving as department heads.
  • Prepare students to act as sports coaches.
  • Act as advisers to student organizations.
  • Provide professional consulting services to government or industry.
  • Coach athletic teams.
25-1194.00Career/Technical Education Teachers, Postsecondary
Teach vocational courses intended to provide occupational training below the baccalaureate level in subjects such as construction, mechanics/repair, manufacturing, transportation, or cosmetology, primarily to students who have graduated from or left high school. Teaching takes place in public or private schools whose primary business is academic or vocational education.
  • Observe and evaluate students' work to determine progress, provide feedback, and make suggestions for improvement.
  • Present lectures and conduct discussions to increase students' knowledge and competence using visual aids, such as graphs, charts, videotapes, and slides.
  • Supervise and monitor students' use of tools and equipment.
  • Administer oral, written, or performance tests to measure progress and to evaluate training effectiveness.
  • Provide individualized instruction and tutorial or remedial instruction.
  • Prepare reports and maintain records, such as student grades, attendance rolls, and training activity details.
  • Develop curricula and plan course content and methods of instruction.
  • Determine training needs of students or workers.
  • Supervise independent or group projects, field placements, laboratory work, or other training.
  • Integrate academic and vocational curricula so that students can obtain a variety of skills.
  • Select and assemble books, materials, supplies, and equipment for training, courses, or projects.
  • Conduct on-the-job training classes or training sessions to teach and demonstrate principles, techniques, procedures, or methods of designated subjects.
  • Acquire, maintain, and repair laboratory equipment and tools.
  • Prepare outlines of instructional programs and training schedules and establish course goals.
  • Advise students on course selection, career decisions, and other academic and vocational concerns.
  • Participate in conferences, seminars, and training sessions to keep abreast of developments in the field, and integrate relevant information into training programs.
  • Develop teaching aids, such as instructional software, multimedia visual aids, or study materials.
  • Serve on faculty and school committees concerned with budgeting, curriculum revision, and course and diploma requirements.
  • Arrange for lectures by experts in designated fields.
  • Review enrollment applications and correspond with applicants to obtain additional information.
25-2011.00Preschool Teachers, Except Special Education
Instruct preschool-aged students, following curricula or lesson plans, in activities designed to promote social, physical, and intellectual growth.
  • Teach basic skills, such as color, shape, number and letter recognition, personal hygiene, and social skills.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Provide a variety of materials and resources for children to explore, manipulate, and use, both in learning activities and in imaginative play.
  • Serve meals and snacks in accordance with nutritional guidelines.
  • Attend to children's basic needs by feeding them, dressing them, and changing their diapers.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and needs, determine their priorities for their children, and suggest ways that they can promote learning and development.
  • Organize and lead activities designed to promote physical, mental, and social development, such as games, arts and crafts, music, storytelling, and field trips.
  • Identify children showing signs of emotional, developmental, or health-related problems and discuss them with supervisors, parents or guardians, and child development specialists.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Assimilate arriving children to the school environment by greeting them, helping them remove outerwear, and selecting activities of interest to them.
  • Observe and evaluate children's performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Read books to entire classes or to small groups.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to children.
  • Arrange indoor and outdoor space to facilitate creative play, motor-skill activities, and safety.
  • Teach proper eating habits and personal hygiene.
  • Demonstrate activities to children.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Enforce all administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their ages and perceptual skills.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of preschool programs.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guests, or other experiential activities and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Supervise, evaluate, and plan assignments for teacher assistants and volunteers.
  • Administer tests to help determine children's developmental levels, needs, and potential.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees as required.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as hall and cafeteria monitoring and bus loading and unloading.
25-2012.00Kindergarten Teachers, Except Special Education
Teach academic and social skills to kindergarten students.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and policies and procedures to maintain order among students.
  • Prepare children for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, adapting teaching methods to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Teach basic skills, such as color, shape, number and letter recognition, personal hygiene, and social skills.
  • Demonstrate activities to children.
  • Read books to entire classes or to small groups.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems or special academic interests.
  • Observe and evaluate children's performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Provide a variety of materials and resources for children to explore, manipulate, and use, both in learning activities and in imaginative play.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Identify children showing signs of emotional, developmental, or health-related problems and discuss them with supervisors, parents or guardians, and child development specialists.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records and prepare reports on children and activities as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to children.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Organize and lead activities designed to promote physical, mental, and social development, such as games, arts and crafts, music, and storytelling.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine their priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Assimilate arriving children to the school environment by greeting them, helping them remove outerwear, and selecting activities of interest to them.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of kindergarten programs.
  • Prepare materials, classrooms, and other indoor and outdoor spaces to facilitate creative play, learning and motor-skill activities, and safety.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate children's progress.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Organize and label materials and display children's work in a manner appropriate for their sizes and perceptual skills.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guests, or other experiential activities and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Supervise, evaluate, and plan assignments for teacher assistants and volunteers.
  • Involve parent volunteers and older students in children's activities to facilitate involvement in focused, complex play.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine children's developmental levels and needs.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees as required.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
25-2021.00Elementary School Teachers, Except Special Education
Teach academic and social skills to students at the elementary school level.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among the students for whom they are responsible.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, using various teaching methods, such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Prepare students for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Provide a variety of materials and resources for children to explore, manipulate, and use, both in learning activities and in imaginative play.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Enforce administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Read books to entire classes or small groups.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Organize and lead activities designed to promote physical, mental, and social development, such as games, arts and crafts, music, and storytelling.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of elementary school programs.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work.
  • Supervise, evaluate, and plan assignments for teacher assistants and volunteers.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine student strengths and areas of need.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Involve parent volunteers and older students in children's activities to facilitate involvement in focused, complex play.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
25-2022.00Middle School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education
Teach one or more subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level.
  • Prepare students for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects, and communicate these objectives to students.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Maintain accurate, complete, and correct student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Instruct through lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Enforce all administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Assign lessons and correct homework.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of middle school programs.
  • Assist students who need extra help, such as by tutoring and preparing and implementing remedial programs.
  • Meet or correspond with parents or guardians to discuss children's progress and to determine priorities and resource needs.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injury and damage.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine student strengths and areas of need.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on staff committees, as required.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from such activities.
  • Coordinate and supervise extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
  • Organize and supervise games and other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, and social development.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Supervise, evaluate, and plan assignments for teacher assistants and volunteers.
25-2023.00Career/Technical Education Teachers, Middle School
Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the middle, intermediate, or junior high school level.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, using various teaching methods, such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Prepare students for later educational experiences by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Enforce all administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustments or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Select, store, order, issue, inventory, and maintain classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of middle school programs.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
25-2031.00Secondary School Teachers, Except Special and Career/Technical Education
Teach one or more subjects to students at the secondary school level.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Instruct through lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Prepare students for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Enforce all administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of secondary school programs.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers, or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine students' strengths and areas of need.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities such as restrooms.
25-2032.00Career/Technical Education Teachers, Secondary School
Teach occupational, vocational, career, or technical subjects to students at the secondary school level.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, using various teaching methods, such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by law, district policy, and administrative regulations.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injury and damage.
  • Prepare materials and classroom for class activities.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Instruct students in the knowledge and skills required in a specific occupation or occupational field, using a systematic plan of lectures, discussions, audio-visual presentations, and laboratory, shop, and field studies.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Enforce all administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Prepare students for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Plan and supervise work-experience programs in businesses, industrial shops, and school laboratories.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Place students in jobs or make referrals to job placement services.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of secondary school programs.
  • Select, order, store, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Keep informed about trends in education and subject matter specialties.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
25-2051.00Special Education Teachers, Preschool
Teach academic, social, and life skills to preschool-aged students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities.
  • Employ special educational strategies or techniques during instruction to improve the development of sensory- and perceptual-motor skills, language, cognition, or memory.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification or positive reinforcement.
  • Communicate nonverbally with children to provide them with comfort, encouragement, or positive reinforcement.
  • Teach basic skills, such as color, shape, number and letter recognition, personal hygiene, or social skills, to preschool students with special needs.
  • Develop individual educational plans (IEPs) designed to promote students' educational, physical, or social development.
  • Confer with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, or other professionals to develop individual education plans (IEPs).
  • Teach students personal development skills, such as goal setting, independence, or self-advocacy.
  • Develop or implement strategies to meet the needs of students with a variety of disabilities.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment or materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Administer tests to help determine children's developmental levels, needs, or potential.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Attend to children's basic needs by feeding them, dressing them, or changing their diapers.
  • Prepare classrooms with a variety of materials or resources for children to explore, manipulate, or use in learning activities or imaginative play.
  • Monitor teachers or teacher assistants to ensure adherence to special education program requirements.
  • Encourage students to explore learning opportunities or persevere with challenging tasks to prepare them for later grades.
  • Meet with parents or guardians to discuss their children's progress, advise them on using community resources, or teach skills for dealing with students' impairments.
  • Confer with parents, guardians, teachers, counselors, or administrators to resolve students' behavioral or academic problems.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, or administrative regulations.
  • Establish and communicate clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects to students, parents, or guardians.
  • Modify the general preschool curriculum for special-needs students.
  • Provide assistive devices, supportive technology, or assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Organize and supervise games or other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, or social development.
  • Prepare objectives, outlines, or other materials for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, or teacher training workshops to maintain or improve professional competence.
  • Read books to entire classes or to small groups.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Arrange indoor or outdoor space to facilitate creative play, motor-skill activities, or safety.
  • Organize and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their perceptual skills.
  • Present information in audio-visual or interactive formats, using computers, television, audio-visual aids, or other equipment, materials, or technologies.
  • Collaborate with other teachers or administrators to develop, evaluate, or revise preschool programs.
  • Plan and supervise experiential learning activities, such as class projects, field trips, or demonstrations.
  • Prepare assignments for teacher assistants or volunteers.
  • Control the inventory or distribution of classroom equipment, materials, or supplies.
  • Coordinate placement of students with special needs into mainstream classes.
  • Serve meals or snacks in accordance with nutritional guidelines.
25-2055.00Special Education Teachers, Kindergarten
Teach academic, social, and life skills to kindergarten students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests to kindergarten students with special needs.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, or teacher training workshops to maintain or improve professional competence.
  • Collaborate with other teachers or administrators to develop, evaluate, or revise kindergarten programs.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan, schedule, or conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Confer with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, or other professionals to develop individual educational plans (IEPs) designed to promote students' educational, physical, or social development.
  • Confer with parents, guardians, teachers, counselors, or administrators to resolve students' behavioral or academic problems.
  • Control the inventory or distribution of classroom equipment, materials, or supplies.
  • Develop or implement strategies to meet the needs of students with a variety of disabilities.
  • Employ special educational strategies or techniques during instruction to improve the development of sensory- and perceptual-motor skills, language, cognition, or memory.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment or materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Instruct special needs students in academic subjects, using a variety of techniques, such as phonetics, multisensory learning, or repetition to reinforce learning and meet students' varying needs.
  • Interpret or transcribe classroom materials into Braille or sign language.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, or administrative regulations.
  • Meet with parents or guardians to discuss their children's progress, advise them on using community resources, or teach skills for dealing with students' impairments.
  • Modify the general kindergarten education curriculum for special-needs students.
  • Monitor teachers or teacher assistants to ensure adherence to special education program requirements.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Organize and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their perceptual skills.
  • Organize and supervise games or other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, or social development.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall or cafeteria monitoring, or bus loading or unloading.
  • Plan or supervise experiential learning activities, such as class projects, field trips, demonstrations, or visits by guest speakers.
  • Prepare assignments for teacher assistants or volunteers.
  • Prepare classrooms with a variety of materials or resources for children to explore, manipulate, or use in learning activities or imaginative play.
  • Prepare objectives, outlines, or other materials for courses of study following curriculum guidelines or school or state requirements.
  • Prepare, administer, or grade assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Present information in audio-visual or interactive formats, using computers, televisions, audio-visual aids, or other equipment, materials, or technologies.
  • Provide assistive devices, supportive technology, or assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification or positive reinforcement.
  • Visit schools to tutor students with sensory impairments or to consult with teachers regarding students' special needs.
25-2056.00Special Education Teachers, Elementary School
Teach academic, social, and life skills to elementary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests to elementary students with special needs.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, or teacher training workshops to maintain or improve professional competence.
  • Collaborate with other teachers or administrators to develop, evaluate, or revise elementary school programs.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan or schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Confer with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, or other professionals to develop individual educational plans (IEPs) designed to promote students' educational, physical, or social development.
  • Coordinate placement of students with special needs into mainstream classes.
  • Develop or implement strategies to meet the needs of students with a variety of disabilities.
  • Encourage students to explore learning opportunities or persevere with challenging tasks to prepare them for later grades.
  • Establish and communicate clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects to students.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among students.
  • Guide or counsel students with adjustment problems, academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment or materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Instruct special needs students in academic subjects, using a variety of techniques, such as phonetics, multisensory learning, or repetition to reinforce learning and meet students' varying needs.
  • Instruct students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, or food preparation.
  • Interpret the results of standardized tests to determine students' strengths and areas of need.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws, district policies, or administrative regulations.
  • Meet with parents or guardians to discuss their children's progress, advise them on using community resources, or teach skills for dealing with students' impairments.
  • Modify the general elementary education curriculum for special-needs students.
  • Monitor teachers or teacher assistants to ensure adherence to special education program requirements.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Organize and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their perceptual skills.
  • Organize and supervise games or other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, or social development.
  • Plan or conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Plan or supervise experiential learning activities, such as class projects, field trips, demonstrations, or visits by guest speakers.
  • Prepare classrooms with a variety of materials or resources for children to explore, manipulate, or use in learning activities or imaginative play.
  • Prepare objectives, outlines, or other materials for courses of study following curriculum guidelines or school or state requirements.
  • Prepare, administer, or grade tests or assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Provide assistive devices, supportive technology, or assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification or positive reinforcement.
  • Teach students personal development skills, such as goal setting, independence, or self-advocacy.
25-2057.00Special Education Teachers, Middle School
Teach academic, social, and life skills to middle school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and policies and procedures to maintain order among students.
  • Modify the general education curriculum for special-needs students based upon a variety of instructional techniques and instructional technology.
  • Develop or write Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records, and prepare reports on children and activities, as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Develop and implement strategies to meet the needs of students with a variety of handicapping conditions.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification and positive reinforcement.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Confer with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and professionals to develop individual educational plans designed to promote students' educational, physical, and social development.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Employ special educational strategies and techniques during instruction to improve the development of sensory- and perceptual-motor skills, language, cognition, and memory.
  • Collaborate with other teachers that provide instruction to special education students to ensure that the students receive appropriate support.
  • Teach students personal development skills, such as goal setting, independence, and self-advocacy.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Monitor teachers and teacher assistants to ensure that they adhere to inclusive special education program requirements.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Coordinate placement of students with special needs into mainstream classes.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Instruct through lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Instruct students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Provide assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to provide guidance in using community resources and to teach skills for dealing with students' impairments.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine students' strengths and areas of need.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers, or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Organize and supervise games and other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, and social development.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Supervise, evaluate, and plan assignments for teacher assistants and volunteers.
  • Provide additional instruction in vocational areas.
  • Visit schools to tutor students with sensory impairments and to consult with teachers regarding students' special needs.
25-2058.00Special Education Teachers, Secondary School
Teach academic, social, and life skills to secondary school students with learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Includes teachers who specialize and work with students who are blind or have visual impairments; students who are deaf or have hearing impairments; and students with intellectual disabilities.
  • Develop and implement strategies to meet the needs of students with a variety of handicapping conditions.
  • Observe and evaluate students' performance, behavior, social development, and physical health.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and policies and procedures to maintain order among students.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification and positive reinforcement.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records, and prepare reports on children and activities, as required by laws, district policies, and administrative regulations.
  • Instruct through lectures, discussions, and demonstrations in one or more subjects, such as English, mathematics, or social studies.
  • Employ special educational strategies and techniques during instruction to improve the development of sensory- and perceptual-motor skills, language, cognition, and memory.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine priorities for their children and their resource needs.
  • Modify the general education curriculum for special-needs students, based upon a variety of instructional techniques and technologies.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Coordinate placement of students with special needs into mainstream classes.
  • Teach personal development skills, such as goal setting, independence, and self-advocacy.
  • Confer with parents or guardians, other teachers, counselors, and administrators to resolve students' behavioral and academic problems.
  • Confer with parents, administrators, testing specialists, social workers, and professionals to develop individual educational plans designed to promote students' educational, physical, and social development.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Monitor teachers and teacher assistants to ensure that they adhere to inclusive special education program requirements.
  • Prepare students for later grades by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems, or special academic interests.
  • Prepare, administer, and grade tests and assignments to evaluate students' progress.
  • Administer standardized ability and achievement tests and interpret results to determine students' strengths and areas of need.
  • Instruct students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, and food preparation.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning, following approved curricula.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Provide additional instruction in vocational areas.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and administrators in the development, evaluation, and revision of secondary school programs.
  • Provide assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to provide guidance in using community resources and to teach skills for dealing with students' impairments.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, and teacher training workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers, or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Perform administrative duties, such as assisting in school libraries, hall and cafeteria monitoring, and bus loading and unloading.
  • Sponsor extracurricular activities, such as clubs, student organizations, and academic contests.
  • Select, store, order, issue, and inventory classroom equipment, materials, and supplies.
  • Provide interpretation and transcription of regular classroom materials through Braille and sign language.
  • Visit schools to tutor students with sensory impairments and to consult with teachers regarding students' special needs.
25-2059.01Adapted Physical Education Specialists
Provide individualized physical education instruction or services to children, youth, or adults with exceptional physical needs due to gross motor developmental delays or other impairments.
  • Provide adapted physical education services to students with intellectual disabilities, autism, traumatic brain injury, orthopedic impairments, or other disabling condition.
  • Adapt instructional techniques to the age and skill levels of students.
  • Instruct students, using adapted physical education techniques, to improve physical fitness, gross motor skills, perceptual motor skills, or sports and game achievement.
  • Maintain thorough student records to document attendance, participation, or progress, ensuring confidentiality of all records.
  • Assist in screening or placement of students in adapted physical education programs.
  • Provide students positive feedback to encourage them and help them develop an appreciation for physical education.
  • Assess students' physical progress or needs.
  • Prepare lesson plans in accordance with individualized education plans (IEPs) and the functional abilities or needs of students.
  • Establish and maintain standards of behavior to create safe, orderly, and effective environments for learning.
  • Provide individual or small groups of students with adapted physical education instruction that meets desired physical needs or goals.
  • Write or modify individualized education plans (IEPs) for students with intellectual or physical disabilities.
  • Evaluate the motor needs of individual students to determine their need for adapted physical education services.
  • Communicate behavioral observations and student progress reports to students, parents, teachers, or administrators.
  • Write reports to summarize student performance, social growth, or physical development.
  • Advise education professionals of students' physical abilities or disabilities and the accommodations required to enhance their school performance.
  • Attend in-service training, workshops, or meetings to keep abreast of current practices or trends in adapted physical education.
  • Review adapted physical education programs or practices to ensure compliance with government or other regulations.
  • Request or order physical education equipment, following standard procedures.
  • Maintain inventory of instructional equipment, materials, or aids.
25-3011.00Adult Basic Education, Adult Secondary Education, and English as a Second Language Instructors
Teach or instruct out-of-school youths and adults in basic education, literacy, or English as a Second Language classes, or in classes for earning a high school equivalency credential.
  • Observe and evaluate students' work to determine progress and make suggestions for improvement.
  • Observe students to determine qualifications, limitations, abilities, interests, and other individual characteristics.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs, abilities, and interests.
  • Prepare students for further education by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, using various teaching methods, such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by laws or administrative policies.
  • Conduct classes, workshops, and demonstrations to teach principles, techniques, or methods in subjects, such as basic English language skills, life skills, and workforce entry skills.
  • Establish and enforce rules for behavior and procedures for maintaining order among the students for whom they are responsible.
  • Prepare and administer written, oral, and performance tests and issue grades in accordance with performance.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Prepare for assigned classes and show written evidence of preparation upon request of immediate supervisors.
  • Enforce administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Prepare objectives and outlines for courses of study, following curriculum guidelines or requirements of states and schools.
  • Prepare reports on students and activities as required by administration.
  • Review instructional content, methods, and student evaluations to assess strengths and weaknesses, and to develop recommendations for course revision, development, or elimination.
  • Register, orient, and assess new students according to standards and procedures.
  • Collaborate with other teachers and professionals in the development of instructional programs.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Meet with other professionals to discuss individual students' needs and progress.
  • Guide and counsel students with adjustment or academic problems or special academic interests.
  • Select, order, and issue books, materials, and supplies for courses or projects.
  • Attend professional meetings, conferences, and workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Confer with other staff members to plan and schedule lessons that promote learning, following approved curricula.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers, contests, or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Provide information, guidance, and preparation for the General Equivalency Diploma (GED) examination.
  • Select and schedule class times to ensure maximum attendance.
  • Train and assist tutors and community literacy volunteers.
  • Observe and evaluate the performance of other instructors.
  • Confer with leaders of government and community groups to coordinate student training or to find opportunities for students to fulfill curriculum requirements.
  • Participate in publicity planning, community awareness efforts, and student recruitment.
  • Advise students on internships, prospective employers, and job placement services.
  • Write grants to obtain program funding.
  • Write instructional articles on designated subjects.
25-3021.00Self-Enrichment Teachers
Teach or instruct individuals or groups for the primary purpose of self-enrichment or recreation, rather than for an occupational objective, educational attainment, competition, or fitness.
  • Instruct students individually and in groups, using various teaching methods, such as lectures, discussions, and demonstrations.
  • Adapt teaching methods and instructional materials to meet students' varying needs and interests.
  • Prepare students for further development by encouraging them to explore learning opportunities and to persevere with challenging tasks.
  • Observe students to determine qualifications, limitations, abilities, interests, and other individual characteristics.
  • Maintain accurate and complete student records as required by administrative policy.
  • Monitor students' performance to make suggestions for improvement and to ensure that they satisfy course standards, training requirements, and objectives.
  • Prepare and administer written, oral, and performance tests, and issue grades in accordance with performance.
  • Establish clear objectives for all lessons, units, and projects and communicate those objectives to students.
  • Prepare instructional program objectives, outlines, and lesson plans.
  • Confer with other teachers and professionals to plan and schedule lessons promoting learning and development.
  • Prepare materials and classrooms for class activities.
  • Enforce policies and rules governing students.
  • Review instructional content, methods, and student evaluations to assess strengths and weaknesses, and to develop recommendations for course revision, development, or elimination.
  • Meet with other instructors to discuss individual students and their progress.
  • Plan and conduct activities for a balanced program of instruction, demonstration, and work time that provides students with opportunities to observe, question, and investigate.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
  • Attend professional meetings, conferences, and workshops to maintain and improve professional competence.
  • Plan and supervise class projects, field trips, visits by guest speakers, contests, or other experiential activities, and guide students in learning from those activities.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Select, order, and issue books, materials, and supplies for courses or projects.
  • Assign and grade class work and homework.
  • Conduct classes, workshops, and demonstrations, and provide individual instruction to teach topics and skills, such as cooking, dancing, writing, physical fitness, photography, personal finance, and flying.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injury and damage.
  • Meet with parents and guardians to discuss their children's progress and to determine their priorities for their children.
  • Schedule class times to ensure maximum attendance.
  • Prepare and implement remedial programs for students requiring extra help.
  • Observe and evaluate the performance of other instructors.
  • Organize and supervise games and other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, and social development.
  • Participate in publicity planning and student recruitment.
  • Write instructional articles on designated subjects.
25-3031.00Substitute Teachers, Short-Term
Teach students on a short-term basis as a temporary replacement for a regular classroom teacher, typically using the regular teacher's lesson plan.
  • Answer students' questions.
  • Assist students with boarding or exiting school buses.
  • Attend professional meetings, educational conferences, or teacher training workshops to improve professional competence.
  • Counsel students with adjustment or academic problems.
  • Distribute or collect tests or homework assignments.
  • Distribute teaching materials, such as textbooks, workbooks, papers, and pencils to students.
  • Enforce school and class rules to maintain order in the classroom.
  • Follow lesson plans designed by absent teachers.
  • Grade students' assignments and exams.
  • Operate equipment such as computers or audio-visual aids to supplement presentations.
  • Organize and supervise games or other recreational activities.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, or assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Restock teaching materials or supplies.
  • Supervise students during activities outside the classroom, such as recess, lunch, and field trips.
  • Take class attendance and maintain attendance records.
  • Teach a variety of subjects, such as English, mathematics, and social studies.
  • Teach social skills to students, such as communication, conflict resolution, and etiquette.
  • Tutor or assist students individually or in small groups.
25-3041.00Tutors
Instruct individual students or small groups of students in academic subjects to support formal class instruction or to prepare students for standardized or admissions tests.
  • Provide feedback to students using positive reinforcement techniques to encourage, motivate, or build confidence in students.
  • Teach students study skills, note-taking skills, and test-taking strategies.
  • Review class material with students by discussing text, working solutions to problems, or reviewing worksheets or other assignments.
  • Provide private instruction to individual or small groups of students to improve academic performance, improve occupational skills, or prepare for academic or occupational tests.
  • Assess students' progress throughout tutoring sessions.
  • Schedule tutoring appointments with students or their parents.
  • Monitor student performance or assist students in academic environments, such as classrooms, laboratories, or computing centers.
  • Organize tutoring environment to promote productivity and learning.
  • Participate in training and development sessions to improve tutoring practices or learn new tutoring techniques.
  • Develop teaching or training materials, such as handouts, study materials, or quizzes.
  • Maintain records of students' assessment results, progress, feedback, or school performance, ensuring confidentiality of all records.
  • Prepare lesson plans or learning modules for tutoring sessions according to students' needs and goals.
  • Collaborate with students, parents, teachers, school administrators, or counselors to determine student needs, develop tutoring plans, or assess student progress.
  • Prepare and facilitate tutoring workshops, collaborative projects, or academic support sessions for small groups of students.
  • Research or recommend textbooks, software, equipment, or other learning materials to complement tutoring.
  • Communicate students' progress to students, parents or teachers in written progress reports, in person, by phone, or by email.
  • Identify, develop, or implement intervention strategies, tutoring plans, or individualized education plans (IEPs) for students.
  • Travel to students' homes, libraries, or schools to conduct tutoring sessions.
  • Administer, proctor, or score academic or diagnostic assessments.
25-4011.00Archivists
Appraise, edit, and direct safekeeping of permanent records and historically valuable documents. Participate in research activities based on archival materials.
  • Organize archival records and develop classification systems to facilitate access to archival materials.
  • Provide reference services and assistance for users needing archival materials.
  • Prepare archival records, such as document descriptions, to allow easy access to information.
  • Establish and administer policy guidelines concerning public access and use of materials.
  • Research and record the origins and historical significance of archival materials.
  • Create and maintain accessible, retrievable computer archives and databases, incorporating current advances in electronic information storage technology.
  • Preserve records, documents, and objects, copying records to film, videotape, audiotape, disk, or computer formats as necessary.
  • Direct activities of workers who assist in arranging, cataloguing, exhibiting, and maintaining collections of valuable materials.
  • Locate new materials and direct their acquisition and display.
  • Authenticate and appraise historical documents and archival materials.
  • Specialize in an area of history or technology, researching topics or items relevant to collections to determine what should be retained or acquired.
  • Coordinate educational and public outreach programs, such as tours, workshops, lectures, and classes.
  • Select and edit documents for publication and display, applying knowledge of subject, literary expression, and presentation techniques.
25-4012.00Curators
Administer collections, such as artwork, collectibles, historic items, or scientific specimens of museums or other institutions. May conduct instructional, research, or public service activities of institution.
  • Plan and organize the acquisition, storage, and exhibition of collections and related materials, including the selection of exhibition themes and designs, and develop or install exhibit materials.
  • Develop and maintain an institution's registration, cataloging, and basic record-keeping systems, using computer databases.
  • Plan and conduct special research projects in area of interest or expertise.
  • Provide information from the institution's holdings to other curators and to the public.
  • Negotiate and authorize purchase, sale, exchange, or loan of collections.
  • Study, examine, and test acquisitions to authenticate their origin, composition, history, and to assess their current value.
  • Inspect premises to assess the need for repairs and to ensure that climate and pest control issues are addressed.
  • Write and review grant proposals, journal articles, institutional reports, and publicity materials.
  • Design, organize, or conduct tours, workshops, and instructional or educational sessions to acquaint individuals with an institution's facilities and materials.
  • Attend meetings, conventions, and civic events to promote use of institution's services, to seek financing, and to maintain community alliances.
  • Train and supervise curatorial, fiscal, technical, research, and clerical staff, as well as volunteers or interns.
  • Confer with the board of directors to formulate and interpret policies, to determine budget requirements, and to plan overall operations.
  • Arrange insurance coverage for objects on loan or for special exhibits and recommend changes in coverage for the entire collection.
  • Schedule events and organize details, including refreshment, entertainment, decorations, and the collection of any fees.
  • Establish specifications for reproductions and oversee their manufacture or select items from commercially available replica sources.
25-4013.00Museum Technicians and Conservators
Restore, maintain, or prepare objects in museum collections for storage, research, or exhibit. May work with specimens such as fossils, skeletal parts, or botanicals; or artifacts, textiles, or art. May identify and record objects or install and arrange them in exhibits. Includes book or document conservators.
  • Install, arrange, assemble, and prepare artifacts for exhibition, ensuring the artifacts' safety, reporting their status and condition, and identifying and correcting any problems with the set up.
  • Repair, restore, and reassemble artifacts, designing and fabricating missing or broken parts, to restore them to their original appearance and prevent deterioration.
  • Clean objects, such as paper, textiles, wood, metal, glass, rock, pottery, and furniture, using cleansers, solvents, soap solutions, and polishes.
  • Photograph objects for documentation.
  • Determine whether objects need repair and choose the safest and most effective method of repair.
  • Prepare artifacts for storage and shipping.
  • Enter information about museum collections into computer databases.
  • Recommend preservation procedures, such as control of temperature and humidity, to curatorial and building staff.
  • Notify superior when restoration of artifacts requires outside experts.
  • Supervise and work with volunteers.
  • Perform on-site field work which may involve interviewing people, inspecting and identifying artifacts, note-taking, viewing sites and collections, and repainting exhibition spaces.
  • Lead tours and teach educational courses to students and the general public.
  • Classify and assign registration numbers to artifacts and supervise inventory control.
  • Study object documentation or conduct standard chemical and physical tests to ascertain the object's age, composition, original appearance, need for treatment or restoration, and appropriate preservation method.
  • Prepare reports on the operation of conservation laboratories, documenting the condition of artifacts, treatment options, and the methods of preservation and repair used.
  • Specialize in particular materials or types of object, such as documents and books, paintings, decorative arts, textiles, metals, or architectural materials.
  • Perform tests and examinations to establish storage and conservation requirements, policies, and procedures.
  • Direct and supervise curatorial, technical, and student staff in the handling, mounting, care, and storage of art objects.
  • Construct skeletal mounts of fossils, replicas of archaeological artifacts, or duplicate specimens, using a variety of materials and hand tools.
  • Coordinate exhibit installations, assisting with design, constructing displays, dioramas, display cases, and models, and ensuring the availability of necessary materials.
  • Preserve or direct preservation of objects, using plaster, resin, sealants, hardeners, and shellac.
  • Plan and conduct research to develop and improve methods of restoring and preserving specimens.
  • Deliver artwork on courier trips.
  • Build, repair, and install wooden steps, scaffolds, and walkways to gain access to or permit improved view of exhibited equipment.
  • Estimate cost of restoration work.
  • Cut and weld metal sections in reconstruction or renovation of exterior structural sections and accessories of exhibits.
25-4022.00Librarians and Media Collections Specialists
Administer and maintain libraries or collections of information, for public or private access through reference or borrowing. Work in a variety of settings, such as educational institutions, museums, and corporations, and with various types of informational materials, such as books, periodicals, recordings, films, and databases. Tasks may include acquiring, cataloging, and circulating library materials, and user services such as locating and organizing information, providing instruction on how to access information, and setting up and operating a library's media equipment.
  • Check books in and out of the library.
  • Teach library patrons basic computer skills, such as searching computerized databases.
  • Review and evaluate materials, using book reviews, catalogs, faculty recommendations, and current holdings to select and order print, audio-visual, and electronic resources.
  • Keep up-to-date records of circulation and materials, maintain inventory, and correct cataloging errors.
  • Search standard reference materials, including online sources and the Internet, to answer patrons' reference questions.
  • Analyze patrons' requests to determine needed information and assist in furnishing or locating that information.
  • Supervise daily library operations, budgeting, planning, and personnel activities, such as hiring, training, scheduling, and performance evaluations.
  • Plan and teach classes on topics such as information literacy, library instruction, and technology use.
  • Confer with colleagues, faculty, and community members and organizations to conduct informational programs, make collection decisions, and determine library services to offer.
  • Code, classify, and catalog books, publications, films, audio-visual aids, and other library materials based on subject matter or standard library classification systems.
  • Explain use of library facilities, resources, equipment, and services and provide information about library policies.
  • Plan and deliver client-centered programs and services, such as special services for corporate clients, storytelling for children, newsletters, or programs for special groups.
  • Respond to customer complaints, taking action as necessary.
  • Locate unusual or unique information in response to specific requests.
  • Troubleshoot problems with audio-visual equipment.
  • Develop library policies and procedures.
  • Direct and train library staff in duties, such as receiving, shelving, researching, cataloging, and equipment use.
  • Evaluate materials to determine outdated or unused items to be discarded.
  • Develop, maintain, and troubleshoot information access aids, such as databases, annotated bibliographies, web pages, electronic pathfinders, software programs, and online tutorials.
  • Compile lists of books, periodicals, articles, and audio-visual materials on particular subjects.
  • Confer with teachers to select course materials and to determine which training aids are best suited to particular grade levels.
  • Engage in professional development activities, such as taking continuing education classes and attending or participating in conferences, workshops, professional meetings, and associations.
  • Evaluate vendor products and performance, negotiate contracts, and place orders.
  • Arrange for interlibrary loans of materials not available in a particular library.
  • Represent library or institution on internal and external committees.
  • Set up, adjust, and operate audio-visual equipment, such as cameras, film and slide projectors, and recording equipment, for meetings, events, classes, seminars, and video conferences.
  • Assemble and arrange display materials.
  • Maintain inventory of audio-visual equipment.
  • Maintain hardware and software, including computers, media equipment, scanners, color copiers, and color laser printers.
  • Train faculty and media staff on the use of software and audio-visual equipment.
25-4031.00Library Technicians
Assist librarians by helping readers in the use of library catalogs, databases, and indexes to locate books and other materials; and by answering questions that require only brief consultation of standard reference. Compile records; sort and shelve books or other media; remove or repair damaged books or other media; register patrons; and check materials in and out of the circulation process. Replace materials in shelving area (stacks) or files. Includes bookmobile drivers who assist with providing services in mobile libraries.
  • Reserve, circulate, renew, and discharge books and other materials.
  • Answer routine telephone or in-person reference inquiries, referring patrons to librarians for further assistance, when necessary.
  • Help patrons find and use library resources, such as reference materials, audio-visual equipment, computers, and other electronic resources and provide technical assistance when needed.
  • Deliver and retrieve items throughout the library by hand or using pushcart.
  • Process print and non-print library materials to prepare them for inclusion in library collections.
  • Catalogue and sort books and other print and non-print materials according to procedure and return them to shelves, files, or other designated storage areas.
  • Enter and update patrons' records on computers.
  • Provide assistance to teachers and students by locating materials and helping to complete special projects.
  • Compile and maintain records relating to circulation, materials, and equipment.
  • Take actions to halt disruption of library activities by problem patrons.
  • Maintain and troubleshoot problems with library equipment, including computers, photocopiers, and audio-visual equipment.
  • Check for damaged library materials, such as books or audio-visual equipment, and provide replacements or make repairs.
  • Collect fines and respond to complaints about fines.
  • Train other staff, volunteers, or student assistants and schedule and supervise their work.
  • Conduct reference searches, using printed materials and in-house and online databases.
  • Compile data and create statistical reports on library usage.
  • Design posters and special displays to promote use of library facilities or specific reading programs at libraries.
  • Issue identification cards to borrowers.
  • Review subject matter of materials to be classified and select classification numbers and headings according to classification systems.
  • Process interlibrary loans for patrons.
  • Order all print and non-print library materials, checking prices, figuring costs, preparing order slips, and making payments.
  • Send out notices about lost or overdue books.
  • Retrieve information from central databases for storage in a library's computer.
  • Verify bibliographical data for materials, including author, title, publisher, publication date, and edition.
  • Plan and conduct children's programs, community outreach programs, and other specialized programs, such as library tours.
  • Organize and maintain periodicals and reference materials.
  • Claim missing issues of periodicals and journals.
  • Compose explanatory summaries of contents of books and other reference materials.
  • Design, customize, and maintain databases, web pages, and local area networks.
  • Sort and deliver library mail and packages.
  • Collaborate with archivists to arrange for the safe storage of historical records and documents.
  • Operate and maintain audio-visual equipment, such as projectors, tape recorders, and videocassette recorders.
  • Prepare volumes for binding.
  • File catalog cards according to system used.
  • Compile bibliographies and prepare abstracts on subjects of interest to particular organizations or groups.
25-9021.00Farm and Home Management Educators
Instruct and advise individuals and families engaged in agriculture, agricultural-related processes, or home management activities. Demonstrate procedures and apply research findings to advance agricultural and home management activities. May develop educational outreach programs. May instruct on either agricultural issues such as agricultural processes and techniques, pest management, and food safety, or on home management issues such as budgeting, nutrition, and child development.
  • Collect and evaluate data to determine community program needs.
  • Prepare and distribute leaflets, pamphlets, and visual aids for educational and informational purposes.
  • Conduct classes or deliver lectures on subjects such as nutrition, home management, and farming techniques.
  • Research information requested by farmers.
  • Collaborate with producers to diagnose and prevent management and production problems.
  • Advise farmers and demonstrate techniques in areas such as feeding and health maintenance of livestock, growing and harvesting practices, and financial planning.
  • Conduct field demonstrations of new products, techniques, or services.
  • Organize, advise, and participate in community activities and organizations, such as county and state fair events and 4-H Clubs.
  • Act as an advocate for farmers or farmers' groups.
  • Collaborate with social service and health care professionals to advise individuals and families on home management practices, such as budget planning, meal preparation, and time management.
  • Conduct agricultural research, analyze data, and prepare research reports.
  • Schedule and make regular visits to farmers.
  • Maintain records of services provided and the effects of advice given.
  • Provide direct assistance to farmers by performing activities such as purchasing or selling products and supplies, supervising properties, and collecting soil and herbage samples for testing.
  • Set and monitor production targets.
25-9031.00Instructional Coordinators
Develop instructional material, coordinate educational content, and incorporate current technology into instruction in order to provide guidelines to educators and instructors for developing curricula and conducting courses. May train and coach teachers. Includes educational consultants and specialists, and instructional material directors.
  • Observe work of teaching staff to evaluate performance and to recommend changes that could strengthen teaching skills.
  • Plan and conduct teacher training programs and conferences dealing with new classroom procedures, instructional materials and equipment, and teaching aids.
  • Interpret and enforce provisions of state education codes and rules and regulations of state education boards.
  • Conduct or participate in workshops, committees, and conferences designed to promote the intellectual, social, and physical welfare of students.
  • Advise teaching and administrative staff in curriculum development, use of materials and equipment, and implementation of state and federal programs and procedures.
  • Advise and teach students.
  • Recommend, order, or authorize purchase of instructional materials, supplies, equipment, and visual aids designed to meet student educational needs and district standards.
  • Update the content of educational programs to ensure that students are being trained with equipment and processes that are technologically current.
  • Address public audiences to explain program objectives and to elicit support.
  • Research, evaluate, and prepare recommendations on curricula, instructional methods, and materials for school systems.
  • Prepare grant proposals, budgets, and program policies and goals or assist in their preparation.
  • Prepare or approve manuals, guidelines, and reports on state educational policies and practices for distribution to school districts.
  • Coordinate activities of workers engaged in cataloging, distributing, and maintaining educational materials and equipment in curriculum libraries and laboratories.
  • Adapt instructional content or delivery methods for different levels or types of learners.
  • Analyze performance data to determine effectiveness of instructional systems, courses, or instructional materials.
  • Assess effectiveness and efficiency of instruction according to ease of instructional technology use and student learning, knowledge transfer, and satisfaction.
  • Conduct needs assessments and strategic learning assessments to develop the basis for curriculum development or to update curricula.
  • Define instructional, learning, or performance objectives.
  • Design instructional aids for stand-alone or instructor-led classroom or online use.
  • Design learning products, including Web-based aids or electronic performance support systems.
  • Develop instructional materials, such as lesson plans, handouts, or examinations.
  • Develop master course documentation or manuals according to applicable accreditation, certification, or other requirements.
  • Develop measurement tools to evaluate the effectiveness of instruction or training interventions.
  • Edit instructional materials, such as books, simulation exercises, lesson plans, instructor guides, and tests.
  • Interview subject-matter experts or conduct other research to develop instructional content.
  • Present and make recommendations regarding course design, technology, and instruction delivery options.
  • Provide analytical support for the design and development of training curricula, learning strategies, educational policies, or courseware standards.
  • Recommend changes to curricula or delivery methods, based on information such as instructional effectiveness data, current or future performance requirements, feasibility, and costs.
  • Research and evaluate emerging instructional technologies or methods.
  • Teach instructors to use instructional technology or to integrate technology with teaching.
25-9042.00Teaching Assistants, Preschool, Elementary, Middle, and Secondary School, Except Special Education
Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher with instructional duties. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.
  • Assist in bus loading and unloading.
  • Assist librarians in school libraries.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Clean classrooms.
  • Collect money from students for school-related projects.
  • Conduct demonstrations to teach skills, such as sports, dancing, and handicrafts.
  • Discuss assigned duties with classroom teachers to coordinate instructional efforts.
  • Distribute teaching materials, such as textbooks, workbooks, papers, and pencils to students.
  • Distribute tests and homework assignments and collect them when they are completed.
  • Enforce administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Grade homework and tests, and compute and record results, using answer sheets or electronic marking devices.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Laminate teaching materials to increase their durability under repeated use.
  • Maintain computers in classrooms and laboratories and assist students with hardware and software use.
  • Observe students' performance, and record relevant data to assess progress.
  • Operate and maintain audio-visual equipment.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their eye levels and perceptual skills.
  • Organize and supervise games and other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, and social development.
  • Participate in teacher-parent conferences regarding students' progress or problems.
  • Plan, prepare, and develop various teaching aids, such as bibliographies, charts, and graphs.
  • Prepare lesson materials, bulletin board displays, exhibits, equipment, and demonstrations.
  • Prepare lesson outlines and plans in assigned subject areas and submit outlines to teachers for review.
  • Present subject matter to students under the direction and guidance of teachers, using lectures, discussions, supervised role-playing methods, or by reading aloud.
  • Requisition and stock teaching materials and supplies.
  • Supervise students in classrooms, halls, cafeterias, school yards, and gymnasiums, or on field trips.
  • Take class attendance and maintain attendance records.
  • Teach social skills to students.
  • Tutor and assist children individually or in small groups to help them master assignments and to reinforce learning concepts presented by teachers.
  • Type, file, and duplicate materials.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
25-9043.00Teaching Assistants, Special Education
Assist a preschool, elementary, middle, or secondary school teacher to provide academic, social, or life skills to students who have learning, emotional, or physical disabilities. Serve in a position for which a teacher has primary responsibility for the design and implementation of educational programs and services.
  • Assist in bus loading and unloading.
  • Assist librarians in school libraries.
  • Attend staff meetings and serve on committees, as required.
  • Carry out therapeutic regimens, such as behavior modification and personal development programs, under the supervision of special education instructors, psychologists, or speech-language pathologists.
  • Clean classrooms.
  • Discuss assigned duties with classroom teachers to coordinate instructional efforts.
  • Distribute teaching materials, such as textbooks, workbooks, papers, and pencils to students.
  • Employ special educational strategies or techniques during instruction to improve the development of sensory- and perceptual-motor skills, language, cognition, or memory.
  • Enforce administration policies and rules governing students.
  • Grade homework and tests, and compute and record results, using answer sheets or electronic marking devices.
  • Instruct and monitor students in the use and care of equipment and materials to prevent injuries and damage.
  • Instruct students in daily living skills required for independent maintenance and self-sufficiency, such as hygiene, safety, or food preparation.
  • Laminate teaching materials to increase their durability under repeated use.
  • Maintain computers in classrooms and laboratories and assist students with hardware and software use.
  • Observe students' performance, and record relevant data to assess progress.
  • Organize and label materials and display students' work in a manner appropriate for their eye levels and perceptual skills.
  • Organize and supervise games and other recreational activities to promote physical, mental, and social development.
  • Participate in teacher-parent conferences regarding students' progress or problems.
  • Prepare classrooms with a variety of materials or resources for children to explore, manipulate, or use in learning activities or imaginative play.
  • Prepare lesson materials, bulletin board displays, exhibits, equipment, and demonstrations.
  • Prepare lesson outlines and plans in assigned subject areas and submit outlines to teachers for review.
  • Present subject matter to students under the direction and guidance of teachers, using lectures, discussions, supervised role-playing methods, or by reading aloud.
  • Provide assistance to students with special needs.
  • Provide disabled students with assistive devices, supportive technology, and assistance accessing facilities, such as restrooms.
  • Requisition and stock teaching materials and supplies.
  • Supervise students in classrooms, halls, cafeterias, school yards, and gymnasiums, or on field trips.
  • Take class attendance and maintain attendance records.
  • Teach socially acceptable behavior, employing techniques such as behavior modification or positive reinforcement.
  • Tutor and assist children individually or in small groups to help them master assignments and to reinforce learning concepts presented by teachers.
  • Use computers, audio-visual aids, and other equipment and materials to supplement presentations.
25-9044.00Teaching Assistants, Postsecondary
Assist faculty or other instructional staff in postsecondary institutions by performing instructional support activities, such as developing teaching materials, leading discussion groups, preparing and giving examinations, and grading examinations or papers.
  • Teach undergraduate level courses.
  • Evaluate and grade examinations, assignments, or papers and record grades.
  • Lead discussion sections, tutorials, or laboratory sections.
  • Develop teaching materials, such as syllabi, visual aids, answer keys, supplementary notes, or course Web sites.
  • Inform students of the procedures for completing and submitting class work, such as lab reports.
  • Return assignments to students in accordance with established deadlines.
  • Prepare or proctor examinations.
  • Tutor or mentor students who need additional instruction.
  • Meet with supervisors to discuss students' grades or to complete required grade-related paperwork.
  • Schedule and maintain regular office hours to meet with students.
  • Order or obtain materials needed for classes.
  • Copy and distribute classroom materials.
  • Notify instructors of errors or problems with assignments.
  • Complete laboratory projects prior to assigning them to students so that any needed modifications can be made.
  • Provide assistance to faculty members or staff with laboratory or field research.
  • Demonstrate use of laboratory equipment and enforce laboratory rules.
  • Attend lectures given by the supervising instructor.
  • Arrange for supervisors to conduct teaching observations and provide feedback about teaching performance.
  • Provide instructors with assistance in the use of audiovisual equipment.
  • Assist faculty members or staff with student conferences.
27-1011.00Art Directors
Formulate design concepts and presentation approaches for visual productions and media, such as print, broadcasting, video, and film. Direct workers engaged in artwork or layout design.
  • Formulate basic layout design or presentation approach and specify material details, such as style and size of type, photographs, graphics, animation, video, and sound.
  • Manage own accounts and projects, working within budget and scheduling requirements.
  • Confer with creative, art, copywriting, or production department heads to discuss client requirements and presentation concepts and to coordinate creative activities.
  • Present final layouts to clients for approval.
  • Review and approve art materials, copy materials, and proofs of printed copy developed by staff members.
  • Work with creative directors to develop design solutions.
  • Create custom illustrations or other graphic elements.
  • Confer with clients to determine objectives, budget, background information, and presentation approaches, styles, and techniques.
  • Review illustrative material to determine if it conforms to standards and specifications.
  • Negotiate with printers and estimators to determine what services will be performed.
  • Attend photo shoots and printing sessions to ensure that the products needed are obtained.
  • Research current trends and new technology, such as printing production techniques, computer software, and design trends.
  • Hire, train, and direct staff members who develop design concepts into art layouts or who prepare layouts for printing.
  • Mark up, paste, and complete layouts and write typography instructions to prepare materials for typesetting or printing.
  • Conceptualize and help design interfaces for multimedia games, products, and devices.
  • Prepare detailed storyboards showing sequence and timing of story development for television production.
27-1012.00Craft Artists
Create or reproduce handmade objects for sale and exhibition using a variety of techniques, such as welding, weaving, pottery, and needlecraft.
  • Create functional or decorative objects by hand, using a variety of methods and materials.
  • Cut, shape, fit, join, mold, or otherwise process materials, using hand tools, power tools, or machinery.
  • Apply finishes to objects being crafted.
  • Develop concepts or creative ideas for craft objects.
  • Select materials for use based on strength, color, texture, balance, weight, size, malleability and other characteristics.
  • Advertise products and work, using media such as internet advertising and brochures.
  • Set specifications for materials, dimensions, and finishes.
  • Plan and attend craft shows to market products.
  • Create prototypes or models of objects to be crafted.
  • Confer with customers to assess customer needs or obtain feedback.
  • Fabricate patterns or templates to guide craft production.
  • Develop product packaging, display, and pricing strategies.
  • Research craft trends, venues, and customer buying patterns to inspire designs and marketing strategies.
  • Sketch or draw objects to be crafted.
  • Develop designs using specialized computer software.
27-1013.00Fine Artists, Including Painters, Sculptors, and Illustrators
Create original artwork using any of a wide variety of media and techniques.
  • Use materials such as pens and ink, watercolors, charcoal, oil, or computer software to create artwork.
  • Integrate and develop visual elements, such as line, space, mass, color, and perspective, to produce desired effects, such as the illustration of ideas, emotions, or moods.
  • Confer with clients, editors, writers, art directors, and other interested parties regarding the nature and content of artwork to be produced.
  • Maintain portfolios of artistic work to demonstrate styles, interests, and abilities.
  • Market artwork through brochures, mailings, or Web sites.
  • Study different techniques to learn how to apply them to artistic endeavors.
  • Monitor events, trends, and other circumstances, research specific subject areas, attend art exhibitions, and read art publications to develop ideas and keep current on art world activities.
  • Photograph objects, places, or scenes for reference material.
  • Model substances such as clay or wax, using fingers and small hand tools to form objects.
  • Create sculptures, statues, and other three-dimensional artwork by using abrasives and tools to shape, carve, and fabricate materials such as clay, stone, wood, or metal.
  • Set up exhibitions of artwork for display or sale.
  • Render drawings, illustrations, and sketches of buildings, manufactured products, or models, working from sketches, blueprints, memory, models, or reference materials.
  • Shade and fill in sketch outlines and backgrounds, using a variety of media such as water colors, markers, and transparent washes, labeling designated colors when necessary.
  • Frame and mat artwork for display or sale.
  • Submit artwork to shows or galleries.
  • Submit preliminary or finished artwork or project plans to clients for approval, incorporating changes as necessary.
  • Study styles, techniques, colors, textures, and materials used in works undergoing restoration to ensure consistency during the restoration process.
  • Collaborate with engineers, mechanics, and other technical experts as necessary to build and install creations.
  • Cut, bend, laminate, arrange, and fasten individual or mixed raw and manufactured materials and products to form works of art.
  • Develop project budgets for approval, estimating time lines and material costs.
  • Create and prepare sketches and model drawings of cartoon characters, providing details from memory, live models, manufactured products, or reference materials.
  • Create finished art work as decoration, or to elucidate or substitute for spoken or written messages.
  • Create sketches, profiles, or likenesses of posed subjects or photographs, using any combination of freehand drawing, mechanical assembly kits, and computer imaging.
  • Trace drawings onto clear acetate for painting or coloring, or trace them with ink to make final copies.
  • Apply solvents and cleaning agents to clean surfaces of paintings, and to remove accretions, discolorations, and deteriorated varnish.
  • Collaborate with writers who create ideas, stories, or captions that are combined with artists' work.
  • Brush or spray protective or decorative finishes on completed background panels, informational legends, exhibit accessories, or finished paintings.
  • Teach artistic techniques to children or adults.
  • Examine and test paintings in need of restoration or cleaning to determine techniques and materials to be used.
  • Provide entertainment at special events by performing activities such as drawing cartoons.
  • Render sequential drawings that can be turned into animated films or advertisements.
  • Create graphics, illustrations, and three-dimensional models to be used in research or in teaching, such as in demonstrating anatomy, pathology, or surgical procedures.
27-1014.00Special Effects Artists and Animators
Create special effects or animations using film, video, computers, or other electronic tools and media for use in products, such as computer games, movies, music videos, and commercials.
  • Design complex graphics and animation, using independent judgment, creativity, and computer equipment.
  • Create basic designs, drawings, and illustrations for product labels, cartons, direct mail, or television.
  • Participate in design and production of multimedia campaigns, handling budgeting and scheduling, and assisting with such responsibilities as production coordination, background design, and progress tracking.
  • Create two-dimensional and three-dimensional images depicting objects in motion or illustrating a process, using computer animation or modeling programs.
  • Make objects or characters appear lifelike by manipulating light, color, texture, shadow, and transparency, or manipulating static images to give the illusion of motion.
  • Apply story development, directing, cinematography, and editing to animation to create storyboards that show the flow of the animation and map out key scenes and characters.
  • Implement and maintain configuration control systems.
  • Script, plan, and create animated narrative sequences under tight deadlines, using computer software and hand drawing techniques.
  • Develop briefings, brochures, multimedia presentations, web pages, promotional products, technical illustrations, and computer artwork for use in products, technical manuals, literature, newsletters, and slide shows.
  • Create and install special effects as required by the script, mixing chemicals and fabricating needed parts from wood, metal, plaster, and clay.
  • Assemble, typeset, scan, and produce digital camera-ready art or film negatives and printer's proofs.
  • Convert real objects to animated objects through modeling, using techniques such as optical scanning.
  • Create pen-and-paper images to be scanned, edited, colored, textured, or animated by computer.
  • Use models to simulate the behavior of animated objects in the finished sequence.
27-1021.00Commercial and Industrial Designers
Design and develop manufactured products, such as cars, home appliances, and children's toys. Combine artistic talent with research on product use, marketing, and materials to create the most functional and appealing product design.
  • Prepare sketches of ideas, detailed drawings, illustrations, artwork, or blueprints, using drafting instruments, paints and brushes, or computer-aided design equipment.
  • Modify and refine designs, using working models, to conform with customer specifications, production limitations, or changes in design trends.
  • Evaluate feasibility of design ideas, based on factors such as appearance, safety, function, serviceability, budget, production costs/methods, and market characteristics.
  • Confer with engineering, marketing, production, or sales departments, or with customers, to establish and evaluate design concepts for manufactured products.
  • Present designs and reports to customers or design committees for approval and discuss need for modification.
  • Research production specifications, costs, production materials, and manufacturing methods and provide cost estimates and itemized production requirements.
  • Direct and coordinate the fabrication of models or samples and the drafting of working drawings and specification sheets from sketches.
  • Investigate product characteristics such as the product's safety and handling qualities, its market appeal, how efficiently it can be produced, and ways of distributing, using, and maintaining it.
  • Develop manufacturing procedures and monitor the manufacture of their designs in a factory to improve operations and product quality.
  • Participate in new product planning or market research, including studying the potential need for new products.
  • Read publications, attend showings, and study competing products and design styles and motifs to obtain perspective and generate design concepts.
  • Fabricate models or samples in paper, wood, glass, fabric, plastic, metal, or other materials, using hand or power tools.
  • Develop industrial standards and regulatory guidelines.
  • Coordinate the look and function of product lines.
  • Supervise assistants' work throughout the design process.
  • Design graphic material for use as ornamentation, illustration, or advertising on manufactured materials and packaging or containers.
  • Advise corporations on issues involving corporate image projects or problems.
27-1022.00Fashion Designers
Design clothing and accessories. Create original designs or adapt fashion trends.
  • Direct and coordinate workers involved in drawing and cutting patterns and constructing samples or finished garments.
  • Examine sample garments on and off models, modifying designs to achieve desired effects.
  • Sketch rough and detailed drawings of apparel or accessories, and write specifications such as color schemes, construction, material types, and accessory requirements.
  • Confer with sales and management executives or with clients to discuss design ideas.
  • Identify target markets for designs, looking at factors such as age, gender, and socioeconomic status.
  • Attend fashion shows and review garment magazines and manuals to gather information about fashion trends and consumer preferences.
  • Select materials and production techniques to be used for products.
  • Provide sample garments to agents and sales representatives, and arrange for showings of sample garments at sales meetings or fashion shows.
  • Adapt other designers' ideas for the mass market.
  • Purchase new or used clothing and accessory items as needed to complete designs.
  • Visit textile showrooms to keep up-to-date on the latest fabrics.
  • Collaborate with other designers to coordinate special p